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Neofficiálny sprievodca Ubuntu 5.10 (Breezy Badger)

Tento sprievodca http://ubuntuguide.org/ začal Chua Wen Kiat (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia) a jeho český preklad urobil Olda Chroust na http://chrool.wz.cz/ . Teraz tohoto sprievodcu spravuje Linux Centrum Univerzity Litva, a každým kdo by sa rád zapojil a prispel.

Prispievatelia: orvils, Cargo, Quash, Byte, krampo, Simos, Jay ...

Na slovenskom preklade budem pomaly pracovat. Uvidi sa podla mojho casu. Ak mi niekto chce pomoct, rad pomoc prijmem a nejak skoordinujeme snazenie. (jay at jay.cz)


Preklady: Latviešu Русский Polski Traditional Chinese



Contents


Všeobecné poznámky

  1. Toto je Neoficiálny sprievodca Ubuntu 5.10 (Breezy Badger) pre začiatočníkov. Nie je spojený s Ubuntu and Canonical Ltd.
  2. Sprievodca je testovaný na plnej inštalácii Ubuntu 5.10 x86 Install CD (Breezy Badger)
  3. Keď uvidíte text v rámčeku tak to s najväčšou pravdepodobnosťou znamená, že je to príkaz ktorý treba spustiť v Terminale (Programy -> Systémové nástroje -> Terminál), alebo treba uvedené údaje použiť podľa inštrukcií
  4. Aby ste minimalizovali množstvo chýb, skopírujte príkazy z tohoto manuálu a priamo vložte do Terminálu (pravé tlačítko príkazy "Kopíruj" a "Vlož". Môžete použit aj klávesové skratky Ctrl+C na kopírovanie a Shift+Insert na vloženie.)
  5. "sudo" znamená "superuser do" - vykonaj ako superužívateľ (administrátor). "sudo" vás požiada o Heslo. Prosím uveďte svoje užívateľské heslo.
  6. Ak chcete viacej informácii o niektorom príkaze, jednoducho sa pozrite do manualových stránok (anglicky) pomocou príkazu "man". Napríklad "man sudo" ukáže manuálové stránky pre príkaz "sudo".
  7. Ak vás unavuje stále písať "apt-get", prečítajte si časť #How to apt-get the easy way (Synaptic)
  8. Príkazy "apt-get" a "wget" na inštaláciu/aktualizáciu/stiahnutie programu potrebujú pripojenie na internet.
  9. Na stiahnutie súboru kliknite pravým tlačítkom na odkaze a zvoľte "Uložit odkaz ako...". Uistite sa, že názov a prípona súboru su správne.
  10. Ak ci prajete pomôcť preložiť Ubuntu do vašeho rodného jazyka, alebo akokoľvek pomocť Ubuntu, navštívte stránku https://launchpad.net/
  11. Nech je duch "Ľudskosti k druhým" stále s vami.


Ak používate Kubuntu a potrebujete nainštalovat gedit.
wget http://easylinux.info/uploads/gedit_2.13.1-0ubuntu1_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i gedit_2.13.1-0ubuntu1_i386.deb
Alebo píšte "kwrite" namiesto "gedit". Napríklad namiesto
 sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
napíšte
 sudo kwrite /etc/apt/sources.list
Ak používate 64-bitový procesor napisto "i386" píšte "amd64"

Začíname

Čo je Ubuntu

Kde je možné vidieť screenshoty Ubuntu

Kde je možné nájsť zoznam všetkých programov/knižníc ktoré sú v Ubuntu

Kde je možné stiahnut Ubuntu

Kde je možné si objednať Ubuntu CD úplne zadarmo

Kde je možné nájsť pomoc s Ubuntu

Kde hľadat nové programy

Kde hľadat témy a štýlové prvky pre Váš desktop

Repository

Ako pridať dodatočné repository

  • Prečítajte #Všeobecné poznámky
  • Ďaľšie repository mozete pridať aj pomocou Manažera balíčkov Synaptic. Pre nových užívateľov môže byť jednoduchšie použiť Manažéra balíčkov na pridanie ďaľších repository. Ak budete nasledovať inštrukcie uvedené od odkazom hore, môžete preskočiť túto časť.
sudo cp /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list_backup
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Nahraďte všetko nasledujúcimi riadkami
## Add comments (##) in front of any line to remove it from being checked.
## Use the following sources.list at your own risk.
## You may replace "us" with your country code to get the closest mirror.

deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy main restricted
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy main restricted

## MAJOR BUG FIX UPDATES produced after the final release
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-updates main restricted
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-updates main restricted

## UBUNTU SECURITY UPDATES
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-security main restricted
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-security main restricted

deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-security universe
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-security universe

## UNIVERSE AND MULTIVERSE REPOSITORY (Unsupported by Ubuntu.  Use at own risk.)
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy universe multiverse

## BACKPORTS REPOSITORY (Unsupported.  May contain illegal packages.  Use at own risk.)
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-backports main restricted universe multiverse

## PLF REPOSITORY (Unsupported.  May contain illegal packages.  Use at own risk.)
deb http://packages.freecontrib.org/ubuntu/plf breezy free non-free
deb-src http://packages.freecontrib.org/ubuntu/plf breezy free non-free
  • Uložte editovaný súbor
sudo apt-get update
Použite vlastný sources.list iba ak naozaj rozumiete tomu čo robíte

Aktualizácie Ubuntu

Ako ručne aktualizovať Ubuntu

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade

Inštalácia ďaľších programov (Automatix)

  • Toto je grafický program na pridanie veľkého množstva applikácii na Ubuntu/Kubuntu/Xubuntu Breezy (NEFUNGUJE NA Warty, Hoary alebo Dapper) a na nastavenie niektorých vecí aby ste dostali Váš Ubuntu počítač na plný výkon v čo najkratšom čase. Pomocou Automatixu možete za niekolko minút vyriešit mnoho tém opísaných v tomto sprievodcovi.
  • Automatix vám pomôže nainštalovať Multimediálne kodeky; všetky pluginy do Firefoxu (java, flash atď.); podporu pre archívy RAR, ACE, atď; Skype; Acrobat Reader 7; Gnomebaker; gftp; DC++ a amule; Frostwire; Audacity; Kino; EasyTag; Mplayer; totem-xine; VLC; Beep Media Player; Opera; Bittornado; Azureus; Enables Numlock on; Programming Tools (Anjuta (C/C++ IDE), Bluefish (HTML editor), (Web Dev)); GnomePPP; MS true type fonts; Streamtuner; audio a dvd kodeky, ktoré sú NON-FREE (viazané uzavretou licenciou); ndisgtk (Grafický konfigurátor WiFi); Sun Java JRE v1.5; Sun Java JDK v1.5; wine; gdesklets; Detekuje a inštaluje kodeky pre nvidia karty; a dalšie užitočné veci.
  • Ak ste v USA neinštalujte NON-FREE kodeky. Je to nelegálne.

Ako získať Automatix

  • Inštalácia Automatixu v Ubuntu
sudo apt-get install xterm
wget http://beerorkid.com/automatix/automatix_5.0-2_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i automatix_5.0-2_i386.deb
Programy -> Systémové Nastroje -> Automatix
  • Inštalácia Automatixu v Kubuntu/Xubuntu
sudo apt-get remove automatix-kubuntu
sudo apt-get install xterm libglade2-0 libgnomecanvas2-0
wget http://kambing.vlsm.org/ubuntu/pool/main/z/zenity/zenity_2.10.0-0ubuntu1_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i zenity_2.10.0-0ubuntu1_i386.deb
wget http://beerorkid.com/automatix/automatix_5.0-2_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i automatix_5.0-2_i386.deb
Hlavné Menu -> Systém -> Automatix

Prídavné Programy

Ako nainštalovať Menu Editor pre GNOME

sudo apt-get install smeg

Ako nainštalovať Clipboard Daemon pre GNOME

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/gnome-clipboard-daemon-1.0.bin.tar.bz2
sudo tar jxvf gnome-clipboard-daemon-1.0.bin.tar.bz2 -C /usr/bin/
sudo chown root:root /usr/bin/gnome-clipboard-daemon
sudo chmod 755 /usr/bin/gnome-clipboard-daemon
sudo gnome-clipboard-daemon &
export EDITOR=gedit && crontab -e
  • Pridajte nasledujúci riadok na koniec súboru
@reboot gnome-clipboard-daemon
  • Uložte editovaný súbor

Ako nainštalovať Java Plug-in pre Mozilla Firefox

sudo apt-get install sun-j2re1.5
  • Reštartujte Mozilla Firefox

Ako nainštalovať Flash Player (Macromedia Flash) Plug-in pre Mozilla Firefox

sudo apt-get install flashplayer-mozilla
  • Reštartujte Mozilla Firefox

Ako nainštalovať PDF Reader (Adobe Reader) s Plug-inom pre Mozilla Firefox

sudo apt-get install acroread
sudo apt-get install mozilla-acroread
sudo apt-get install acroread-plugins

Ako nainštalovat manžér Downloadov (Downloader for X)

sudo apt-get install d4x

Ako nainštalovať FTP Client (gFTP)

sudo apt-get install gftp

Ako nainštalovať File share utility (DC++)

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/linuxdcpp.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf linuxdcpp.tar.gz -C /opt
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/dcpp.desktop
  • Vložte nasledujúce riadky do toho nového súboru
[Desktop Entry]
Encoding=UTF-8
Name=DC++
Exec=/opt$ /opt/linuxdcpp/dcpp
Terminal=false
Type=Application
StartupNotify=true
Icon=eyes.png
Categories=Application;Network;
  • Programy -> Internet -> DC++

Ako nainštalovať P2P BitTorrent Client (Azureus)

wget -c http://heanet.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/azureus/Azureus_2.3.0.6_linux.tar.bz2
sudo tar jxvf Azureus_2.3.0.6_linux.tar.bz2 -C /opt
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/azureus.desktop
  • Vložte nasledujúce riadky do toho nového súboru
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Azureus
Comment=A Bittorrent client
Exec=/opt/azureus/azureus
Icon=/opt/azureus/Azureus.png
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;
  • Programy -> Internet -> Azureus

Ako nainštalovať P2P eMule Client (aMule)

sudo apt-get install amule

Ako nainštalovať P2P Gnutella Client (LimeWire)

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/LimeWireOther.zip
sudo unzip -u LimeWireOther.zip -d /opt/
sudo chown -R root:root /opt/LimeWire/
sudo gedit /usr/bin/runLime.sh
  • Vložte nasledujúce riadky do toho nového súboru
cd /opt/LimeWire/
./runLime.sh
  • Uložte editovaný súbor
sudo chmod +x /usr/bin/runLime.sh
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/LimeWire.desktop
  • Vložte nasledujúce riadky do toho nového súboru
[Desktop Entry]
Name=LimeWire
Comment=LimeWire
Exec=runLime.sh
Icon=/opt/LimeWire/LimeWire.ico
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;

Ako nainštalovať Messenger (Skype)

wget -c http://download.skype.com/linux/skype_staticQT-1.2.0.18.tar.bz2
sudo tar jxvf skype_staticQT-1.2.0.18.tar.bz2 -C /opt/
sudo ln -s /opt/skype-1.2.0.18/skype /usr/bin/skype
sudo cp /opt/skype-1.2.0.18/skype.desktop /usr/share/applications/skype.desktop
sudo cp /opt/skype-1.2.0.18/icons/skype_32_32.png /usr/share/icons/hicolor/32x32/apps/skype.png
rm skype_staticQT-1.2.0.18.tar.bz2

Ako nainštalovať WinPopup (LinPopUp)

sudo apt-get install linpopup
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/linpopup.desktop
  • Vložte nasledujúce riadky do nového súboru
[Desktop Entry]
Name=LinPopUp
Comment=LinPopUp
Exec=linpopup
Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/linpopup.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Utility;

Ako nainštalovať Multimediálne kodeky

sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.8-plugins
sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.8-lame
sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.8-ffmpeg
sudo apt-get install lame
sudo apt-get install sox
sudo apt-get install ffmpeg
sudo apt-get install mjpegtools
sudo apt-get install vorbis-tools
sudo apt-get install w32codecs
gst-register-0.8

Ako nainštalovať schopnosť prehrávať DVD

sudo apt-get install libdvdcss2

Ako nainštalovať Prehrávač Multimédii (xine-ui)

sudo apt-get install xine-ui
  • Associujte multimedialne subory s xine-ui
gconftool-2 --type string --set /desktop/gnome/volume_manager/autoplay_dvd_command "xine dvd://"
sudo rm -f /usr/share/applnk/Multimedia/xine.desktop
sudo ln -fs /usr/share/xine/desktop/xine.desktop /usr/share/applications/
sudo cp /usr/share/applications/defaults.list /usr/share/applications/defaults.list_backup
sudo sed -e 's/totem.desktop/xine.desktop/g' /usr/share/applications/defaults.list_backup > /tmp/defaults.list
sudo mv /tmp/defaults.list /usr/share/applications/defaults.list

Ako nainštalovať Prehrávač Multimédii (MPlayer) s Plug-inom pre Mozilla Firefox

sudo apt-get install mplayer-386
sudo apt-get install mplayer-fonts
sudo apt-get install mozilla-mplayer
sudo cp /etc/mplayer/mplayer.conf /etc/mplayer/mplayer.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/mplayer/mplayer.conf
  • Nájdite tento riadok
...
vo=x11,         # To specify default video driver (see -vo help for
...
  • Nahraďte ho týmto
vo=xv,         # To specify default video driver (see -vo help for

Ako nainštalovať Prehrávač Multimédii (XMMS)

sudo apt-get install xmms
sudo apt-get install xmms-skins
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/xmms-wma_1.0.4-2_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i xmms-wma_1.0.4-2_i386.deb
  • Asociujte XMMS so súbormi MP3/M3U/WAV
sudo cp /usr/share/applications/defaults.list /usr/share/applications/defaults.list_backup
sudo cp /usr/share/applications/defaults.list /tmp/defaults.list_tmp
sudo sed -e 's/audio\/mpeg=.*/audio\/mpeg=XMMS.desktop/g' /tmp/defaults.list_tmp > /tmp/defaults.mp3
sudo sed -e 's/audio\/x-mpegurl=.*/audio\/x-mpegurl=XMMS.desktop/g' /tmp/defaults.mp3 > /tmp/defaults.m3u
sudo sed -e 's/audio\/x-wav=.*/audio\/x-wav=XMMS.desktop/g' /tmp/defaults.m3u > /tmp/defaults.list
sudo mv /tmp/defaults.list /usr/share/applications/defaults.list
sudo rm -f /tmp/defaults.*

Ako nainštalovať Prehrávač Multimédii (amaroK)

sudo apt-get install amarok
  • Programy -> Zvuk a Video -> amaroK

Ako nainštalovať Prehrávač Multimédii (RealPlayer 10)

sudo apt-get install realplay
Poznámka: 'realplay' inštaluje RealPlayer 10 z PLF repository. 'realplayer' inštaluje RealPlayer 8 z multiverse.

Ako nainštalovať Stream Directory Browser (streamtuner)

sudo apt-get install streamtuner
sudo apt-get install streamripper

Ako nainštalovať Organizátor Hudby (Cowbell)

sudo apt-get install cowbell
  • Programy -> Zvuk a Video -> Cowbell Music Organizer

Ako nainštalovať ID3 Tag Editor (EasyTAG)

sudo apt-get install easytag

Ako nainštalovať Video Editor (Kino)

sudo apt-get install kino
sudo apt-get install kinoplus
sudo apt-get install kino-timfx
sudo apt-get install kino-dvtitler

Ako nainštalovať Audio Editor (Audacity)

sudo apt-get install audacity

Ako nainštalovať DVD Ripper (dvd::rip)

sudo apt-get install dvdrip
sudo apt-get install vcdimager
sudo apt-get install cdrdao
sudo apt-get install subtitleripper
sudo ln -fs /usr/bin/rar /usr/bin/rar-2.80
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/dvdrip.desktop
  • Vložte nasledujúce riadky do nového súboru
[Desktop Entry]
Name=dvd::rip
Comment=dvd::rip
Exec=dvdrip
Icon=/usr/share/perl5/Video/DVDRip/icon.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;AudioVideo;

Ako nainštalovať CD Ripper (Goobox)

sudo apt-get install goobox
sudo rm -f /usr/share/applications/goobox.desktop
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/goobox.desktop
  • Vložte nasledujúce riadky do nového súboru
[Desktop Entry]
Name=CD Player & Ripper
Comment=Play and extract CDs
Exec=goobox
Icon=goobox.png
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;AudioVideo;

Ako nainštalovať Image Viewer (Gwenview)

sudo apt-get install gwenview
sudo apt-get install kipi-plugins
sudo apt-get install imagemagick
  • Programy -> Graphics -> Gwenview

Ako nainštalovať Emailového Klienta (Mozilla Thunderbird)

sudo apt-get install mozilla-thunderbird

Ako nainštalovať Newsreader (Pan)

sudo apt-get install pan

Ako nainštalovať RSS/RDF/Atom Newsreader (RSSOwl)

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin.tar.gz -C /opt/
sudo chown -R root:root /opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin/
sudo gedit /usr/bin/runRSSOwl.sh
  • Vložte nasledujúce riadky do nového súboru
export MOZILLA_FIVE_HOME=/usr/lib/mozilla-firefox
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:${MOZILLA_FIVE_HOME}:${LD_LIBRARY_PATH}
cd /opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin/
./run.sh
  • Uložte editovaný súbor
sudo chmod +x /usr/bin/runRSSOwl.sh
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/RSSOwl.desktop
  • Vložte nasledujúce riadky do nového súboru
[Desktop Entry]
Name=RSSOwl
Comment=RSSOwl
Exec=runRSSOwl.sh
Icon=/opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin/rssowl.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;

Ako nainštalovať Web Authoring System (Nvu)

sudo apt-get install nvu
sudo rm -f /usr/share/applications/nvu.desktop
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/nvu.desktop
  • Vložte nasledujúce riadky do nového súboru
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Nvu
Comment=Web Development Editor
Exec=nvu
Icon=nvu.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;

Ako nainštalovať Web Development Environment (quanta plus)

sudo apt-get install quanta
  • Programy -> Programming -> Quanta Plus

Ako nainštalovať Project Management Application (Planner)

sudo apt-get install planner

Ako nainštalovať Accounting Application (GnuCash)

sudo apt-get install gnucash
sudo rm -fr /usr/share/gnome/apps/Applications/
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/GnuCash.desktop
  • Vložte nasledujúce riadky do nového súboru
[Desktop Entry]
Name=GnuCash
Comment=GnuCash Personal Finance
Exec=gnucash
Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/gnucash/gnucash-icon.png
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Office;

Ako nainštalovať Desktop Publishing Application (Scribus)

sudo apt-get install scribus

Ako nainštalovať Diagram Editor (Dia)

sudo apt-get install dia-gnome

Ako nainštalovať Compiled HTML Help (CHM) Viewer (xCHM)

sudo apt-get install xchm

Ako nainštalovať CD/DVD Burning Application (GnomeBaker)

sudo apt-get install gnomebaker

Ako nainštalovať CD/DVD Burning Application (K3b)

sudo apt-get install k3b
  • Programy -> Zvuk a Video -> K3b

Ako nainštalovať Dialup PPP Client (GNOME PPP)

sudo apt-get install gnome-ppp

Ako nainštalovať Broadband ADSL/PPPoE Client (RP-PPPoE)

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/rp-pppoe-3.6.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf rp-pppoe-3.6.tar.gz -C /opt/
sudo chown -R root:root /opt/rp-pppoe-3.6/
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/RP-PPPoE.desktop
  • Vložte nasledujúce riadky do nového súboru
[Desktop Entry]
Name=RP-PPPoE
Comment=RP-PPPoE
Exec=gksudo /opt/rp-pppoe-3.6/go-gui
Icon=
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;

Ako nainštalovať Boot-Up Manager (BUM)

sudo apt-get install bum

Ako nainštalovať Partition Editor (GParted)

sudo apt-get install gparted

Ako nainštalovať Firewall (Firestarter)

sudo apt-get install firestarter

Ako nainštalovať network traffic analyzer (Ethereal)

sudo apt-get install ethereal
  • Programy -> Internet -> Ethereal

Ako nainštalovať Vulnerability Scanner (Nessus)

sudo apt-get install nessus
sudo apt-get install nessusd
sudo nessus-adduser
sudo ln -fs /etc/init.d/nessusd /etc/rc2.d/S20nessusd
sudo /etc/init.d/nessusd start
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/Nessus.desktop
  • Vložte nasledujúce riadky do nového súboru
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Nessus
Comment=Nessus
Exec=nessus
Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/nessus.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;System;

Ako nainštalovať RAR Archiver (rar)

sudo apt-get install rar
sudo ln -fs /usr/bin/rar /usr/bin/unrar
  • Programy -> Accessories -> Archive Manager

Ako nainštalovať Extra Fonts

sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-arabic
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-asian
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-chinese
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-chinese-big
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-european
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-japanese
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-japanese-big
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-phonetic
sudo apt-get install gsfonts-x11
sudo apt-get install msttcorefonts
sudo fc-cache -f -v

Ako nainštalovať Chinese Input Method (SCIM)

sudo apt-get install scim
sudo apt-get install scim-chinese
sudo apt-get install scim-config-socket
sudo apt-get install scim-gtk2-immodule
sudo apt-get install scim-tables-zh
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/fireflysung-1.3.0.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf fireflysung-1.3.0.tar.gz -C /usr/share/fonts/truetype/
sudo chown -R root:root /usr/share/fonts/truetype/fireflysung-1.3.0/
sudo fc-cache -f -v
  • System -> Preferences -> SCIM Input Method Setup
  • To activate SCIM
Press 'Ctrl + Space'

Ako nainštalovať Desktop Applets (gDesklets)

sudo apt-get install gdesklets
sudo apt-get install gdesklets-data

Ako nainštalovať Basic Compilers (build-essential)

sudo apt-get install build-essential

Ako nainštalovať Integrated Development Environment (Anjuta)

sudo apt-get install anjuta
  • Programy -> Programming -> Anjuta IDE

Ako nainštalovať 3D modeling tool (Blender 3d)

sudo apt-get install blender
  • Programy -> Graphics -> Blender 3D modeller

Ako nainštalovať game Tuxracer

sudo apt-get install planetpenguin-racer planetpenguin-racer-data planetpenguin-racer-extras
  • Programy -> Games -> planetpenguin-racer

Ako nainštalovať game Frozen-Bubble

sudo apt-get install frozen-bubble
  • Programy -> Games -> Frozen-Bubble

Ako nainštalovať game Scorched3D

sudo apt-get install scorched3d
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/scorched3d.desktop
  • Vložte nasledujúce riadky do nového súboru
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Scorched 3D
Comment=A 3D Remake Of Scorched Earth
Exec=scorched3d
Icon=
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Game;ArcadeGame;

Ako nainštalovať virtual planetarium (Stellarium)

sudo apt-get install stellarium
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/stellarium.desktop
  • Vložte nasledujúce riadky do nového súboru
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Stellarium
Comment=Virtual planetarium
Exec=stellarium
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Education;
  • Programy -> Education -> Stellarium

Ako nainštalovať KDE Edutainment applications

sudo apt-get install kdeedu
  • Programy -> Education -> ...

Other Desktop Environments

Ako nainštalovať KDE

sudo apt-get install kubuntu-desktop
Note: This installation will require ~400MB of disk space
  • System -> Log Out -> Log Out
  • To log in to KDE click on Sessions and choose KDE

Ako nainštalovať XFCE

sudo apt-get install xubuntu-desktop
  • System -> Log Out -> Log Out
  • To log in to XFCE click on Sessions and choose XFCE

Commercial Applications

Ako nainštalovať Windows 9X/ME/2000/XP (Win4Lin)

Ako nainštalovať Windows Applications (CrossOver Office)

Ako nainštalovať Windows Games (Cedega)

User Administration

How to set/change/enable root user password

sudo passwd root

How to disable root user account

sudo passwd -l root

How to allow root user to login into GNOME

Security Tab -> Options -> Allow root to login with GDM (Checked)

How to switch to root user in Console mode

sudo -s -H
Password: <specify user password>

How to add/edit/delete system users

Users Tab -> Add User.../Properties/Delete
or
sudo useradd jim
sudo userdel jim
  • For more info read
man usermod

How to add/edit/delete system groups

Groups Tab -> Add Group.../Properties/Delete

How to automatic login into GNOME (not secure)

General Tab -> Automatic Login ->
Login a user automatically on first bootup (Checked)
Automatic login username: Select "system_username"

How to allow more sudoers

export EDITOR=gedit && sudo visudo
  • Append the following line at the end of file
system_username    ALL=(ALL) ALL
  • Uložte editovaný súbor

How to use "sudo" without prompt for password (not secure)

export EDITOR=gedit && sudo visudo
  • Find this line
...
system_username    ALL=(ALL) ALL
...
  • Replace with the following line
system_username    ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL
  • Uložte editovaný súbor

How to explicitly destroy the "sudo" session

sudo -K

How to change files/folders permissions

Right click on files/folders -> Properties
Permissions Tab -> Read/Write/Execute (Checked the permissions for Owner/Group/Others)

How to change files/folders ownership

sudo chown system_username /location_of_files_or_folders

How to change files/folders group ownership

sudo chgrp system_groupname /location_of_files_or_folders

Hardware

Ako nainštalovať Graphics Driver (NVIDIA)

sudo apt-get install nvidia-glx
sudo apt-get install nvidia-settings
sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
sudo nvidia-glx-config enable
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/NVIDIA-Settings.desktop
  • Vložte nasledujúce riadky do nového súboru
[Desktop Entry]
Name=NVIDIA Settings
Comment=NVIDIA Settings
Exec=nvidia-settings
Icon=
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;System;

How to load NVIDIA Settings in the background on GNOME Startup

  • System -> Preferences -> Sessions
  • Click on the Startup Programs tab
  • Click on +ADD
  • Enter this line in the Startup Command field
nvidia-settings --load-config-only

How to disable NVIDIA graphics logo on GNOME startup

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Find this section
...
Section "Device"
   Identifier  "NVIDIA Corporation NV11 [GeForce2 MX/MX 400]"
   Driver      "nvidia"
   BusID       "PCI:1:0:0"
...
  • Add the following line below it
   Option      "NoLogo"

Ako nainštalovať Graphics Driver (ATI)

How to identify Modem chipset

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/scanModem.gz
gunzip -c scanModem.gz > scanModem
chmod +x scanModem
sudo cp scanModem /usr/bin/
  • To identify Modem chipset
sudo scanModem
gedit Modem/ModemData.txt

Ako nainštalovať Modem Driver (SmartLink)

uname -r (must be 2.6.10-5-386)
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/sl-modem-modules-2.6.10-5-386_2.9.9a-1ubuntu2+2.6.10-34_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i sl-modem-modules-*.deb
sudo apt-get install sl-modem-daemon

How to configure PalmOS Devices

sudo gedit /etc/udev/rules.d/10-custom.rules
  • Insert the following line into the new file
BUS="usb", SYSFS{product}="Palm Handheld*", KERNEL="ttyUSB*", NAME{ignore_remove}="pilot", MODE="666"
  • Uložte editovaný súbor
  • System -> Preferences -> PalmOS Devices
  • Follow the instructions on screen

How to list partition tables

sudo fdisk -l
  • You can also use System -> Administration -> Disks

How to list filesystem disk space usage

df -T -h
  • You can also use System -> Administration -> Disks

How to list mounted devices

mount

How to list PCI devices

lspci

How to list USB devices

lsusb

How to speed up CD/DVD-ROM

e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo hdparm -d1 /dev/cdrom
sudo cp /etc/hdparm.conf /etc/hdparm.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/hdparm.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
/dev/cdrom {
    dma = on
}
  • Uložte editovaný súbor

How to mount/unmount CD/DVD-ROM manually, and show all hidden and associated files/folders

e.g. Assumed that /media/cdrom0/ is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
  • To mount CD/DVD-ROM
sudo mount /media/cdrom0/ -o unhide
  • To unmount CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /media/cdrom0/

How to forcefully unmount CD/DVD-ROM manually

e.g. Assumed that /media/cdrom0/ is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /media/cdrom0/ -l

How to remount /etc/fstab without rebooting

sudo mount -a


CD/DVD Burning

How to blank CD-RW/DVD-RW

e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /dev/cdrom
cdrecord dev=/dev/cdrom blank=fast

How to burn files/folders into CD/DVD

nautilus burn:///
  • File Browser: CD/DVD Creator
  • Drag files/folders into window
File Menu -> Write to Disc... -> Write

How to burn Image (ISO) files into CD/DVD

Right click on Image (ISO) file -> Write to Disc... -> Write

How to duplicate CD/DVD

How to create Image (ISO) files from CD/DVD

e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /dev/cdrom
dd if=/dev/cdrom of=file.iso bs=1024

How to create Image (ISO) files from folders

mkisofs -o file.iso /location_of_folder/

How to generate MD5 checksum files

md5sum file.iso > file.iso.md5

How to check MD5 checksum of files

e.g. Assumed that file.iso and file.iso.md5 are in the same folder
md5sum -c file.iso.md5

How to mount/unmount Image (ISO) files without burning

sudo mkdir /media/iso
sudo modprobe loop
sudo mount file.iso /media/iso/ -t iso9660 -o loop
  • To unmount Image (ISO) file
sudo umount /media/iso/

How to set/change the burn speed for CD/DVD Burner

/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> default_speed (set/change the burn speed)

How to enable burnproof for CD/DVD Burner

/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> burnproof (Checked)

How to enable overburn for CD/DVD Burner

/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> overburn (Checked)

Networking

How to configure Google Talk

How to activate/deactivate network connections

Connections Tab -> Select "Ethernet connection" -> Activate/Deactivate

How to configure network connections

Connections Tab -> Select "Ethernet connection" -> Properties
Connection -> This device is configured (Checked)
Connection Settings -> Configuration: Select "DHCP/Static IP address"
DNS Tab -> DNS Servers -> Add/Delete

How to configure dialup connections

sudo pppconfig
  • To connect dialup
sudo pon provider_name
  • To disconnect dialup
sudo poff

How to configure broadband connections

sudo pppoeconf

How to change computer name

General Tab -> Host Settings -> Hostname: Specify the computer name
  • Save and close all opened applications, Reboot computer

How to change computer descriptions

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
  server string = %h server (Samba, Ubuntu)
...
  • Replace with the following line
  server string = new_computer_descriptions
  • Uložte editovaný súbor
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to change computer Domain/Workgroup

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
  workgroup = MSHOME
...
  • Replace with the following line
  workgroup = new_domain_or_workgroup
  • Uložte editovaný súbor
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to assign Hostname to local machine with dynamic IP using free DynDNS service

e.g. Assumed that internet connections have been configured properly
Register free Dynamic DNS at https://www.dyndns.org
Automatically refresh IP in DynDNS Database/DNS every hour
* * * * * means minute hour date month year
sudo apt-get install ipcheck
sudo gedit /root/dyndns_update.sh
  • Vložte nasledujúce riadky do nového súboru
USERNAME=myusername
PASSWORD=mypassword
HOSTNAME=myhostname.dyndns.org
cd /root/
if [ -f /root/ipcheck.dat ]; then
 ipcheck -r checkip.dyndns.org:8245 $USERNAME $PASSWORD $HOSTNAME
else
 ipcheck --makedat -r checkip.dyndns.org:8245 $USERNAME $PASSWORD $HOSTNAME
fi
  • Uložte editovaný súbor
sudo chmod 700 /root/dyndns_update.sh
sudo sh /root/dyndns_update.sh
export EDITOR=gedit && sudo crontab -e
  • Append the following line at the end of file
00 * * * * sudo sh /root/dyndns_update.sh
  • Uložte editovaný súbor

How to share folders the easy way

Right click on folder -> Share folder
Shared folder -> Share with: Select "SMB"
Share properties -> Name: Specify the share name

How to browse network computers

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
If computers or network folders could not be found, try access them directly
Read #How to access network folders without mounting
  • Places -> Network Servers

How to access network folders without mounting

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Shared folder's name: linux
  • Programy -> Run Application...
  • Run Application
smb://192.168.0.1/linux

How to mount/unmount network folders manually, and allow all users to read

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
  • To mount network folder
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
sudo mount //192.168.0.1/linux /media/sharename/ -o username=myusername,password=mypassword
  • To unmount network folder
sudo umount /media/sharename/

How to mount/unmount network folders manually, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
  • To mount network folder
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
sudo mount //192.168.0.1/linux /media/sharename/ -o username=myusername,password=mypassword,dmask=777,fmask=777
  • To unmount network folder
sudo umount /media/sharename/

How to mount network folders on boot-up, and allow all users to read

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
sudo gedit /root/.smbcredentials
  • Vložte nasledujúce riadky do nového súboru
username=myusername
password=mypassword
  • Uložte editovaný súbor
sudo chmod 700 /root/.smbcredentials
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
sudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file
//192.168.0.1/linux    /media/sharename smbfs  credentials=/root/.smbcredentials    0    0

How to mount network folders on boot-up, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
sudo gedit /root/.smbcredentials
  • Vložte nasledujúce riadky do nového súboru
username=myusername
password=mypassword
  • Uložte editovaný súbor
sudo chmod 700 /root/.smbcredentials
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
sudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file
//192.168.0.1/linux    /media/sharename smbfs  credentials=/root/.smbcredentials,dmask=777,fmask=777  0    0

How to get ipw2200 and wpa to work

How to Configure and start PPTP tunnels (VPN)

OR
  • Install manually
wget -c http://linux.edu.lv/uploads/content/pptp.tar.gz
tar zxvf pptp.tar.gz
sudo sh ./pptp/install
  • To configure PPTP Client
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/pptpconfig.desktop
  • Replace content of this file with the following lines
[Desktop Entry]
Name=PPTP Client
Comment=Configure and start PPTP tunnels (VPN)
Categories=Application;Network
Encoding=UTF-8
Exec=gksudo pptpconfig
Icon=gnome-remote-desktop.png
StartupNotify=true
Terminal=false
Type=Application
  • The above lines change the default file in three ways: the application is placed in the Application/Internet category, gksudo will make the application run as superuser and we put a nice icon that appears in the menu.
  • Start the client with Applications -> Internet -> PPTP Client

Remote Desktop

How to configure remote desktop (not secure)

Warning! Remote Desktop will only work if there's a GNOME login session
Leaving computer with an unattended GNOME login session is not secure
Use (System -> Lock Screen) and off the monitor when computer is left unattended
  • System -> Preferences -> Remote Desktop
  • Remote Desktop Preferences
Sharing ->
Allow other users to view your desktop (Checked)
Allow other users to control your desktop (Checked)
Security ->
Ask you for confirmation (Un-Checked)
Require the user to enter this password: (Checked)
Password: Specify the password

How to connect into remote Ubuntu desktop

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have configured Remote Desktop
Read #How to configure remote desktop (not secure)
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
vncviewer -fullscreen 192.168.0.1:0
  • To quit vncviewer
Press 'F8' -> Quit viewer

How to connect into remote Ubuntu desktop via Windows machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have configured Remote Desktop
Read #How to configure remote desktop (not secure)
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
  • Download VNC Viewer: Here


Windows

How to mount/unmount Windows partitions (NTFS) manually, and allow all users to read only


e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (NTFS)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
  • To mount Windows partition
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo mount /dev/hda1 /media/windows/ -t ntfs -o nls=utf8,umask=0222
  • To unmount Windows partition
sudo umount /media/windows/

How to mount/unmount Windows partitions (FAT) manually, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (FAT)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
  • To mount Windows partition
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo mount /dev/hda1 /media/windows/ -t vfat -o iocharset=utf8,umask=000
  • To unmount Windows partition
sudo umount /media/windows/

How to mount Windows partitions (NTFS) on boot-up, and allow all users to read only

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (NTFS)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
sudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file
/dev/hda1    /media/windows ntfs  nls=utf8,umask=0222 0    0

How to mount Windows partitions (FAT) on boot-up, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (FAT)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
sudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file
/dev/hda1    /media/windows vfat  iocharset=utf8,umask=000  0    0


Security

What are the basic things I need to know about securing my Ubuntu

  • Prečítajte #Všeobecné poznámky
  • Ensure hard drive is first in BIOS boot-up sequence
    • To prevent trespassers from using Linux Installation CD which allows them to gain root user access
    • To prevent trespassers from using Linux Live CD (e.g. UBUNTU/KNOPPIX/MEPIS) which allows them to destroy/browse/share the entire hard drive
    • To prevent trespassers from installing another Operating System
  • Ensure a password is set for BIOS
    • To prevent trespassers from changing the BIOS boot-up sequence
  • Ensure computer is located at a secured place
    • To prevent trespassers from removing computer's hard drive which allows them to destroy/browse/share the entire hard drive from a different computer
    • To prevent trespassers from removing computer's on-board battery which resets the BIOS password
  • Ensure passwords used on the system cannot be easily guessed
    • To prevent trespassers from cracking password file using brute force attacks (e.g. John the Ripper)
    • Create password with minimum length of 8 characters
    • Create password with mixture of characters/numbers, and upper/lower case
  • Ensure interactive editing control for GRUB menu is disabled
  • Ensure history listing is disabled in Console mode
  • Ensure Ctrl+Alt+Del is disabled in Console mode
  • Ensure interactive option is set for remove, copy and move of files/folders in Console mode
  • For day to day usage, login as a normal user
  • Disable root user account, use "sudo" instead
    • To reduce the amount of time spent with root privileges, and thus the risk of inadvertently executing a command as root
    • "sudo" provides a more useful audit trail (/var/log/auth.log)
    • Prečítajte #How to disable root user account
  • Install a Firewall
  • Perform vulnerability test

How to disable all interactive editing control for GRUB menu

grub
grub> md5crypt
Password: ****** (ubuntu)
Encrypted: $1$ZWnke0$1fzDBVjUcT1Mpdd4u/T961 (encrypted password)
grub> quit
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this section
...
## password ['--md5'] passwd
# If used in the first section of a menu file, disable all interactive editing
# control (menu entry editor and command-line) and entries protected by the
# command 'lock'
# e.g. password topsecret
#   password --md5 $1$gLhU0/$aW78kHK1QfV3P2b2znUoe/
# password topsecret
...
  • Add the following line below it
password --md5 $1$ZWnke0$1fzDBVjUcT1Mpdd4u/T961 (encrypted password above)
  • Find this section
...
title      Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (recovery mode)
root       (hd0,1)
kernel     /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro single
initrd     /boot/initrd.img-2.6.10-5-386
savedefault
boot
...
  • Replace with the following lines
#title     Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (recovery mode)
#root      (hd0,1)
#kernel        /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro single
#initrd        /boot/initrd.img-2.6.10-5-386
#savedefault
#boot
  • Uložte editovaný súbor

How to disable history listing in Console mode

rm -f $HOME/.bash_history
touch $HOME/.bash_history
chmod 000 $HOME/.bash_history

How to disable Ctrl+Alt+Del from restarting computer in Console mode

sudo cp /etc/inittab /etc/inittab_backup
sudo gedit /etc/inittab
  • Find this line
...
ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -r now
...
  • Replace with the following line
#ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -r now
  • Uložte editovaný súbor
sudo telinit q

How to enable prompt before removal/overwritten of files/folders in Console mode

sudo cp /etc/bash.bashrc /etc/bash.bashrc_backup
sudo gedit /etc/bash.bashrc
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
alias rm='rm -i'
alias cp='cp -i'
alias mv='mv -i'
  • Uložte editovaný súbor


Rescue Mode

How to gain root user access without login

  • Prečítajte #Všeobecné poznámky
  • Easiest method (will not work if GRUB menu password is set)
    • Boot-up computer
    • If GRUB menu is hidden, press 'Esc' to enter the GRUB menu
    • Select
Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (recovery mode)

How to modify kernel boot-up arguments, to gain root user access

  • Prečítajte #Všeobecné poznámky
  • Boot-up computer
  • If GRUB menu is hidden, press 'Esc' to enter the GRUB menu
  • If GRUB password is set, press 'p' to unlock the GRUB menu
  • Select
Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386
  • Press 'e' to edit the commands before booting
  • Select
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro quiet splash
  • Press 'e' to edit the selected command in the boot sequence
  • Add "rw init=/bin/bash" to the end of the arguments
grub edit> kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro quiet splash rw init=/bin/bash
  • Press 'b' to boot

How to use Ubuntu Installation CD, to gain root user access

  • Prečítajte #Všeobecné poznámky
  • Boot-up computer into Ubuntu Installation CD
  • At "boot:" prompt, add "rescue" to the argument
boot: rescue
  • Follow the instructions on screen

How to change root user/main user password if forgotten

# passwd root
  • To change main user password
# passwd system_main_username

How to change GRUB menu password if forgotten

grub
grub> md5crypt
Password: ****** (ubuntu)
Encrypted: $1$ZWnke0$1fzDBVjUcT1Mpdd4u/T961 (encrypted password)
grub> quit
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this line
...
password --md5 $1$gLhU0/$aW78kHK1QfV3P2b2znUoe/
...
  • Replace with the following line
password --md5 $1$ZWnke0$1fzDBVjUcT1Mpdd4u/T961 (encrypted password above)
  • Uložte editovaný súbor

How to restore GRUB menu after Windows installation

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda is the location of /boot partition
# grub-install /dev/hda

How to add Windows entry into GRUB menu

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
title      Microsoft Windows
root       (hd0,0)
savedefault
makeactive
chainloader    +1
  • Uložte editovaný súbor

How to read Linux partitions (ext2, ext3) in Windows machine

OR

Tips & Tricks

How to restart GNOME without rebooting computer

Press 'Ctrl + Alt + Backspace'
or
sudo /etc/init.d/gdm restart

How to turn on Num Lock on GNOME startup

sudo apt-get install numlockx
sudo cp /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default_backup
sudo gedit /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default
  • Find this line
...
exit 0
  • Add the following lines above it
if [ -x /usr/bin/numlockx ]; then
 /usr/bin/numlockx on
fi

How to run programs on startup when login into GNOME

Startup Programs Tab -> Add/Edit/Delete

How to switch to Console mode in GNOME

Press 'Ctrl + Alt + F1' (F2 - F6)
  • To switch between consles in Console mode
Press 'Alt + F1' (F2 - F6)
  • To switch back to GNOME mode
Press 'Alt + F7'

How to disable Ctrl+Alt+Backspace from restarting X in GNOME

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
Section "ServerFlags"
   Option      "DontZap"       "yes"
EndSection

How to enable Ctrl+Alt+Del to open System Monitor in GNOME

gconftool-2 -t str --set /apps/metacity/global_keybindings/run_command_9 "<Control><Alt>Delete"
gconftool-2 -t str --set /apps/metacity/keybinding_commands/command_9 "gnome-system-monitor"

How to refresh GNOME desktop

killall nautilus

How to refresh GNOME panel

killall gnome-panel

How to open each folder in the same window in Nautilus

/ -> apps -> nautilus -> preferences -> always_use_browser (Checked)

How to enable autosave in Gedit and disable creation of some_file~ files

/ -> apps -> gedit-2 -> preferences -> editor -> save -> create_backup_copy (Unchecked)
/ -> apps -> gedit-2 -> preferences -> editor -> save -> auto_save (Checked)

How to show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus

Press 'Ctrl + H'
  • To permanently show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus
Edit Menu -> Preferences
Views Tab -> Default View -> Show hidden and backup files (Checked)

How to browse files/folders as root user in Nautilus

sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/Nautilus-root.desktop
    • Vložte nasledujúce riadky do nového súboru
[Desktop Entry]
Name=File Browser (Root)
Comment=Browse the filesystem with the file manager
Exec=gksudo "nautilus --browser %U"
Icon=file-manager
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;System;
  • To browse files/folders as root user in Nautilus
    • Programy -> System Tools -> File Browser (Root)

How to show Desktop Icons (Computer, Home, Trash)

/ -> apps -> nautilus -> desktop ->
computer_icon_visible (Checked)
home_icon_visible (Checked)
trash_icon_visible (Checked)

How to change default file type "Open with" program

Right click on file -> Properties
Open With Tab -> Add
Select "Open with" program
Select "Open with" program (Checked)

How to change preferred email client to Mozilla Thunderbird

Mail Reader Tab -> Default Mail Reader -> Command: mozilla-thunderbird %s

How to open files as root user via right click

gedit $HOME/.gnome2/nautilus-scripts/Open\ as\ root
  • Vložte nasledujúce riadky do nového súboru
for uri in $NAUTILUS_SCRIPT_SELECTED_URIS; do
   gnome-sudo "gnome-open $uri" &
done
  • Uložte editovaný súbor
chmod +x $HOME/.gnome2/nautilus-scripts/Open\ as\ root


Right click on file -> Scripts -> Open as root

How to disable beep sound in Terminal mode

Edit Menu -> Current Profile...
General Tab -> General -> Terminal bell (Un-Checked)

How to load Web site faster in Mozilla Firefox

Address Bar -> about:config
Filter: ->
network.dns.disableIPv6 -> true
network.http.pipelining -> true
network.http.pipelining.maxrequests -> 8
network.http.proxy.pipelining -> true
  • Reštartujte Mozilla Firefox

How to disable beep sound for link find function in Mozilla Firefox

Address Bar -> about:config
Filter: -> accessibility.typeaheadfind.enablesound -> false
  • Reštartujte Mozilla Firefox


How to apt-get the easy way (Synaptic)

Synaptic Package Manager
  • To enable the extra Universe and Multiverse repositories
    1. Settings -> Repositories
    2. Click the Settings button
    3. Tick Show disabled software sources
    4. On the Repositories dialog box click Add. There are three separate repositories; Breezy Badger, Security Updates and Updates. Select each repository and check Officially supported, Restricted copyright, Community maintained (Universe) and Non-free (Multiverse). Ensure you click OK between each repository to save your changes
    5. You should now see checkboxes next to each repository, scroll through the list and ensure they are all checked
  • To add backports and PLF (new versions of many applications. Unsupported. May contain illegal packages. Use at own risk.)
    1. Settings -> Repositories
    2. Click on Add and then Custom
    3. Paste the following five lines into the box and Click Add Repository, one line at a time:
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://ubuntu-backports.mirrormax.net breezy-extras main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://packages.freecontrib.org/ubuntu/plf breezy free non-free
deb-src http://packages.freecontrib.org/ubuntu/plf breezy free non-free
  • To refresh the list of known packages (equivalent to apt-get update)
Edit Menu -> Reload Package Information
  • To install all possible upgrades (equivalent to apt-get upgrade)
Edit Menu -> Mark All Upgrades... -> Default Upgrade
Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes
  • To search for a package (equivalent to apt-cache search package_name)
Edit Menu -> Search... Specify the package name
  • To install the selected package (equivalent to apt-get install package_name)
Select "package_name"
Package Menu -> Mark for Installation
Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes
  • To remove installed package (equivalent to apt-get remove package_name)
Select "package_name"
Package Menu -> Mark for Removal
Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes

What packages do the extra repositories provide

  • The PLF repository provides
    1. DVD playback support (libdvdcss2)
    2. Skype
    3. Sun Java SDK (Software Development Kit) and JRE (Java Runtime Environment)
    4. Opera Web browser
    5. RealPlayer 10
    6. Win32 binary multimedia codecs

Ako nainštalovať/uninstall .deb files

sudo dpkg -i package_file.deb
  • To uninstall .deb file
sudo dpkg -r package_name

How to convert .rpm files to .deb files

sudo alien package_file.rpm

How to rename all files in directory at once

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/mvb_1.6.tgz
sudo tar zxvf mvb_1.6.tgz -C /usr/share/
sudo chown -R root:root /usr/share/mvb_1.6/
sudo ln -fs /usr/share/mvb_1.6/mvb /usr/bin/mvb
  • To rename all files in directory at once
mvb NEW_NAME

How to manipulate all image files in directory at once

sudo apt-get install imagemagick
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/bbips.0.3.2.sh
sudo cp bbips.0.3.2.sh /usr/bin/bbips
sudo chmod 755 /usr/bin/bbips
  • To manipulate all image files in directory at once
bbips

How to set System-wide Environment Variables

sudo cp /etc/bash.bashrc /etc/bash.bashrc_backup
sudo gedit /etc/bash.bashrc
  • Append the System-wide Environment Variables at the end of file
  • Uložte editovaný súbor

How to save "man" outputs into files

man command | col -b > file.txt

How to hide GRUB menu on boot-up

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this line
...
#hiddenmenu
...
  • Replace with the following line
hiddenmenu
  • Uložte editovaný súbor

How to change the timeout seconds for GRUB menu on boot-up

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this line
...
timeout     3
...
  • Replace with the following line
timeout     X_seconds
  • Uložte editovaný súbor

How to change default Operating System boot-up for GRUB menu

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this line
...
default     0
...
  • Replace with the following line
default     X_sequence
  • Uložte editovaný súbor

How to display Splash Image for GRUB menu on boot-up

e.g. Assumed that hd0,1 is the location of Ubuntu boot partition
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/ubuntu.xpm.gz
chmod 644 ubuntu.xpm.gz
sudo mkdir /boot/grub/images
sudo cp ubuntu.xpm.gz /boot/grub/images/
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this section
# menu.lst - See: grub(8), info grub, update-grub(8)
#      grub-install(8), grub-floppy(8),
#      grub-md5-crypt, /usr/share/doc/grub
#      and /usr/share/doc/grub-doc/.
...
  • Add the following line below it
splashimage (hd0,1)/boot/grub/images/ubuntu.xpm.gz
  • Uložte editovaný súbor

How to convert Wallpaper to Splash Image for GRUB menu

e.g. Assumed that wallpaper.png is the Wallpaper to be converted to Splash Image
splashimage.xpm.gz is the Splash Image for GRUB menu
convert -resize 640x480 -colors 14 wallpaper.png splashimage.xpm && gzip splashimage.xpm

How to temporary skip boot-up services

Press 'Ctrl + C'

How to permanently disable/enable boot-up services

How to clean /tmp/ folder contents on shutdown

sudo cp /etc/init.d/sysklogd /etc/init.d/sysklogd_backup
sudo gedit /etc/init.d/sysklogd
  • Find this section
...
 stop)
  log_begin_msg "Stopping system log daemon..."
  start-stop-daemon --stop --quiet --oknodo --exec $binpath --pidfile $pidfile
  log_end_msg $?
...
  • Add the following line below it
  rm -fr /tmp/* /tmp/.??*
  • Uložte editovaný súbor

How to scroll up and down to view previous outputs in Console mode

Press 'Shift + Page Up'
  • To scroll down to view previously outputs
Press 'Shift + Page Down'


How to set up automatic background change (GNOME)

mkdir ~/.backgrounds
cd ~/.backgrounds
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/change_background.py
chmod +x change_background.py
  • To change desktop background every time you reboot your computer
export EDITOR=gedit && crontab -e
  • Add the following line at the end of file
@reboot ~/.backgrounds/change_background.py
For more information about periodic processes see
man 5 crontab

How to set up automatic background change (KDE)

  • Go to K-menu -> System Settings -> Desktop -> Background
  • Choose Slide Show
  • Press Setup...
  • Press Add... to add pictures you wish to see as desktop background
  • Set 'Change picture after' to desired picture rotation interval.
  • Press 'OK'


How to add keyboard layouts for other languages

  • Go to System -> Preferences -> Keyboard
  • Choose Layouts
  • Press Add... to add the secondary keyboard layout. It is simpler to have two layouts; the maximum is currently four for Xorg.
  • Choose Layout Options
  • Expand option Group Shift/Lock behaviour
  • Choose the key combination that enables you to switch between keyboard layouts. The default is by pressing both Alt keys at the same time. A common alternative is to use Alt+Shift.
  • Press Close.

See #How to add the Keyboard (Layout) Indicator applet to add the Keyboard Indicator applet.


How to add the Keyboard (Layout) Indicator applet

  • Right-click on empty space on the top panel so that you see the pop-up menu.
  • Click Add to Panel...
  • Choose Keyboard Indicator (it is under the Utilities section, at the end)

The Keyboard Indicator applet appears on the panel. The default language should be USA for U.S. English. You can either right-click on this applet for more options or see above on how to configure.


How to type extended characters

  • Add the keyboard layout US English International (with dead keys)
  • Make US English International (with dead keys) the default keyboard layout.

The key marked ['"] is now a dead key. When you press it, nothing happens. However if you press a consonant immediately afterwards, the consonant appears with an accent.

  • ' + a = á
  • ' + e = é
  • and so on for i-í, o-ó, y-ý, c-ć, z-ź, n-ń, l-ĺ, u-ú, r-ŕ
  • " + a = ä
  • " + e = ë
  • and so on for y-ÿ, u-ü, i-ï, o-ö

Similarly, ` and a consonant generates à, è, ù, ì, ò. Similarly, ~ and a consonant generates ã, ũ, ĩ, õ, ñ.

To type ' and ", press RightAlt+' and RightAlt+" respectively. To type ' and ", you may also press '+<space> and "+<space> respectively.

There are more characters available by keeping RightAlt pressed and typing a character. Therefore,

  • RightAlt+q = ä
  • RightAlt+w = å
  • RightAlt+e = é
  • RightAlt+r = ®
  • RightAlt+t = þ
  • RightAlt+y = ü
  • RightAlt+u = ú
  • RightAlt+i = í
  • RightAlt+o = ó
  • RightAlt+p = ö
  • RightAlt+[ and ] for « and » respectively.
  • RightAlt+a = á
  • RightAlt+s = ß
  • RightAlt+d = ð
  • RightAlt+l = ø
  • RightAlt+; = ¶
  • RightAlt+: = °
  • RightAlt+z = æ
  • RightAlt+c = ©
  • RightAlt+n = ñ
  • RightAlt+m = µ
  • RightAlt+, = ç
  • RightAlt+/ = ¿
  • RightAlt+1 = ¡
  • RightAlt+2 = ²
  • RightAlt+3 = ³
  • RightAlt+4 = ¤
  • RightAlt+5 = €
  • RightAlt+6 = ¼
  • RightAlt+7 = ½
  • RightAlt+8 = ¾
  • RightAlt+9 = ‘
  • RightAlt+0 = ’
  • RightAlt+- = ¥
  • RightAlt+= = ×
  • RightAlt+! = ¹
  • RightAlt+@, then o = ő (and Ő).
  • RightAlt+#, then a = ā (and Ā). Similarly for ēĒ, ūŪ, īĪ, ōŌ.
  • RightAlt+$ = £
  • RightAlt+% =
  • RightAlt+^ =
  • RightAlt+& =
  • RightAlt+*, then a = ą (and Ą). Similarly for ęĘ, įĮ.
  • RightAlt+(, then a = ă (and Ă)
  • RightAlt+(, then g = ğ (and Ğ)
  • RightAlt+), then a = å (and Å)
  • RightAlt+_ =
  • RightAlt++ = ÷

AntiVirus Server

Ako nainštalovať ClamAV AntiVirus Server

sudo apt-get install clamav

How to manually update virus databases

sudo freshclam

How to manually scan files/folders for viruses

sudo clamscan -r /location_of_files_or_folders

How to automatically scan files/folders for viruses

e.g. Automatically scan files/folders for viruses at midnight everyday
* * * * * means minute hour date month year
export EDITOR=gedit &&  sudo crontab -e
  • Append the following line at the end of file
00 00 * * *  sudo clamscan -r /location_of_files_or_folders
  • Uložte editovaný súbor

Samba Server

Ako nainštalovať Samba Server for files/folders sharing service

sudo apt-get install samba
sudo apt-get install smbfs

How to add/edit/delete network users

sudo smbpasswd -a system_username
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smbusers
    • Insert the following line into the new file
system_username = "network username"
    • Uložte editovaný súbor
  • To edit network user
sudo smbpasswd -a system_username
  • To delete network user
sudo smbpasswd -x system_username

How to share home folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share home folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Find this section
...
# By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change next
# parameter to 'yes' if you want to be able to write to them.
  writable = no
...
  • Replace with the following lines
# By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change next
# parameter to 'yes' if you want to be able to write to them.
  writable = yes
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share group folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)

sudo mkdir /home/group
sudo chmod 777 /home/group/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
 security = user
 username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[Group]
  comment = Group Folder
  path = /home/group
  public = yes
  writable = no
  valid users = system_username1 system_username2
  create mask = 0700
  directory mask = 0700
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share group folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)


sudo mkdir /home/group
sudo chmod 777 /home/group/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[Group]
  comment = Group Folder
  path = /home/group
  public = yes
  writable = yes
  valid users = system_username1 system_username2
  create mask = 0700
  directory mask = 0700
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)


sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = no
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)

sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = yes
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read only permission (Authentication=No)

sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following line
  security = share
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = no
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup
  • Uložte editovaný súbor
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=No)

sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following line
  security = share
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = yes
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup
  • Uložte editovaný súbor
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart


SSH Server

Ako nainštalovať SSH Server for remote administration service

sudo apt-get install ssh

How to SSH into remote Ubuntu machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #Ako nainštalovať SSH Server for remote administration service
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
ssh username@192.168.0.1

How to copy files/folders from remote Ubuntu machine into local machine (scp)

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #Ako nainštalovať SSH Server for remote administration service
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote files/folders location: /home/username/remotefile.txt
Local machine save location: . (current directory)
scp -r username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/remotefile.txt .

How to copy files/folders from local machine into remote Ubuntu machine (scp)

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #Ako nainštalovať SSH Server for remote administration service
Local files/folders location: localfile.txt
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote Ubuntu machine save location: /home/username/
scp -r localfile.txt username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/

How to copy files/folders from remote Ubuntu machine into local machine (rsync)

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #Ako nainštalovať SSH Server for remote administration service
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote files/folders location: /home/username/remotefile.txt
Local machine save location: . (current directory)
rsync -v -u -a --delete --rsh=ssh --stats username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/remotefile.txt .

How to copy files/folders from local machine into remote Ubuntu machine (rsync)

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #Ako nainštalovať SSH Server for remote administration service
Local files/folders location: localfile.txt
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote Ubuntu machine save location: /home/username/
rsync -v -u -a --delete --rsh=ssh --stats localfile.txt username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/


How to SSH into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #Ako nainštalovať SSH Server for remote administration service
  • Download PuTTY: Here


How to copy files/folders from/into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #Ako nainštalovať SSH Server for remote administration service
  • Download FileZilla: Here

How to limit the user accounts that can connect through ssh remotely

e.g. If you enable the SSH server, then any user with a valid account can connect remotely
This can lead to security risks, as there exist remote password cracking tools that
try common username/password pairs.
  • Keep a backup of the ssh server configuration file with

sudo cp /etc/ssh/sshd_config /etc/ssh/sshd_config.ORIGINAL

  • Edit the configuration file

sudo gedit /etc/ssh/sshd_config

  • Change the parameter PermitRootLogin from yes to no. The superuser must not be able to connect directly from remote.
  • Add the parameter AllowUsers and specify the usernames (space separated) that can connect remotely.
  • You can also use DenyUsers for fine-grained selection of users.
  • If you enable the openssh server and you have no intention for now to enable remote connections, you may add AllowUsers nosuchuserhere to disable anyone connecting.

DHCP Server

Ako nainštalovať DHCP Server for automatic IP addresses assignment

e.g. Assumed that "eth0" is the interface for network card
IP Address Range: 192.168.0.100 to 192.168.0.200
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
DNS Servers: 202.188.0.133, 202.188.1.5
Domains: tm.net.my
Gateway Address: 192.168.0.1
sudo apt-get install dhcp3-server
sudo cp /etc/default/dhcp3-server /etc/default/dhcp3-server_backup
sudo gedit /etc/default/dhcp3-server
  • Find this line
...
INTERFACES=""
  • Replace with the following line
INTERFACES="eth0"
  • Uložte editovaný súbor
sudo cp /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf
  • Find this section
...
# option definitions common to all supported networks...
option domain-name "example.org";
option domain-name-servers ns1.example.org, ns2.example.org;
default-lease-time 600;
max-lease-time 7200;
...
  • Replace with the following lines
# option definitions common to all supported networks...
#option domain-name "example.org";
#option domain-name-servers ns1.example.org, ns2.example.org;
#default-lease-time 600;
#max-lease-time 7200;
  • Find this section
...
# A slightly different configuration for an internal subnet.
#subnet 10.5.5.0 netmask 255.255.255.224 {
# range 10.5.5.26 10.5.5.30;
# option domain-name-servers ns1.internal.example.org;
# option domain-name "internal.example.org";
# option routers 10.5.5.1;
# option broadcast-address 10.5.5.31;
# default-lease-time 600;
# max-lease-time 7200;
#}
...
  • Replace with the following lines
# A slightly different configuration for an internal subnet.
subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
 range 192.168.0.100 192.168.0.200;
 option domain-name-servers 202.188.0.133, 202.188.1.5;
 option domain-name "tm.net.my";
 option routers 192.168.0.1;
 option broadcast-address 192.168.0.255;
 default-lease-time 600;
 max-lease-time 7200;
}
  • Uložte editovaný súbor
sudo /etc/init.d/dhcp3-server restart


Database Server

Ako nainštalovať MYSQL Database Server

sudo apt-get install mysql-server
mysqladmin -u root password db_user_password

Ako nainštalovať MYSQL Administrator

sudo apt-get install mysql-admin

Apache HTTP Server

Ako nainštalovať Apache HTTP Server for HTTP (Web) Server service

sudo apt-get install apache2

Ako nainštalovať PHP for Apache HTTP Server

sudo apt-get install php4
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
sudo gedit /var/www/testphp.php
  • Insert the following line into the new file
<?php phpinfo(); ?>

Ako nainštalovať MYSQL for Apache HTTP Server

sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-auth-mysql
sudo apt-get install php4-mysql
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

How to map URLs to folders outside /var/www/

sudo gedit /etc/apache2/conf.d/alias
  • Vložte nasledujúce riadky do nového súboru
Alias /URL-path /location_of_folder/
<Directory /location_of_folder/>
  Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
  AllowOverride All
  Order allow,deny
  Allow from all
</Directory>
  • Uložte editovaný súbor
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

How to change the default port number for Apache HTTP Server

e.g. Assumed that new port number is 78
sudo cp /etc/apache2/ports.conf /etc/apache2/ports.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/apache2/ports.conf
  • Find this line
Listen 80
  • Replace with the following line
Listen 78
  • Uložte editovaný súbor
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

How to parse RSS into PHP for Apache HTTP Server

e.g. Assumed that RSS is DistroWatch.com - News
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/magpierss-0.71.1.tar.gz
sudo mkdir /var/www/feeds
sudo tar zxvf magpierss-0.71.1.tar.gz -C /var/www/feeds/
sudo mv /var/www/feeds/magpierss-0.71.1/* /var/www/feeds/
sudo rm -fr /var/www/feeds/magpierss-0.71.1/
sudo chown -R www-data:root /var/www/feeds/
sudo gedit /var/www/feeds/index.php
  • Vložte nasledujúce riadky do nového súboru
 <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">

 <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" lang="en" xml:lang="en">

 <head>

 <title>DistroWatch.com - News</title>

 <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1"/>

 <style type="text/css">
 /*<![CDATA[*/
 /*
 DEFAULT TAG STYLES
 */

 body {
  background: #ffffff;
  margin-left: 20px;
  font-family: bitstream vera sans,sans-serif;
  font-size: 9pt;
 }

 h1 {
  font-family: luxi sans,sans-serif;
  font-size: 15pt;
 }

 /*]]>*/
 </style>

 </head>

 <body>

 <?php

 require_once 'rss_fetch.inc';
 error_reporting(E_ERROR);

 $url = 'http://distrowatch.com/news/dw.xml';
 $rss = fetch_rss($url);

 if ($rss) {

  echo "<h1>";
  echo "<a href=$url>", $rss->channel[title], "</a><br/>";
  echo "</h1>";

  foreach ($rss->items as $item ) {
   $url = $item[link];
   $title = $item[title];
   $description = $item[description];
   echo "<li>";
   echo "<b>Topic:</b> <a href=$url><b><u>$title</u></b></a><br/><br/>";
   echo "$description<br/><br/>";
   echo "</li>";
  }

 }
 else {
  echo "<a href=$url>", $url, "</a> - Server Down!<br/>";
 }

 ?>

 </body>

 </html>
 

FTP Server

Ako nainštalovať FTP Server for File Transfer service

sudo apt-get install proftpd

How to configure FTP user to be "jailed" (chrooted) into their home directory

sudo cp /etc/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/proftpd.conf
  • Find this section
...
DenyFilter           \*.*/
...
  • Add the following line below it
DefaultRoot           ~
  • Uložte editovaný súbor
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to configure FTP Server to allow anonymous FTP user to read only

sudo cp /etc/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/proftpd.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
<Anonymous ~ftp>
 User            ftp
 Group            nogroup
 UserAlias          anonymous ftp
 DirFakeUser on ftp
 DirFakeGroup on ftp
 RequireValidShell      off
 MaxClients         10
 DisplayLogin        welcome.msg
 DisplayFirstChdir      .message
 <Directory *>
  <Limit WRITE>
   DenyAll
  </Limit>
 </Directory>
</Anonymous>
  • Uložte editovaný súbor
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to configure FTP Server to allow anonymous FTP user to read/write

sudo cp /etc/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/proftpd.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
<Anonymous ~ftp>
 User            ftp
 Group            nogroup
 UserAlias          anonymous ftp
 DirFakeUser on ftp
 DirFakeGroup on ftp
 RequireValidShell      off
 MaxClients         10
 DisplayLogin        welcome.msg
 DisplayFirstChdir      .message
</Anonymous>
  • Uložte editovaný súbor
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to map anonymous FTP user to folders outside /home/ftp/

sudo cp /etc/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/proftpd.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
<Anonymous /location_of_folder/>
 User            ftp
 Group            nogroup
 UserAlias          anonymous ftp
 DirFakeUser on ftp
 DirFakeGroup on ftp
 RequireValidShell      off
 MaxClients         10
 DisplayLogin        welcome.msg
 DisplayFirstChdir      .message
 <Directory *>
  <Limit WRITE>
   DenyAll
  </Limit>
 </Directory>
</Anonymous>
  • Uložte editovaný súbor
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to change the default port number for FTP Server

e.g. Assumed that new port number is 77
sudo cp /etc/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/proftpd.conf
  • Find this line
Port              21
  • Replace with the following line
Port              77
  • Uložte editovaný súbor
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to ftp into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed FTP Server service
Read #Ako nainštalovať FTP Server for File Transfer service
  • Download FileZilla: Here

Streaming Media Server

Ako nainštalovať GNUMP3d for Streaming Media Server service

e.g. /var/music/ is the directory containing multimedia files
sudo apt-get install gnump3d

How to change the default directory containing multimedia files for GNUMP3d

e.g. Assumed that new directory containing multimedia files is /home/music/
sudo cp /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf
  • Find this line
root = /var/music
  • Replace with the following line
root = /home/music
  • Find this line
user = gnump3d
  • Replace with the following line
user = root
  • Uložte editovaný súbor
sudo /etc/init.d/gnump3d restart

How to change the default port number for GNUMP3d

e.g. Assumed that new port number is 7878
sudo cp /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf
  • Find this line
port = 8888
  • Replace with the following line
port = 7878
  • Uložte editovaný súbor
sudo /etc/init.d/gnump3d restart


Image Gallery Server

Ako nainštalovať Gallery for Image Gallery Server service

sudo apt-get install gallery (when prompted to restart Apache, choose No or Cancel)
sudo apt-get install imagemagick
sudo apt-get install jhead
sudo apt-get install libjpeg-progs
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
sudo sh /usr/share/gallery/configure.sh
Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 1
Next Step ->
Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 2
General settings Tab ->
Admin password: Specify the password
Locations and URLs Tab ->
Album directory: /var/www/albums/
Temporary directory: /tmp/
Gallery URL: http://localhost/gallery
Albums URL: http://localhost/albums
Next Step -->
Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 3
Next Step -->
Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 4
Save Config ->

How to configure Gallery to be accessible via Internet (Hostname or fix IP) or LAN (fix IP)

e.g. Assumed that network and internet connections have been configured properly
Internet (Hostname or fix IP) or LAN (fix IP): http://www.url.com
sudo cp /etc/gallery/config.php /etc/gallery/config.php_backup
sudo gedit /etc/gallery/config.php
  • Find this section
...
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "http://localhost/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "http://localhost/albums";
...
  • Replace with the following lines
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "http://www.url.com/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "http://www.url.com/albums";

How to configure Gallery to be accessible via LAN (dynamic IP)

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
LAN (dynamic IP): 192.168.0.1
sudo cp /etc/gallery/config.php /etc/gallery/config.php_backup
sudo gedit /etc/gallery/config.php
  • Find this section
...
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "http://localhost/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "http://localhost/albums";
...
  • Replace with the following lines
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "/albums";

How to backup/restore Gallery data

sudo tar zcvf gallery.tgz /var/www/albums/ /etc/gallery/
  • To restore Gallery data
sudo tar zxvf gallery.tgz -C /


Troubleshooting

Configuring network interfaces... (taking too long to load)

Synchronizing clock to ntp.ubuntulinux.org... (taking too long to load)

service_name = ntpdate

How to disable system time/date from being reset to UTC (GMT)

sudo cp /etc/default/rcS /etc/default/rcS_backup
sudo gedit /etc/default/rcS
  • Find this line
...
UTC=yes
...
  • Replace with the following line
UTC=no
  • Uložte editovaný súbor
  • System -> Administration -> Time and Date
Set the correct time/date
sudo /etc/init.d/hwclock.sh restart

How to configure sound to work properly in GNOME

sudo killall esd
sudo cp /etc/esound/esd.conf /etc/esound/esd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/esound/esd.conf
  • Find this section
...
auto_spawn=0
spawn_options=-terminate -nobeeps -as 5
...
  • Replace with the following lines
auto_spawn=1
spawn_options=-terminate -nobeeps -as 2 -d default
  • Uložte editovaný súbor
sudo apt-get install libesd-alsa0
sudo gedit /etc/asound.conf
  • Vložte nasledujúce riadky do nového súboru
pcm.card0 {
type hw
card 0
}
pcm.!default {
type plug
slave.pcm "dmixer"
}
pcm.dmixer {
type dmix
ipc_key 1025
slave {
pcm "hw:0,0"
period_time 0
period_size 2048
buffer_size 32768
rate 48000
}
bindings {
0 0
1 1
}
}
  • Uložte editovaný súbor
sudo ln -fs /usr/lib/libesd.so.0 /usr/lib/libesd.so.1
System -> Preferences -> Sound
Sound preferences
General Tab -> Sounds for events (Un-Checked)
  • Save and close all opened applications, Reboot computer

How to forcefully empty Trash in GNOME

sudo rm -fr $HOME/.Trash/

How to remove duplicate menu/menu items in GNOME

rm -f $HOME/.config/menus/applications.menu

How to refresh Places menu in GNOME (if mounts to /media/ in /etc/fstab does not show up)

sudo /etc/init.d/dbus-1 restart


Upgrading Ubuntu

How to upgrade from Breezy Badger to Dapper Drake (experimental)

Warning! This is still in it's development stage. Only use it for experimental purposes
Doing this might break your entire system
sudo cp /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list_backup
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Replace everything with the following lines
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper main restricted
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper main restricted
## Major bug fix updates produced after the final release of the
## distribution.
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-updates main restricted
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-updates main restricted
## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from the 'universe'
## repository.
## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu
## team, and may not be under a free licence. Please satisfy yourself as to
## your rights to use the software. Also, please note that software in
## universe WILL NOT receive any review or updates from the Ubuntu security
## team.
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper universe
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper universe
## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from the 'backports'
## repository.
## N.B. software from this repository may not have been tested as
## extensively as that contained in the main release, although it includes
## newer versions of some applications which may provide useful features.
## Also, please note that software in backports WILL NOT receive any review
## or updates from the Ubuntu security team.
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-security main restricted
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-security main restricted
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-security universe
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-security universe
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper multiverse
## Backports
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-backports main restricted universe multiverse
  • Uložte editovaný súbor
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
  • Save and close all opened applications, Reboot computer

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  • Topics that have been removed from this guide can be found here
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