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Neoficialus Ubuntu 5.10 (Breezy Badger) Pradedančiojo gidas

Šio gido http://ubuntuguide.org/ pradininkas yra Chua Wen Kiat (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia). Dabar jį prižiūri Latvijos Universiteto Linux Centras. Visi norintis kviečiami prisidėti.

Lietuvišką gido versiją prižiūri Lietuvos Ubuntu bendruomenė


Vertimai: Latviešu Русский Polski Traditional Chinese



Contents


Bendros pastabos

  1. Tai yra neoficialus Ubuntu 5.10 (Breezy Badger) Pradedančiojo gidas. Jis neturi nieko bendro su Ubuntu bei Canonical Ltd.
  2. Gidas yra ištestuotas su pilna Ubuntu 5.10 x86 Install CD (Breezy Badger) instaliacija
  3. Turinys įrėmintos mėlyname stačiakampyje turi būti įvygdytas Terminale (Applications -> System Tools -> Terminal) arba panaudotas pagal šalia esančias instrukcijas.
  4. Komandas galite kopijuoti (Ctrl+C) ir įklijuoti (Shift+Insert) Terminalo lange. Taip sumažinsite rašybos klaidų galimybę.
  5. "sudo" reiškia "superuser do". "sudo" paprašys slaptažodžio
  6. Norėdami gauti daugiau informacijos apie vieną ar kitą komandą pasinaudokite "man" funkcija. Pvz.: "man sudo" ekrane atvaizduos dokumentaciją apie "sudo" komandą.
  7. Perskaitykite #Kaip pasinaudoti apt-get lengvesniu būdu (Synaptic)
  8. "apt-get" bei "wget" komandoms reikalingas aktyvus Interneto ryšys
  9. Norėdami padėti versti Ubuntu į gimtąją kalbą apsilankykite https://launchpad.net/


Jei naudojate Kubuntu jums reikės įsidiegti Gedit programą
wget http://easylinux.info/uploads/gedit_2.13.1-0ubuntu1_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i gedit_2.13.1-0ubuntu1_i386.deb
Arba vietoj 'gedit' komandoa naudoti 'kwrite' komandą. Pvz.: vietoj
 sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
Rašykite
 sudo kwrite /etc/apt/sources.list
Jei naudotaje 64-bit procesorių "i386" pakeiskite į "amd64"

Pirmieji žingsniai

Kas yra Ubuntu?

Kur galima peržiūrėti Ubuntu ekrano atvaizdus?

Kur galima rasti į Ubuntu įeinančių programų/bibliotekų sąrašus?

Iš kur galima atsisiųsti Ubuntu?

Kur galima užsisakyti Ubuntu kompaktinius diskus visiškai NEMOKAMAI?

Kur ieškoti pagalbos?

Lietuvių kalba

Anglų kalba

Kur ieškoti naujų programų?

Kur ieškoti priemonių darbastalio išvaizdai keisti?

Šaltiniai

Kaip pridėti papildomus šaltinius

sudo cp /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list_backup
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Viską pakeiskite šiomis eilutėmis
## Add comments (##) in front of any line to remove it from being checked.   
## Use the following sources.list at your own risk.  
## You may replace "us" with your country code to get the closest mirror.

deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy main restricted
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy main restricted

## MAJOR BUG FIX UPDATES produced after the final release
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-updates main restricted
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-updates main restricted

## UBUNTU SECURITY UPDATES
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-security main restricted
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-security main restricted

deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-security universe
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-security universe

## UNIVERSE AND MULTIVERSE REPOSITORY (Unsupported by Ubuntu.  Use at own risk.)
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy universe multiverse

## BACKPORTS REPOSITORY (Unsupported.  May contain illegal packages.  Use at own risk.)
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-backports main restricted universe multiverse

## PLF REPOSITORY (Unsupported.  May contain illegal packages.  Use at own risk.)
deb http://packages.freecontrib.org/ubuntu/plf breezy free non-free
deb-src http://packages.freecontrib.org/ubuntu/plf breezy free non-free 
  • Išsaugokite failą
sudo apt-get update
Savo sources.list failą naudokite tk tuo atveju jei suprantate ką darote

Ubuntu atnaujinimas

Kaip rankiniu būdu atnaujinti Ubuntu

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade

Papildomos programinės įrangos automatinis diegimas (Automatix)

  • Automatix yra grafinis interfeisas palengvinantis būtiniausios programinės įrangos instaliavimą. Jis veikia su Ubuntu/Kubuntu/Xubuntu BREEZY (NEVEIKIA SU Warty, Hoary or Dapper). Pasinaudojus Automatix galima atlikti daugumą žingsnių aprašytų šiame gide.
  • Automatix padės jums įsidiegti Multimedia kodekus; visus Firefox įskiepus (java, flash, etc); RAR, ACE ir UNRAR archyvų palaikymą; skype; Acrobat reader 7; Gnomebaker; gftp; DC++ ir amule; Frostwire; Audacity; Kino; EasyTag; Mplayer; totem-xine; VLC; Beep Media Player; Opera; Bittornado; Azureus; automatinį Numlock įjungimą; Programavimo įrankius (Anjuta (C/C++ IDE), Bluefish (HTML redaktorius)); GnomePPP; MS true type šriftus; Streamtuner; NON-FREE audio ir dvd kodekus; ndisgtk (WiFi konfiguravimo grafinis interfeisas); SUN'S JAVA JRE v1.5; SUN'S JAVA JDK v1.5; wine; gdesklets; Nvidia grafinių kortų tvarkykles bei atliks dar daug naudingų patobulinimų.

Iš kur gauti Automatix?

  • Automatix diegimas į Ubuntu
sudo apt-get install xterm
wget http://beerorkid.com/automatix/automatix_5.2-1_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i automatix_5.2-1_i386.deb
Applications -> System Tools -> Automatix
  • Automatix diegimas į Kubuntu/Xubuntu
sudo apt-get remove automatix-kubuntu
sudo apt-get install xterm libglade2-0 libgnomecanvas2-0
wget http://kambing.vlsm.org/ubuntu/pool/main/z/zenity/zenity_2.10.0-0ubuntu1_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i zenity_2.10.0-0ubuntu1_i386.deb
wget http://beerorkid.com/automatix/automatix_5.2-1_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i automatix_5.2-1_i386.deb
Main Menu -> System -> Automatix

Papildoma programinė įranga

Kaip įdiegti meniu redaktorių skirtą GNOME aplinkai

sudo apt-get install smeg

Kaip įdiegti Clipboard Daemon skirtą GNOME aplinkai

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/gnome-clipboard-daemon-1.0.bin.tar.bz2
sudo tar jxvf gnome-clipboard-daemon-1.0.bin.tar.bz2 -C /usr/bin/
sudo chown root:root /usr/bin/gnome-clipboard-daemon
sudo chmod 755 /usr/bin/gnome-clipboard-daemon
sudo gnome-clipboard-daemon &
export EDITOR=gedit && crontab -e
  • Failo pabaigoje įrašykite
@reboot gnome-clipboard-daemon
  • Išsaugokite failą

Kaip įdiegti J2SE Runtime Environment (JRE) su Mozilla Firefox įskiepu

sudo apt-get install sun-j2re1.5
  • Perkraukite Mozilla Firefox

Kaip įdiegti Flash įskiepą (Macromedia Flash) Mozilla Firefox naršyklei

sudo apt-get install flashplayer-mozilla
  • Perkraukite Mozilla Firefox

Kaip įdiegti PDF skaitymo programą (Adobe Reader) su Mozilla Firefox įskiepu

sudo apt-get install acroread
sudo apt-get install mozilla-acroread
sudo apt-get install acroread-plugins

Kaip įdiegti atsisiuntimų valdymo programą (Downloader for X)

sudo apt-get install d4x

Kaip įdiegti FTP klientą (gFTP)

sudo apt-get install gftp

Kaip įdiegti failų dalinimosi programą (DC++)

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/linuxdcpp.tar.gz 
sudo tar zxvf linuxdcpp.tar.gz -C /opt
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/dcpp.desktop
  • Į naują failą įrašykite šias eilutes
[Desktop Entry]
Encoding=UTF-8
Name=DC++
Exec=/opt$ /opt/linuxdcpp/dcpp
Terminal=false
Type=Application
StartupNotify=true
Icon=eyes.png
Categories=Application;Network;
  • Applications -> Internet -> DC++

Kaip įdiegti P2P BitTorrent klientą (Azureus)

wget -c http://heanet.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/azureus/Azureus_2.3.0.6_linux.tar.bz2
sudo tar jxvf Azureus_2.3.0.6_linux.tar.bz2 -C /opt
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/azureus.desktop 
  • Į naują failą įrašykite šias eilutes:
[Desktop Entry] 
Name=Azureus
Comment=A Bittorrent client
Exec=/opt/azureus/azureus
Icon=/opt/azureus/Azureus.png
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;
  • Applications -> Internet -> Azureus

Kaip įdiegti P2P eMule klientą (aMule)

sudo apt-get install amule

Kaip įdiegti P2P Gnutella klientą (LimeWire)

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/LimeWireOther.zip
sudo unzip -u LimeWireOther.zip -d /opt/
sudo chown -R root:root /opt/LimeWire/
sudo gedit /usr/bin/runLime.sh
  • Į naują failą įrašykite šias eilutes
cd /opt/LimeWire/
./runLime.sh
  • Išsaugokite failą
sudo chmod +x /usr/bin/runLime.sh
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/LimeWire.desktop
  • Į naują failą įrašykite šias eilutes
[Desktop Entry]
Name=LimeWire
Comment=LimeWire
Exec=runLime.sh
Icon=/opt/LimeWire/LimeWire.ico
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;

Kaip įdiegti pokalbių programą (Skype)

wget -c http://download.skype.com/linux/skype_staticQT-1.2.0.18.tar.bz2
sudo tar jxvf skype_staticQT-1.2.0.18.tar.bz2 -C /opt/
sudo ln -s /opt/skype-1.2.0.18/skype /usr/bin/skype
sudo cp /opt/skype-1.2.0.18/skype.desktop /usr/share/applications/skype.desktop
sudo cp /opt/skype-1.2.0.18/icons/skype_32_32.png /usr/share/icons/hicolor/32x32/apps/skype.png
rm skype_staticQT-1.2.0.18.tar.bz2

Kaip įdiegti WinPopup (LinPopUp)

sudo apt-get install linpopup
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/linpopup.desktop
  • Į naują failą įrašykite šias eiltes
[Desktop Entry]
Name=LinPopUp
Comment=LinPopUp
Exec=linpopup
Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/linpopup.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Utility;

Kaip įdiegti multimedia kodekus

sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.8-plugins
sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.8-lame
sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.8-ffmpeg
sudo apt-get install lame
sudo apt-get install sox
sudo apt-get install ffmpeg
sudo apt-get install mjpegtools
sudo apt-get install vorbis-tools
sudo apt-get install w32codecs
gst-register-0.8

Kaip įdiegti DVD grojimo galimybę

sudo apt-get install libdvdcss2

Kaip įdiegti multimedia grotuvą (xine-ui)

sudo apt-get install xine-ui
  • Suriškite xine-ui su multimedia failais
gconftool-2 --type string --set /desktop/gnome/volume_manager/autoplay_dvd_command "xine dvd://"
sudo rm -f /usr/share/applnk/Multimedia/xine.desktop
sudo ln -fs /usr/share/xine/desktop/xine.desktop /usr/share/applications/
sudo cp /usr/share/applications/defaults.list /usr/share/applications/defaults.list_backup
sudo sed -e 's/totem.desktop/xine.desktop/g' /usr/share/applications/defaults.list_backup > /tmp/defaults.list
sudo mv /tmp/defaults.list /usr/share/applications/defaults.list

Kaip įdiegti multimedia grotuvą (MPlayer) su Mozilla Firefox įskiepu

sudo apt-get install mplayer-386
sudo apt-get install mplayer-fonts
sudo apt-get install mozilla-mplayer
sudo cp /etc/mplayer/mplayer.conf /etc/mplayer/mplayer.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/mplayer/mplayer.conf
  • Raskite šią eilutę
...
vo=x11,         # To specify default video driver (see -vo help for
...
  • Pakeiskite į
vo=xv,         # To specify default video driver (see -vo help for

Kaip įdiegti multimedia grotuvą (XMMS)

sudo apt-get install xmms
sudo apt-get install xmms-skins
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/xmms-wma_1.0.4-2_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i xmms-wma_1.0.4-2_i386.deb
  • Suriškite XMMS su MP3/M3U/WAV failais
sudo cp /usr/share/applications/defaults.list /usr/share/applications/defaults.list_backup
sudo cp /usr/share/applications/defaults.list /tmp/defaults.list_tmp
sudo sed -e 's/audio\/mpeg=.*/audio\/mpeg=XMMS.desktop/g' /tmp/defaults.list_tmp > /tmp/defaults.mp3
sudo sed -e 's/audio\/x-mpegurl=.*/audio\/x-mpegurl=XMMS.desktop/g' /tmp/defaults.mp3 > /tmp/defaults.m3u
sudo sed -e 's/audio\/x-wav=.*/audio\/x-wav=XMMS.desktop/g' /tmp/defaults.m3u > /tmp/defaults.list
sudo mv /tmp/defaults.list /usr/share/applications/defaults.list
sudo rm -f /tmp/defaults.*

Kaip įdiegti multimedia grotuvą (amaroK)

sudo apt-get install amarok
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> amaroK

Kaip įdiegti multimedia grotuvą (RealPlayer 10)

sudo apt-get install realplay
Pastaba: 'realplay' įdiegia RealPlayer 10. 'realplayer' įdiegia RealPlayer 8.

Kaip įdiegti Stream Directory Browser (streamtuner)

sudo apt-get install streamtuner
sudo apt-get install streamripper

Kaip įdiegti muzikos organizatorių (Cowbell)

sudo apt-get install cowbell
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> Cowbell Music Organizer

Kaip įdiegti ID3 Tag redaktorių (EasyTAG)

sudo apt-get install easytag

Kaip įdiegti video redaktorių (Kino)

sudo apt-get install kino
sudo apt-get install kinoplus
sudo apt-get install kino-timfx
sudo apt-get install kino-dvtitler

Kaip įdiegti audio redaktorių (Audacity)

sudo apt-get install audacity

Kaip įdiegti DVD Ripper (dvd::rip)

sudo apt-get install dvdrip
sudo apt-get install vcdimager
sudo apt-get install cdrdao
sudo apt-get install subtitleripper
sudo ln -fs /usr/bin/rar /usr/bin/rar-2.80
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/dvdrip.desktop
  • Į naują failą įrašykite šias eilutes
[Desktop Entry]
Name=dvd::rip 
Comment=dvd::rip
Exec=dvdrip
Icon=/usr/share/perl5/Video/DVDRip/icon.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;AudioVideo;

Kaip įdiegti CD Ripper (Goobox)

sudo apt-get install goobox
sudo rm -f /usr/share/applications/goobox.desktop
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/goobox.desktop
  • Į naują failą įrašykite šias eilutes
[Desktop Entry]
Name=CD Player & Ripper
Comment=Play and extract CDs
Exec=goobox
Icon=goobox.png
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;AudioVideo;

Kaip įdiegti grafikos peržiūros programą (Gwenview)

sudo apt-get install gwenview
sudo apt-get install kipi-plugins
sudo apt-get install imagemagick
  • Applications -> Graphics -> Gwenview

Kaip įdiegti elektroninio pašto klientą (Mozilla Thunderbird)

sudo apt-get install mozilla-thunderbird

Kaip įdiegti naujienų skaitymo programą (Pan)

sudo apt-get install pan

Kaip įdiegti RSS/RDF/Atom naujienų skaitymo programą (RSSOwl)

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin.tar.gz -C /opt/
sudo chown -R root:root /opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin/
sudo gedit /usr/bin/runRSSOwl.sh
  • Į naują failą įrašykite šias eilutes
export MOZILLA_FIVE_HOME=/usr/lib/mozilla-firefox
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:${MOZILLA_FIVE_HOME}:${LD_LIBRARY_PATH}
cd /opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin/
./run.sh
  • Išsaugokite failą
sudo chmod +x /usr/bin/runRSSOwl.sh
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/RSSOwl.desktop
  • Į naują failą įrašykite šias eilutes
[Desktop Entry]
Name=RSSOwl
Comment=RSSOwl
Exec=runRSSOwl.sh
Icon=/opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin/rssowl.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;

Kaip įdiegti HTML redaktorių (Nvu)

sudo apt-get install nvu
sudo rm -f /usr/share/applications/nvu.desktop
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/nvu.desktop
  • Į naują failą įrašykite šias eilutes
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Nvu
Comment=Web Development Editor
Exec=nvu
Icon=nvu.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;

Kaip įdiegti Web kūrimo įrankį (quanta plus)

sudo apt-get install quanta
  • Applications -> Programming -> Quanta Plus

Kaip įdiegti projektų valdymo programą (Planner)

sudo apt-get install planner

Kaip įdiegti apskaitos programą (GnuCash)

sudo apt-get install gnucash
sudo rm -fr /usr/share/gnome/apps/Applications/
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/GnuCash.desktop
  • Į naują failą įrašykite šias eilutes
[Desktop Entry]
Name=GnuCash
Comment=GnuCash Personal Finance
Exec=gnucash
Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/gnucash/gnucash-icon.png
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Office;

Kaip įdiegti dokumentų ruošimo programą (Scribus)

sudo apt-get install scribus

Kaip įdiegti diagramų redaktorių (Dia)

sudo apt-get install dia-gnome

Kaip įdiegti Compiled HTML Help (CHM) peržiūros programą (xCHM)

sudo apt-get install xchm

Kaip įdiegti CD/DVD įrašymo programą (GnomeBaker)

sudo apt-get install gnomebaker

Kaip įdiegti CD/DVD įrašymo programą (K3b)

sudo apt-get install k3b
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> K3b

Kaip įdiegti Dialup PPP klientą (GNOME PPP)

sudo apt-get install gnome-ppp

Kaip įdiegti Broadband ADSL/PPPoE klientą (RP-PPPoE)

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/rp-pppoe-3.6.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf rp-pppoe-3.6.tar.gz -C /opt/
sudo chown -R root:root /opt/rp-pppoe-3.6/
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/RP-PPPoE.desktop
  • Į naują failą įrašykite šias eilutes
[Desktop Entry]
Name=RP-PPPoE
Comment=RP-PPPoE
Exec=gksudo /opt/rp-pppoe-3.6/go-gui
Icon=
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;

Kaip įdiegti sistemos užsikrovimo metu paleidžiamų programų organizatorių (BUM)

sudo apt-get install bum

Kaip įdiegti disko partition redaktorių (GParted)

sudo apt-get install gparted

Kaip įdiegti ugniasienę (Firestarter)

sudo apt-get install firestarter

Kaip įdiegti tinklo srauto analyzavimo programą (Ethereal)

sudo apt-get install ethereal
  • Applications -> Internet -> Ethereal

Kaip įdiegti pažeidžiamumų skanerį (Nessus)

sudo apt-get install nessus
sudo apt-get install nessusd
sudo nessus-adduser
sudo ln -fs /etc/init.d/nessusd /etc/rc2.d/S20nessusd
sudo /etc/init.d/nessusd start
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/Nessus.desktop
  • Į naują failą įterpkite šias eilutes
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Nessus
Comment=Nessus
Exec=nessus
Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/nessus.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;System;

Kaip įdiegti RAR archyvavimo programą (rar)

sudo apt-get install rar
sudo ln -fs /usr/bin/rar /usr/bin/unrar
  • Applications -> Accessories -> Archive Manager

Kaip įdiegti papildomus šriftus

sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-arabic
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-asian
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-chinese
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-chinese-big
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-european
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-japanese
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-japanese-big
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-phonetic
sudo apt-get install gsfonts-x11
sudo apt-get install msttcorefonts
sudo fc-cache -f -v

Kaip įdiegti galimybę rašyti kinietiškai (SCIM)

sudo apt-get install scim
sudo apt-get install scim-chinese
sudo apt-get install scim-config-socket
sudo apt-get install scim-gtk2-immodule
sudo apt-get install scim-tables-zh
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/fireflysung-1.3.0.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf fireflysung-1.3.0.tar.gz -C /usr/share/fonts/truetype/
sudo chown -R root:root /usr/share/fonts/truetype/fireflysung-1.3.0/ 
sudo fc-cache -f -v
  • System -> Preferences -> SCIM Input Method Setup
  • Aktyvuokite SCIM
Spauskite 'Ctrl + Space'

Kaip įdiegti darbastalio applet'us (gDesklets)

sudo apt-get install gdesklets
sudo apt-get install gdesklets-data

Kaip įdiegti pagrindinius kompiliatorius (build-essential)

sudo apt-get install build-essential

Kaip įdiegti C bei C++ įntegruotą prograavimo įrankį (Anjuta)

sudo apt-get install anjuta
  • Applications -> Programming -> Anjuta IDE

Kaip įdiegti 3D modeliavimo programą (Blender 3d)

sudo apt-get install blender
  • Applications -> Graphics -> Blender 3D modeller

Kaip įdiegti žaidimą Tuxracer

sudo apt-get install planetpenguin-racer planetpenguin-racer-data planetpenguin-racer-extras
  • Applications -> Games -> planetpenguin-racer

Kaip įdiegti žaidimą Frozen-Bubble

sudo apt-get install frozen-bubble
  • Applications -> Games -> Frozen-Bubble

Kaip įdiegti žaidimą Scorched3D

sudo apt-get install scorched3d
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/scorched3d.desktop
  • Į naują failą įrašykite šias eilutes
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Scorched 3D
Comment=A 3D Remake Of Scorched Earth
Exec=scorched3d
Icon=
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Game;ArcadeGame;

Kaip įdiegti virtualų planetariumą (Stellarium)

sudo apt-get install stellarium
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/stellarium.desktop
  • Į naują failą įrašykite šias eilutes
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Stellarium
Comment=Virtual planetarium
Exec=stellarium
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Education;
  • Applications -> Education -> Stellarium

Kaip įdiegti KDE Edutainment programas

sudo apt-get install kdeedu
  • Applications -> Education -> ...

Kitos grafinės aplinkos

Kaip įdiegti KDE

sudo apt-get install kubuntu-desktop
Pastaba: Šis diegimas reikalaus apie 400MB disko vietos
  • System -> Log Out -> Log Out
  • Norėdami prisijungti į KDE spauskite Sessions ir pasirinkite KDE

Kaip įdiegti XFCE

sudo apt-get install xubuntu-desktop
  • System -> Log Out -> Log Out
  • Norėdami prisijungti į XFCE spauskite Sessions ir pasirinkite XFCE

Komercinės (mokamos) programos

Kaip įdiegti Windows 9X/ME/2000/XP (Win4Lin)

Kaip įdiegti programas skirtas Windows OS (CrossOver Office)

Kaip įdiegti žaidimus skirtus Windows OS (Cedega)

User Administration

How to set/change/enable root user password

sudo passwd root

How to disable root user account

sudo passwd -l root

How to allow root user to login into GNOME

Security Tab -> Options -> Allow root to login with GDM (Checked)

How to switch to root user in Console mode

sudo -s -H
Password: <specify user password>

How to add/edit/delete system users

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Users and Groups
  • Users and Groups
Users Tab -> Add User.../Properties/Delete
or
sudo useradd jim
sudo userdel jim
  • For more info read
man usermod

How to add/edit/delete system groups

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Users and Groups
  • Users and Groups
Groups Tab -> Add Group.../Properties/Delete

How to automatic login into GNOME (not secure)

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Login Screen Setup
  • Login Screen Setup
General Tab -> Automatic Login ->
Login a user automatically on first bootup (Checked)
Automatic login username: Select "system_username"

How to allow more sudoers

export EDITOR=gedit && sudo visudo
  • Append the following line at the end of file
system_username	ALL=(ALL) ALL
  • Save the edited file

How to use "sudo" without prompt for password (not secure)

export EDITOR=gedit && sudo visudo
  • Find this line
...
system_username	ALL=(ALL) ALL
...
  • Replace with the following line
system_username	ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL
  • Save the edited file

How to explicitly destroy the "sudo" session

sudo -K

How to change files/folders permissions

Right click on files/folders -> Properties
Permissions Tab -> Read/Write/Execute (Checked the permissions for Owner/Group/Others)

How to change files/folders ownership

sudo chown system_username /location_of_files_or_folders

How to change files/folders group ownership

sudo chgrp system_groupname /location_of_files_or_folders

Hardware

How to install Graphics Driver (NVIDIA)

sudo apt-get install nvidia-glx
sudo apt-get install nvidia-settings
sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
sudo nvidia-glx-config enable
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/NVIDIA-Settings.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=NVIDIA Settings
Comment=NVIDIA Settings
Exec=nvidia-settings
Icon=
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;System;

How to load NVIDIA Settings in the background on GNOME Startup

  • System -> Preferences -> Sessions
  • Click on the Startup Programs tab
  • Click on +ADD
  • Enter this line in the Startup Command field
nvidia-settings --load-config-only

How to disable NVIDIA graphics logo on GNOME startup

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Find this section
...
Section "Device"
	Identifier	"NVIDIA Corporation NV11 [GeForce2 MX/MX 400]"
	Driver		"nvidia"
	BusID		"PCI:1:0:0"
...
  • Add the following line below it
   Option		"NoLogo"

How to install Graphics Driver (ATI)

How to identify Modem chipset

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/scanModem.gz
gunzip -c scanModem.gz > scanModem
chmod +x scanModem
sudo cp scanModem /usr/bin/
  • To identify Modem chipset
sudo scanModem
gedit Modem/ModemData.txt

How to install Modem Driver (SmartLink)

uname -r (must be 2.6.10-5-386)
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/sl-modem-modules-2.6.10-5-386_2.9.9a-1ubuntu2+2.6.10-34_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i sl-modem-modules-*.deb
sudo apt-get install sl-modem-daemon

How to configure PalmOS Devices

sudo gedit /etc/udev/rules.d/10-custom.rules
  • Insert the following line into the new file
BUS="usb", SYSFS{product}="Palm Handheld*", KERNEL="ttyUSB*", NAME{ignore_remove}="pilot", MODE="666"
  • Save the edited file
  • System -> Preferences -> PalmOS Devices
  • Follow the instructions on screen

How to list partition tables

sudo fdisk -l
  • You can also use System -> Administration -> Disks

How to list filesystem disk space usage

df -T -h
  • You can also use System -> Administration -> Disks

How to list mounted devices

mount

How to list PCI devices

lspci

How to list USB devices

lsusb

How to speed up CD/DVD-ROM

e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo hdparm -d1 /dev/cdrom
sudo cp /etc/hdparm.conf /etc/hdparm.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/hdparm.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
/dev/cdrom {
    dma = on
}
  • Save the edited file

How to mount/unmount CD/DVD-ROM manually, and show all hidden and associated files/folders

e.g. Assumed that /media/cdrom0/ is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
  • To mount CD/DVD-ROM
sudo mount /media/cdrom0/ -o unhide
  • To unmount CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /media/cdrom0/

How to forcefully unmount CD/DVD-ROM manually

e.g. Assumed that /media/cdrom0/ is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /media/cdrom0/ -l

How to remount /etc/fstab without rebooting

sudo mount -a


CD/DVD Burning

How to blank CD-RW/DVD-RW

e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /dev/cdrom
cdrecord dev=/dev/cdrom blank=fast

How to burn files/folders into CD/DVD

nautilus burn:///
  • File Browser: CD/DVD Creator
  • Drag files/folders into window
File Menu -> Write to Disc... -> Write

How to burn Image (ISO) files into CD/DVD

Right click on Image (ISO) file -> Write to Disc... -> Write

How to duplicate CD/DVD

How to create Image (ISO) files from CD/DVD

e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /dev/cdrom
dd if=/dev/cdrom of=file.iso bs=1024

How to create Image (ISO) files from folders

mkisofs -o file.iso /location_of_folder/

How to generate MD5 checksum files

md5sum file.iso > file.iso.md5

How to check MD5 checksum of files

e.g. Assumed that file.iso and file.iso.md5 are in the same folder
md5sum -c file.iso.md5

How to mount/unmount Image (ISO) files without burning

sudo mkdir /media/iso
sudo modprobe loop
sudo mount file.iso /media/iso/ -t iso9660 -o loop
  • To unmount Image (ISO) file
sudo umount /media/iso/

How to set/change the burn speed for CD/DVD Burner

  • Read #General Notes
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> default_speed (set/change the burn speed)

How to enable burnproof for CD/DVD Burner

  • Read #General Notes
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> burnproof (Checked)

How to enable overburn for CD/DVD Burner

  • Read #General Notes
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> overburn (Checked)

Networking

How to configure Google Talk

How to activate/deactivate network connections

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Networking
  • Network settings
Connections Tab -> Select "Ethernet connection" -> Activate/Deactivate

How to configure network connections

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Networking
  • Network settings
Connections Tab -> Select "Ethernet connection" -> Properties
Connection -> This device is configured (Checked)
Connection Settings -> Configuration: Select "DHCP/Static IP address"
DNS Tab -> DNS Servers -> Add/Delete

How to configure dialup connections

sudo pppconfig
  • To connect dialup
sudo pon provider_name
  • To disconnect dialup
sudo poff

How to configure broadband connections

sudo pppoeconf

How to change computer name

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Networking
  • Network settings
General Tab -> Host Settings -> Hostname: Specify the computer name 
  • Save and close all opened applications, Reboot computer

How to change computer descriptions

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
  server string = %h server (Samba, Ubuntu)
...
  • Replace with the following line
  server string = new_computer_descriptions
  • Save the edited file
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to change computer Domain/Workgroup

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
  workgroup = MSHOME
...
  • Replace with the following line
  workgroup = new_domain_or_workgroup
  • Save the edited file
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to assign Hostname to local machine with dynamic IP using free DynDNS service

e.g. Assumed that internet connections have been configured properly
Register free Dynamic DNS at https://www.dyndns.org
Automatically refresh IP in DynDNS Database/DNS every hour
* * * * * means minute hour date month year
sudo apt-get install ipcheck
sudo gedit /root/dyndns_update.sh
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
USERNAME=myusername
PASSWORD=mypassword
HOSTNAME=myhostname.dyndns.org
cd /root/
if [ -f /root/ipcheck.dat ]; then
 ipcheck -r checkip.dyndns.org:8245 $USERNAME $PASSWORD $HOSTNAME
else
 ipcheck --makedat -r checkip.dyndns.org:8245 $USERNAME $PASSWORD $HOSTNAME
fi
  • Save the edited file
sudo chmod 700 /root/dyndns_update.sh
sudo sh /root/dyndns_update.sh
export EDITOR=gedit && sudo crontab -e
  • Append the following line at the end of file
00 * * * * sudo sh /root/dyndns_update.sh
  • Save the edited file

How to share folders the easy way

Right click on folder -> Share folder
Shared folder -> Share with: Select "SMB"
Share properties -> Name: Specify the share name

How to browse network computers

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
If computers or network folders could not be found, try access them directly
Read #How to access network folders without mounting
  • Places -> Network Servers

How to access network folders without mounting

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Shared folder's name: linux
  • Applications -> Run Application...
  • Run Application
smb://192.168.0.1/linux

How to mount/unmount network folders manually, and allow all users to read

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
  • To mount network folder
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
sudo mount //192.168.0.1/linux /media/sharename/ -o username=myusername,password=mypassword
  • To unmount network folder
sudo umount /media/sharename/

How to mount/unmount network folders manually, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
  • To mount network folder
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
sudo mount //192.168.0.1/linux /media/sharename/ -o username=myusername,password=mypassword,dmask=777,fmask=777
  • To unmount network folder
sudo umount /media/sharename/

How to mount network folders on boot-up, and allow all users to read

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
sudo gedit /root/.smbcredentials
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
username=myusername
password=mypassword 
  • Save the edited file
sudo chmod 700 /root/.smbcredentials
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
sudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file
//192.168.0.1/linux    /media/sharename smbfs  credentials=/root/.smbcredentials    0    0

How to mount network folders on boot-up, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
sudo gedit /root/.smbcredentials
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
username=myusername
password=mypassword
  • Save the edited file
sudo chmod 700 /root/.smbcredentials
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
sudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file
//192.168.0.1/linux    /media/sharename smbfs  credentials=/root/.smbcredentials,dmask=777,fmask=777  0    0

How to get ipw2200 and wpa to work

How to Configure and start PPTP tunnels (VPN)

OR
  • Install manually
wget -c http://linux.edu.lv/uploads/content/pptp.tar.gz
tar zxvf pptp.tar.gz
sudo sh ./pptp/install
  • To configure PPTP Client
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/pptpconfig.desktop
  • Replace content of this file with the following lines
[Desktop Entry]
Name=PPTP Client
Comment=Configure and start PPTP tunnels (VPN)
Categories=Application;Network
Encoding=UTF-8
Exec=gksudo pptpconfig
Icon=gnome-remote-desktop.png
StartupNotify=true
Terminal=false
Type=Application
  • The above lines change the default file in three ways: the application is placed in the Application/Internet category, gksudo will make the application run as superuser and we put a nice icon that appears in the menu.
  • Start the client with Applications -> Internet -> PPTP Client

Remote Desktop

How to configure remote desktop (not secure)

Warning! Remote Desktop will only work if there's a GNOME login session
Leaving computer with an unattended GNOME login session is not secure
Use (System -> Lock Screen) and off the monitor when computer is left unattended
  • System -> Preferences -> Remote Desktop
  • Remote Desktop Preferences
Sharing ->
Allow other users to view your desktop (Checked)
Allow other users to control your desktop (Checked)
Security ->
Ask you for confirmation (Un-Checked)
Require the user to enter this password: (Checked)
Password: Specify the password

How to connect into remote Ubuntu desktop

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have configured Remote Desktop
Read #How to configure remote desktop (not secure)
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
vncviewer -fullscreen 192.168.0.1:0
  • To quit vncviewer
Press 'F8' -> Quit viewer

How to connect into remote Ubuntu desktop via Windows machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have configured Remote Desktop
Read #How to configure remote desktop (not secure)
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
  • Download VNC Viewer: Here


Windows

How to mount/unmount Windows partitions (NTFS) manually, and allow all users to read only


e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (NTFS)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
  • To mount Windows partition
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo mount /dev/hda1 /media/windows/ -t ntfs -o nls=utf8,umask=0222
  • To unmount Windows partition
sudo umount /media/windows/

How to mount/unmount Windows partitions (FAT) manually, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (FAT)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
  • To mount Windows partition
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo mount /dev/hda1 /media/windows/ -t vfat -o iocharset=utf8,umask=000
  • To unmount Windows partition
sudo umount /media/windows/

How to mount Windows partitions (NTFS) on boot-up, and allow all users to read only

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (NTFS)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
sudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file
/dev/hda1    /media/windows ntfs  nls=utf8,umask=0222 0    0

How to mount Windows partitions (FAT) on boot-up, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (FAT)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
sudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file
/dev/hda1    /media/windows vfat  iocharset=utf8,umask=000  0    0


Security

What are the basic things I need to know about securing my Ubuntu

  • Read #General Notes
  • Ensure hard drive is first in BIOS boot-up sequence
    • To prevent trespassers from using Linux Installation CD which allows them to gain root user access
    • To prevent trespassers from using Linux Live CD (e.g. UBUNTU/KNOPPIX/MEPIS) which allows them to destroy/browse/share the entire hard drive
    • To prevent trespassers from installing another Operating System
  • Ensure a password is set for BIOS
    • To prevent trespassers from changing the BIOS boot-up sequence
  • Ensure computer is located at a secured place
    • To prevent trespassers from removing computer's hard drive which allows them to destroy/browse/share the entire hard drive from a different computer
    • To prevent trespassers from removing computer's on-board battery which resets the BIOS password
  • Ensure passwords used on the system cannot be easily guessed
    • To prevent trespassers from cracking password file using brute force attacks (e.g. John the Ripper)
    • Create password with minimum length of 8 characters
    • Create password with mixture of characters/numbers, and upper/lower case
  • Ensure interactive editing control for GRUB menu is disabled
  • Ensure history listing is disabled in Console mode
  • Ensure Ctrl+Alt+Del is disabled in Console mode
  • Ensure interactive option is set for remove, copy and move of files/folders in Console mode
  • For day to day usage, login as a normal user
  • Disable root user account, use "sudo" instead
    • To reduce the amount of time spent with root privileges, and thus the risk of inadvertently executing a command as root
    • "sudo" provides a more useful audit trail (/var/log/auth.log)
    • Read #How to disable root user account
  • Install a Firewall
  • Perform vulnerability test

How to disable all interactive editing control for GRUB menu

grub
grub> md5crypt
Password: ****** (ubuntu)
Encrypted: $1$ZWnke0$1fzDBVjUcT1Mpdd4u/T961 (encrypted password)
grub> quit
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this section
...
## password ['--md5'] passwd
# If used in the first section of a menu file, disable all interactive editing
# control (menu entry editor and command-line) and entries protected by the
# command 'lock'
# e.g. password topsecret
#   password --md5 $1$gLhU0/$aW78kHK1QfV3P2b2znUoe/
# password topsecret
...
  • Add the following line below it
password --md5 $1$ZWnke0$1fzDBVjUcT1Mpdd4u/T961 (encrypted password above)
  • Find this section
...
title		Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (recovery mode)
root		(hd0,1)
kernel		/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro single
initrd		/boot/initrd.img-2.6.10-5-386
savedefault
boot
...
  • Replace with the following lines
#title		Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (recovery mode)
#root		(hd0,1)
#kernel		/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro single
#initrd		/boot/initrd.img-2.6.10-5-386
#savedefault
#boot
  • Save the edited file

How to disable history listing in Console mode

rm -f $HOME/.bash_history
touch $HOME/.bash_history
chmod 000 $HOME/.bash_history

How to disable Ctrl+Alt+Del from restarting computer in Console mode

sudo cp /etc/inittab /etc/inittab_backup
sudo gedit /etc/inittab
  • Find this line
...
ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -r now
...
  • Replace with the following line
#ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -r now
  • Save the edited file
sudo telinit q

How to enable prompt before removal/overwritten of files/folders in Console mode

sudo cp /etc/bash.bashrc /etc/bash.bashrc_backup
sudo gedit /etc/bash.bashrc
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
alias rm='rm -i'
alias cp='cp -i'
alias mv='mv -i'
  • Save the edited file


Rescue Mode

How to gain root user access without login

  • Read #General Notes
  • Easiest method (will not work if GRUB menu password is set)
    • Boot-up computer
    • If GRUB menu is hidden, press 'Esc' to enter the GRUB menu
    • Select
Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (recovery mode)

How to modify kernel boot-up arguments, to gain root user access

  • Read #General Notes
  • Boot-up computer
  • If GRUB menu is hidden, press 'Esc' to enter the GRUB menu
  • If GRUB password is set, press 'p' to unlock the GRUB menu
  • Select
Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386
  • Press 'e' to edit the commands before booting
  • Select
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro quiet splash
  • Press 'e' to edit the selected command in the boot sequence
  • Add "rw init=/bin/bash" to the end of the arguments
grub edit> kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro quiet splash rw init=/bin/bash
  • Press 'b' to boot

How to use Ubuntu Installation CD, to gain root user access

  • Read #General Notes
  • Boot-up computer into Ubuntu Installation CD
  • At "boot:" prompt, add "rescue" to the argument
boot: rescue
  • Follow the instructions on screen

How to change root user/main user password if forgotten

# passwd root
  • To change main user password
# passwd system_main_username

How to change GRUB menu password if forgotten

grub
grub> md5crypt
Password: ****** (ubuntu)
Encrypted: $1$ZWnke0$1fzDBVjUcT1Mpdd4u/T961 (encrypted password)
grub> quit
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this line
...
password --md5 $1$gLhU0/$aW78kHK1QfV3P2b2znUoe/
...
  • Replace with the following line
password --md5 $1$ZWnke0$1fzDBVjUcT1Mpdd4u/T961 (encrypted password above)
  • Save the edited file

How to restore GRUB menu after Windows installation

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda is the location of /boot partition
# grub-install /dev/hda

How to add Windows entry into GRUB menu

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
title		Microsoft Windows
root		(hd0,0)
savedefault
makeactive
chainloader	+1
  • Save the edited file

How to read Linux partitions (ext2, ext3) in Windows machine

OR

Tips & Tricks

How to restart GNOME without rebooting computer

Press 'Ctrl + Alt + Backspace'

or
sudo /etc/init.d/gdm restart

How to turn on Num Lock on GNOME startup

sudo apt-get install numlockx
sudo cp /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default_backup
sudo gedit /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default
  • Find this line
...
exit 0
  • Add the following lines above it
if [ -x /usr/bin/numlockx ]; then
 /usr/bin/numlockx on
fi

How to run programs on startup when login into GNOME

Startup Programs Tab -> Add/Edit/Delete

How to switch to Console mode in GNOME

Press 'Ctrl + Alt + F1' (F2 - F6)
  • To switch between consles in Console mode
Press 'Alt + F1' (F2 - F6)
  • To switch back to GNOME mode
Press 'Alt + F7'

How to disable Ctrl+Alt+Backspace from restarting X in GNOME

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
Section "ServerFlags"
	Option		"DontZap"		"yes"
EndSection

How to enable Ctrl+Alt+Del to open System Monitor in GNOME

gconftool-2 -t str --set /apps/metacity/global_keybindings/run_command_9 "<Control><Alt>Delete"
gconftool-2 -t str --set /apps/metacity/keybinding_commands/command_9 "gnome-system-monitor"

How to refresh GNOME desktop

killall nautilus

How to refresh GNOME panel

killall gnome-panel

How to open each folder in the same window in Nautilus

  • Read #General Notes
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> nautilus -> preferences -> always_use_browser (Checked)

How to enable autosave in Gedit and disable creation of some_file~ files

  • Read #General Notes
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> gedit-2 -> preferences -> editor -> save -> create_backup_copy (Unchecked)
/ -> apps -> gedit-2 -> preferences -> editor -> save -> auto_save (Checked)

How to show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus

  • Read #General Notes
  • Places -> Home Folder
  • To temporary show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus
Press 'Ctrl + H'
  • To permanently show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus
Edit Menu -> Preferences
Views Tab -> Default View -> Show hidden and backup files (Checked)

How to browse files/folders as root user in Nautilus

sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/Nautilus-root.desktop
    • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=File Browser (Root)
Comment=Browse the filesystem with the file manager
Exec=gksudo "nautilus --browser %U"
Icon=file-manager
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;System;
  • To browse files/folders as root user in Nautilus
    • Applications -> System Tools -> File Browser (Root)

How to show Desktop Icons (Computer, Home, Trash)

  • Read #General Notes
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> nautilus -> desktop ->
computer_icon_visible (Checked)
home_icon_visible (Checked)
trash_icon_visible (Checked)

How to change default file type "Open with" program

Right click on file -> Properties
Open With Tab -> Add
Select "Open with" program
Select "Open with" program (Checked)

How to change preferred email client to Mozilla Thunderbird

Mail Reader Tab -> Default Mail Reader -> Command: mozilla-thunderbird %s

How to open files as root user via right click

gedit $HOME/.gnome2/nautilus-scripts/Open\ as\ root
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
for uri in $NAUTILUS_SCRIPT_SELECTED_URIS; do
	gnome-sudo "gnome-open $uri" &
done
  • Save the edited file
chmod +x $HOME/.gnome2/nautilus-scripts/Open\ as\ root

Right click on file -> Scripts -> Open as root

How to disable beep sound in Terminal mode

  • Read #General Notes
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Terminal
  • Terminal
Edit Menu -> Current Profile...
General Tab -> General -> Terminal bell (Un-Checked)

How to load Web site faster in Mozilla Firefox

  • Read #General Notes
  • Applications -> Internet -> Firefox Web Browser
  • Mozilla Firefox
Address Bar -> about:config
Filter: ->
network.dns.disableIPv6 -> true
network.http.pipelining -> true
network.http.pipelining.maxrequests -> 8
network.http.proxy.pipelining -> true
  • Restart Mozilla Firefox

How to disable beep sound for link find function in Mozilla Firefox

  • Read #General Notes
  • Applications -> Internet -> Firefox Web Browser
  • Mozilla Firefox
Address Bar -> about:config
Filter: -> accessibility.typeaheadfind.enablesound -> false
  • Restart Mozilla Firefox


How to apt-get the easy way (Synaptic)

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Synaptic Package Manager
Synaptic Package Manager
  • To enable the extra Universe and Multiverse repositories
    1. Settings -> Repositories
    2. Click the Settings button
    3. Tick Show disabled software sources
    4. On the Repositories dialog box click Add. There are three separate repositories; Breezy Badger, Security Updates and Updates. Select each repository and check Officially supported, Restricted copyright, Community maintained (Universe) and Non-free (Multiverse). Ensure you click OK between each repository to save your changes
    5. You should now see checkboxes next to each repository, scroll through the list and ensure they are all checked
  • To add backports and PLF (new versions of many applications. Unsupported. May contain illegal packages. Use at own risk.)
    1. Settings -> Repositories
    2. Click on Add and then Custom
    3. Paste the following five lines into the box and Click Add Repository, one line at a time:
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://ubuntu-backports.mirrormax.net breezy-extras main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://packages.freecontrib.org/ubuntu/plf breezy free non-free
deb-src http://packages.freecontrib.org/ubuntu/plf breezy free non-free 
  • To refresh the list of known packages (equivalent to apt-get update)
Edit Menu -> Reload Package Information
  • To install all possible upgrades (equivalent to apt-get upgrade)
Edit Menu -> Mark All Upgrades... -> Default Upgrade
Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes
  • To search for a package (equivalent to apt-cache search package_name)
Edit Menu -> Search... Specify the package name
  • To install the selected package (equivalent to apt-get install package_name)
Select "package_name"
Package Menu -> Mark for Installation
Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes
  • To remove installed package (equivalent to apt-get remove package_name)
Select "package_name"
Package Menu -> Mark for Removal
Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes

What packages do the extra repositories provide

  • The PLF repository provides
    1. DVD playback support (libdvdcss2)
    2. Skype
    3. Sun Java SDK (Software Development Kit) and JRE (Java Runtime Environment)
    4. Opera Web browser
    5. RealPlayer 10
    6. Win32 binary multimedia codecs

How to install/uninstall .deb files

sudo dpkg -i package_file.deb
  • To uninstall .deb file
sudo dpkg -r package_name

How to convert .rpm files to .deb files

sudo alien package_file.rpm

How to rename all files in directory at once

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/mvb_1.6.tgz
sudo tar zxvf mvb_1.6.tgz -C /usr/share/
sudo chown -R root:root /usr/share/mvb_1.6/
sudo ln -fs /usr/share/mvb_1.6/mvb /usr/bin/mvb

  • To rename all files in directory at once
mvb NEW_NAME

How to manipulate all image files in directory at once

sudo apt-get install imagemagick
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/bbips.0.3.2.sh
sudo cp bbips.0.3.2.sh /usr/bin/bbips
sudo chmod 755 /usr/bin/bbips
  • To manipulate all image files in directory at once
bbips

How to set System-wide Environment Variables

sudo cp /etc/bash.bashrc /etc/bash.bashrc_backup
sudo gedit /etc/bash.bashrc
  • Append the System-wide Environment Variables at the end of file
  • Save the edited file

How to save "man" outputs into files

man command | col -b > file.txt

How to hide GRUB menu on boot-up

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst

  • Find this line
...
#hiddenmenu
...
  • Replace with the following line
hiddenmenu
  • Save the edited file

How to change the timeout seconds for GRUB menu on boot-up

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this line
...
timeout     3
...
  • Replace with the following line
timeout     X_seconds
  • Save the edited file

How to change default Operating System boot-up for GRUB menu

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this line
...
default     0
...
  • Replace with the following line
default     X_sequence
  • Save the edited file

How to display Splash Image for GRUB menu on boot-up

e.g. Assumed that hd0,1 is the location of Ubuntu boot partition
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/ubuntu.xpm.gz
chmod 644 ubuntu.xpm.gz
sudo mkdir /boot/grub/images
sudo cp ubuntu.xpm.gz /boot/grub/images/
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this section
# menu.lst - See: grub(8), info grub, update-grub(8)
#      grub-install(8), grub-floppy(8),
#      grub-md5-crypt, /usr/share/doc/grub
#      and /usr/share/doc/grub-doc/.
...
  • Add the following line below it
splashimage (hd0,1)/boot/grub/images/ubuntu.xpm.gz
  • Save the edited file

How to convert Wallpaper to Splash Image for GRUB menu

e.g. Assumed that wallpaper.png is the Wallpaper to be converted to Splash Image
splashimage.xpm.gz is the Splash Image for GRUB menu
convert -resize 640x480 -colors 14 wallpaper.png splashimage.xpm && gzip splashimage.xpm

How to temporary skip boot-up services

Press 'Ctrl + C'

How to permanently disable/enable boot-up services

How to clean /tmp/ folder contents on shutdown

sudo cp /etc/init.d/sysklogd /etc/init.d/sysklogd_backup
sudo gedit /etc/init.d/sysklogd
  • Find this section
...
 stop)
  log_begin_msg "Stopping system log daemon..."
  start-stop-daemon --stop --quiet --oknodo --exec $binpath --pidfile $pidfile
  log_end_msg $?
...
  • Add the following line below it
  rm -fr /tmp/* /tmp/.??*
  • Save the edited file

How to scroll up and down to view previous outputs in Console mode

Press 'Shift + Page Up'
  • To scroll down to view previously outputs
Press 'Shift + Page Down'


How to set up automatic background change (GNOME)

mkdir ~/.backgrounds
cd ~/.backgrounds
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/change_background.py
chmod +x change_background.py
  • To change desktop background every time you reboot your computer
export EDITOR=gedit && crontab -e
  • Add the following line at the end of file
@reboot ~/.backgrounds/change_background.py
For more information about periodic processes see
man 5 crontab

How to set up automatic background change (KDE)

  • Go to K-menu -> System Settings -> Desktop -> Background
  • Choose Slide Show
  • Press Setup...
  • Press Add... to add pictures you wish to see as desktop background
  • Set 'Change picture after' to desired picture rotation interval.
  • Press 'OK'


How to add keyboard layouts for other languages

  • Go to System -> Preferences -> Keyboard
  • Choose Layouts
  • Press Add... to add the secondary keyboard layout. It is simpler to have two layouts; the maximum is currently four for Xorg.
  • Choose Layout Options
  • Expand option Group Shift/Lock behaviour
  • Choose the key combination that enables you to switch between keyboard layouts. The default is by pressing both Alt keys at the same time. A common alternative is to use Alt+Shift.
  • Press Close.

See #How to add the Keyboard (Layout) Indicator applet to add the Keyboard Indicator applet.


How to add the Keyboard (Layout) Indicator applet

  • Right-click on empty space on the top panel so that you see the pop-up menu.
  • Click Add to Panel...
  • Choose Keyboard Indicator (it is under the Utilities section, at the end)

The Keyboard Indicator applet appears on the panel. The default language should be USA for U.S. English. You can either right-click on this applet for more options or see above on how to configure.


How to type extended characters

  • Add the keyboard layout US English International (with dead keys)
  • Make US English International (with dead keys) the default keyboard layout.

The key marked ['"] is now a dead key. When you press it, nothing happens. However if you press a consonant immediately afterwards, the consonant appears with an accent.

  • ' + a = á
  • ' + e = é
  • and so on for i-í, o-ó, y-ý, c-ć, z-ź, n-ń, l-ĺ, u-ú, r-ŕ
  • " + a = ä
  • " + e = ë
  • and so on for y-ÿ, u-ü, i-ï, o-ö

Similarly, ` and a consonant generates à, è, ù, ì, ò. Similarly, ~ and a consonant generates ã, ũ, ĩ, õ, ñ.

To type ' and ", press RightAlt+' and RightAlt+" respectively. To type ' and ", you may also press '+<space> and "+<space> respectively.

There are more characters available by keeping RightAlt pressed and typing a character. Therefore,

  • RightAlt+q = ä
  • RightAlt+w = å
  • RightAlt+e = é
  • RightAlt+r = ®
  • RightAlt+t = þ
  • RightAlt+y = ü
  • RightAlt+u = ú
  • RightAlt+i = í
  • RightAlt+o = ó
  • RightAlt+p = ö
  • RightAlt+[ and ] for « and » respectively.
  • RightAlt+a = á
  • RightAlt+s = ß
  • RightAlt+d = ð
  • RightAlt+l = ø
  • RightAlt+; = ¶
  • RightAlt+: = °
  • RightAlt+z = æ
  • RightAlt+c = ©
  • RightAlt+n = ñ
  • RightAlt+m = µ
  • RightAlt+, = ç
  • RightAlt+/ = ¿
  • RightAlt+1 = ¡
  • RightAlt+2 = ²
  • RightAlt+3 = ³
  • RightAlt+4 = ¤
  • RightAlt+5 = €
  • RightAlt+6 = ¼
  • RightAlt+7 = ½
  • RightAlt+8 = ¾
  • RightAlt+9 = ‘
  • RightAlt+0 = ’
  • RightAlt+- = ¥
  • RightAlt+= = ×
  • RightAlt+! = ¹
  • RightAlt+@, then o = ő (and Ő).
  • RightAlt+#, then a = ā (and Ā). Similarly for ēĒ, ūŪ, īĪ, ōŌ.
  • RightAlt+$ = £
  • RightAlt+% =
  • RightAlt+^ =
  • RightAlt+& =
  • RightAlt+*, then a = ą (and Ą). Similarly for ęĘ, įĮ.
  • RightAlt+(, then a = ă (and Ă)
  • RightAlt+(, then g = ğ (and Ğ)
  • RightAlt+), then a = å (and Å)
  • RightAlt+_ =
  • RightAlt++ = ÷

AntiVirus Server

How to install ClamAV AntiVirus Server

sudo apt-get install clamav

How to manually update virus databases

sudo freshclam

How to manually scan files/folders for viruses

sudo clamscan -r /location_of_files_or_folders

How to automatically scan files/folders for viruses

e.g. Automatically scan files/folders for viruses at midnight everyday
* * * * * means minute hour date month year
export EDITOR=gedit &&  sudo crontab -e
  • Append the following line at the end of file
00 00 * * *  sudo clamscan -r /location_of_files_or_folders
  • Save the edited file

Samba Server

How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service

sudo apt-get install samba
sudo apt-get install smbfs

How to add/edit/delete network users

sudo smbpasswd -a system_username
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smbusers
    • Insert the following line into the new file
system_username = "network username"
    • Save the edited file
  • To edit network user
sudo smbpasswd -a system_username
  • To delete network user
sudo smbpasswd -x system_username

How to share home folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share home folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Find this section
...
# By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change next
# parameter to 'yes' if you want to be able to write to them.
  writable = no
...
  • Replace with the following lines
# By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change next
# parameter to 'yes' if you want to be able to write to them.
  writable = yes
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share group folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)

sudo mkdir /home/group
sudo chmod 777 /home/group/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
 security = user
 username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[Group]
  comment = Group Folder
  path = /home/group
  public = yes
  writable = no
  valid users = system_username1 system_username2
  create mask = 0700
  directory mask = 0700
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup

sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share group folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)


sudo mkdir /home/group
sudo chmod 777 /home/group/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[Group]
  comment = Group Folder
  path = /home/group
  public = yes
  writable = yes
  valid users = system_username1 system_username2
  create mask = 0700
  directory mask = 0700
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)


sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user 
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = no
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)

sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = yes
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody 
  force group = nogroup
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read only permission (Authentication=No)

sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following line
  security = share
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = no
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup
  • Save the edited file
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=No)

sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following line
  security = share
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = yes
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup

  • Save the edited file
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart


SSH Server

How to install SSH Server for remote administration service

sudo apt-get install ssh

How to SSH into remote Ubuntu machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
ssh username@192.168.0.1

How to copy files/folders from remote Ubuntu machine into local machine (scp)

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote files/folders location: /home/username/remotefile.txt
Local machine save location: . (current directory)
scp -r username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/remotefile.txt .

How to copy files/folders from local machine into remote Ubuntu machine (scp)

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Local files/folders location: localfile.txt
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote Ubuntu machine save location: /home/username/
scp -r localfile.txt username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/

How to copy files/folders from remote Ubuntu machine into local machine (rsync)

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote files/folders location: /home/username/remotefile.txt
Local machine save location: . (current directory)
rsync -v -u -a --delete --rsh=ssh --stats username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/remotefile.txt .

How to copy files/folders from local machine into remote Ubuntu machine (rsync)

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Local files/folders location: localfile.txt
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote Ubuntu machine save location: /home/username/
rsync -v -u -a --delete --rsh=ssh --stats localfile.txt username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/


How to SSH into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
  • Download PuTTY: Here


How to copy files/folders from/into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
  • Download FileZilla: Here

How to limit the user accounts that can connect through ssh remotely

e.g. If you enable the SSH server, then any user with a valid account can connect remotely
This can lead to security risks, as there exist remote password cracking tools that
try common username/password pairs.
  • Keep a backup of the ssh server configuration file with

sudo cp /etc/ssh/sshd_config /etc/ssh/sshd_config.ORIGINAL

  • Edit the configuration file

sudo gedit /etc/ssh/sshd_config

  • Change the parameter PermitRootLogin from yes to no. The superuser must not be able to connect directly from remote.
  • Add the parameter AllowUsers and specify the usernames (space separated) that can connect remotely.
  • You can also use DenyUsers for fine-grained selection of users.
  • If you enable the openssh server and you have no intention for now to enable remote connections, you may add AllowUsers nosuchuserhere to disable anyone connecting.

DHCP Server

How to install DHCP Server for automatic IP addresses assignment

e.g. Assumed that "eth0" is the interface for network card
IP Address Range: 192.168.0.100 to 192.168.0.200
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
DNS Servers: 202.188.0.133, 202.188.1.5
Domains: tm.net.my
Gateway Address: 192.168.0.1
sudo apt-get install dhcp3-server
sudo cp /etc/default/dhcp3-server /etc/default/dhcp3-server_backup
sudo gedit /etc/default/dhcp3-server
  • Find this line
...
INTERFACES=""
  • Replace with the following line
INTERFACES="eth0"
  • Save the edited file
sudo cp /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf
  • Find this section
...
# option definitions common to all supported networks...
option domain-name "example.org";
option domain-name-servers ns1.example.org, ns2.example.org;
default-lease-time 600;
max-lease-time 7200;
...
  • Replace with the following lines
# option definitions common to all supported networks...
#option domain-name "example.org";
#option domain-name-servers ns1.example.org, ns2.example.org;
#default-lease-time 600;
#max-lease-time 7200;
  • Find this section
...
# A slightly different configuration for an internal subnet.
#subnet 10.5.5.0 netmask 255.255.255.224 {
# range 10.5.5.26 10.5.5.30;
# option domain-name-servers ns1.internal.example.org;
# option domain-name "internal.example.org";
# option routers 10.5.5.1;
# option broadcast-address 10.5.5.31;
# default-lease-time 600;
# max-lease-time 7200;
#}
...
  • Replace with the following lines
# A slightly different configuration for an internal subnet.
subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
 range 192.168.0.100 192.168.0.200;
 option domain-name-servers 202.188.0.133, 202.188.1.5;
 option domain-name "tm.net.my";
 option routers 192.168.0.1;
 option broadcast-address 192.168.0.255;
 default-lease-time 600;
 max-lease-time 7200;
}
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/dhcp3-server restart


Database Server

How to install MYSQL Database Server

sudo apt-get install mysql-server
mysqladmin -u root password db_user_password

How to install MYSQL Administrator

sudo apt-get install mysql-admin

Apache HTTP Server

How to install Apache HTTP Server for HTTP (Web) Server service

sudo apt-get install apache2

How to install PHP for Apache HTTP Server

sudo apt-get install php4
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
sudo gedit /var/www/testphp.php
  • Insert the following line into the new file
<?php phpinfo(); ?>

How to install MYSQL for Apache HTTP Server

sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-auth-mysql
sudo apt-get install php4-mysql
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

How to map URLs to folders outside /var/www/

sudo gedit /etc/apache2/conf.d/alias
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
Alias /URL-path /location_of_folder/
<Directory /location_of_folder/>
  Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
  AllowOverride All
  Order allow,deny
  Allow from all
</Directory>
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

How to change the default port number for Apache HTTP Server

e.g. Assumed that new port number is 78
sudo cp /etc/apache2/ports.conf /etc/apache2/ports.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/apache2/ports.conf
  • Find this line
Listen 80
  • Replace with the following line
Listen 78
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

How to parse RSS into PHP for Apache HTTP Server

e.g. Assumed that RSS is DistroWatch.com - News
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/magpierss-0.71.1.tar.gz
sudo mkdir /var/www/feeds
sudo tar zxvf magpierss-0.71.1.tar.gz -C /var/www/feeds/
sudo mv /var/www/feeds/magpierss-0.71.1/* /var/www/feeds/
sudo rm -fr /var/www/feeds/magpierss-0.71.1/
sudo chown -R www-data:root /var/www/feeds/
sudo gedit /var/www/feeds/index.php
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
 <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
 
 <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" lang="en" xml:lang="en">
 
 <head>
 
 <title>DistroWatch.com - News</title>
 
 <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1"/>
 
 <style type="text/css">
 /*<![CDATA[*/
 /* 
 DEFAULT TAG STYLES
 */
 
 body {
  background: #ffffff;
  margin-left: 20px;
  font-family: bitstream vera sans,sans-serif;
  font-size: 9pt;
 }
 
 h1 {
  font-family: luxi sans,sans-serif;
  font-size: 15pt;
 }
 
 /*]]>*/
 </style>
 
 </head>
  
 <body>
 
 <?php

 require_once 'rss_fetch.inc';
 error_reporting(E_ERROR);
 
 $url = 'http://distrowatch.com/news/dw.xml';
 $rss = fetch_rss($url);
 
 if ($rss) {
 
  echo "<h1>";
  echo "<a href=$url>", $rss->channel[title], "</a><br/>";
  echo "</h1>";
 
  foreach ($rss->items as $item ) {
   $url = $item[link];
   $title = $item[title];
   $description = $item[description];
   echo "<li>";
   echo "<b>Topic:</b> <a href=$url><b><u>$title</u></b></a><br/><br/>";
   echo "$description<br/><br/>";
   echo "</li>";
  }
 
 }
 else {
  echo "<a href=$url>", $url, "</a> - Server Down!<br/>";
 }
 
 ?>
 
 </body>
 
 </html>
 

FTP Server

How to install FTP Server for File Transfer service

sudo apt-get install proftpd

How to configure FTP user to be "jailed" (chrooted) into their home directory

sudo cp /etc/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/proftpd.conf
  • Find this section
...
DenyFilter           \*.*/
...
  • Add the following line below it
DefaultRoot           ~

  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to configure FTP Server to allow anonymous FTP user to read only

sudo cp /etc/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/proftpd.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
<Anonymous ~ftp>
 User            ftp
 Group            nogroup
 UserAlias          anonymous ftp
 DirFakeUser on ftp
 DirFakeGroup on ftp
 RequireValidShell      off
 MaxClients         10
 DisplayLogin        welcome.msg
 DisplayFirstChdir      .message
 <Directory *>
  <Limit WRITE>
   DenyAll
  </Limit>
 </Directory>
</Anonymous>
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to configure FTP Server to allow anonymous FTP user to read/write

sudo cp /etc/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/proftpd.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
<Anonymous ~ftp>
 User            ftp
 Group            nogroup
 UserAlias          anonymous ftp
 DirFakeUser on ftp
 DirFakeGroup on ftp
 RequireValidShell      off
 MaxClients         10
 DisplayLogin        welcome.msg
 DisplayFirstChdir      .message
</Anonymous>
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to map anonymous FTP user to folders outside /home/ftp/

sudo cp /etc/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/proftpd.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
<Anonymous /location_of_folder/>
 User            ftp
 Group            nogroup
 UserAlias          anonymous ftp
 DirFakeUser on ftp
 DirFakeGroup on ftp
 RequireValidShell      off
 MaxClients         10
 DisplayLogin        welcome.msg
 DisplayFirstChdir      .message
 <Directory *>
  <Limit WRITE>
   DenyAll
  </Limit>
 </Directory>
</Anonymous>
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to change the default port number for FTP Server

e.g. Assumed that new port number is 77
sudo cp /etc/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/proftpd.conf
  • Find this line
Port              21
  • Replace with the following line
Port              77
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to ftp into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed FTP Server service
Read #How to install FTP Server for File Transfer service
  • Download FileZilla: Here

Streaming Media Server

How to install GNUMP3d for Streaming Media Server service

e.g. /var/music/ is the directory containing multimedia files
sudo apt-get install gnump3d

How to change the default directory containing multimedia files for GNUMP3d

e.g. Assumed that new directory containing multimedia files is /home/music/
sudo cp /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf
  • Find this line
root = /var/music
  • Replace with the following line
root = /home/music
  • Find this line
user = gnump3d
  • Replace with the following line
user = root
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/gnump3d restart

How to change the default port number for GNUMP3d

e.g. Assumed that new port number is 7878
sudo cp /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf
  • Find this line
port = 8888
  • Replace with the following line
port = 7878
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/gnump3d restart


Image Gallery Server

How to install Gallery for Image Gallery Server service

sudo apt-get install gallery (when prompted to restart Apache, choose No or Cancel)
sudo apt-get install imagemagick
sudo apt-get install jhead
sudo apt-get install libjpeg-progs
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
sudo sh /usr/share/gallery/configure.sh
Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 1
Next Step ->
Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 2
General settings Tab ->
Admin password: Specify the password

Locations and URLs Tab ->
Album directory: /var/www/albums/
Temporary directory: /tmp/
Gallery URL: http://localhost/gallery
Albums URL: http://localhost/albums
Next Step -->
Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 3
Next Step -->
Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 4
Save Config ->

How to configure Gallery to be accessible via Internet (Hostname or fix IP) or LAN (fix IP)

e.g. Assumed that network and internet connections have been configured properly
Internet (Hostname or fix IP) or LAN (fix IP): http://www.url.com
sudo cp /etc/gallery/config.php /etc/gallery/config.php_backup
sudo gedit /etc/gallery/config.php
  • Find this section
...
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "http://localhost/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "http://localhost/albums";
...
  • Replace with the following lines
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "http://www.url.com/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "http://www.url.com/albums";

How to configure Gallery to be accessible via LAN (dynamic IP)

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
LAN (dynamic IP): 192.168.0.1
sudo cp /etc/gallery/config.php /etc/gallery/config.php_backup
sudo gedit /etc/gallery/config.php
  • Find this section
...
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "http://localhost/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "http://localhost/albums";
...
  • Replace with the following lines
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "/albums";

How to backup/restore Gallery data

sudo tar zcvf gallery.tgz /var/www/albums/ /etc/gallery/
  • To restore Gallery data
sudo tar zxvf gallery.tgz -C /


Troubleshooting

Configuring network interfaces... (taking too long to load)

Synchronizing clock to ntp.ubuntulinux.org... (taking too long to load)

service_name = ntpdate

How to disable system time/date from being reset to UTC (GMT)

sudo cp /etc/default/rcS /etc/default/rcS_backup
sudo gedit /etc/default/rcS
  • Find this line
...
UTC=yes
...
  • Replace with the following line
UTC=no
  • Save the edited file
  • System -> Administration -> Time and Date
Set the correct time/date
sudo /etc/init.d/hwclock.sh restart

How to configure sound to work properly in GNOME

sudo killall esd
sudo cp /etc/esound/esd.conf /etc/esound/esd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/esound/esd.conf
  • Find this section
...
auto_spawn=0
spawn_options=-terminate -nobeeps -as 5
...
  • Replace with the following lines
auto_spawn=1
spawn_options=-terminate -nobeeps -as 2 -d default
  • Save the edited file
sudo apt-get install libesd-alsa0
sudo gedit /etc/asound.conf
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
pcm.card0 {
type hw
card 0
}

pcm.!default {
type plug
slave.pcm "dmixer"
}

pcm.dmixer {
type dmix
ipc_key 1025
slave {
pcm "hw:0,0"
period_time 0
period_size 2048
buffer_size 32768
rate 48000
}
bindings {
0 0
1 1
}
}
  • Save the edited file
sudo ln -fs /usr/lib/libesd.so.0 /usr/lib/libesd.so.1
System -> Preferences -> Sound
Sound preferences
General Tab -> Sounds for events (Un-Checked)
  • Save and close all opened applications, Reboot computer

How to forcefully empty Trash in GNOME

sudo rm -fr $HOME/.Trash/

How to remove duplicate menu/menu items in GNOME

rm -f $HOME/.config/menus/applications.menu

How to refresh Places menu in GNOME (if mounts to /media/ in /etc/fstab does not show up)

sudo /etc/init.d/dbus-1 restart


Upgrading Ubuntu

How to upgrade from Breezy Badger to Dapper Drake (experimental)

Warning! This is still in it's development stage. Only use it for experimental purposes
Doing this might break your entire system
sudo cp /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list_backup
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Replace everything with the following lines
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper main restricted
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper main restricted

## Major bug fix updates produced after the final release of the
## distribution.
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-updates main restricted
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-updates main restricted

## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from the 'universe'
## repository.
## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu
## team, and may not be under a free licence. Please satisfy yourself as to
## your rights to use the software. Also, please note that software in
## universe WILL NOT receive any review or updates from the Ubuntu security
## team.
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper universe
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper universe

## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from the 'backports'
## repository.
## N.B. software from this repository may not have been tested as
## extensively as that contained in the main release, although it includes
## newer versions of some applications which may provide useful features.
## Also, please note that software in backports WILL NOT receive any review
## or updates from the Ubuntu security team.
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-backports main restricted universe multiverse

deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-security main restricted
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-security main restricted

deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-security universe
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-security universe
 
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper multiverse
 
## Backports
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-backports main restricted universe multiverse
  • Save the edited file
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
  • Save and close all opened applications, Reboot computer

Removed Topics

  • Topics that have been removed from this guide can be found here
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