Ubuntu:Gutsy

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Ubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy Gibbon)

This guide is maintained at the Linux Center of the University of Latvia.
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Introduction

Ubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy Gibbon) was released on Oct 18th, 2007 and is no longer supported. It is recommended to upgrade to the current version of Ubuntu.

This guide can be discussed at the official UbuntuGuide.org Forum at ubuntuforums.org. Stop by and join the discussion.

If you have any suggestions for new tips discuss them at Talk page


Contents


About Gutsy

  • On October 18, 2007 Ubuntu 7.10 was released.
  • It was code named Gutsy Gibbon and is the successor to Ubuntu 7.04 Feisty Fawn (Feisty+1 or the very next release after Feisty)
  • Gutsy will be supported for 18 months on both desktops and servers.
  • Users requiring a longer support lifetime on servers may choose to continue using Ubuntu 6.06 LTS, with security support until 2011, rather than upgrade to or install 7.10.

How to find out what version of Ubuntu you're using

  • Read #General Notes
  • In Gutsy goto System -> Administration -> System Monitor -> System Tab

or on all versions and derivatives of Ubuntu use this command:

lsb_release -a

Other Versions of Ubuntu

Ubuntu uses a six month release cycle. These releases occur in April and October.

If you are using an outdated version of Ubuntu, you should consider updating it to the current version of Ubuntu. There have been considerable improvements. If everything works perfectly for you, you may wish to stay with a Long-Term Support (LTS) version. To upgrade an outdated version or update your current version, read #Updates and Upgrades. Also see the Ubuntu Upgrade Page.

General Notes

  • This is an Unofficial Ubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy Gibbon) Starter Guide. It is neither associated with Ubuntu nor with Canonical Ltd.
  • This guide can be discussed at the official UbuntuGuide.org Forum at ubuntuforums.org. Stop by and join the discussion.
  • If you see a bluish box, this means you have to execute the commands in Terminal mode (Applications -> Accesories -> Terminal) or use the content of that box as mentioned in some other instructions.
  • To reduce typo mistakes, copy and paste the commands into Terminal mode (right click on the commands -> "Copy" or "Paste". You can also use Ctrl+C to copy and Shift+Insert to paste it)
  • "sudo" means "substitute user do". Sudo will prompt for your "Password:". Please specify your user password. You could for example substitute for another user on your system—eg sudo -u peter <command> would run a command as user peter on your system.
  • If you want more information about any command, simply look at the manual page for it using the "man" command. For example, "man sudo" will display the manual page for the "sudo" command.
  • If you are tired of typing "apt-get" all the time, use the synaptic package manager, a front end to apt-get.
  • "apt-get" and "wget" require an internet connection to install/update/download programs
  • All references to "aptitude" will be replaced with "apt-get". You may still use "aptitude" if you wish, however this could cause dependency issues.
  • To download a file, right click on the link -> Select "Save Link As..." -> Make sure file name and extension are correct
  • If you wish to help translating Ubuntu to your native language or to help Ubuntu otherwise visit https://launchpad.net/
  • May the "humanity to others" spirit be with you always...
  • Read Introduction to Gutsy Gibbon from April 2007
If you are using 64-bit version replace any "i386" with "amd64"

External Link Declaration

Some articles in this guide include external links. This has the advantage of keeping this guide shorter while providing quality howto's, instructions, screenshots, videos, guides, etc. However, Ubuntuguide.org cannot do a quality check on each link. Sometimes the links will go "dead" or provide misinformation or change their content. Be aware that once you leave Ubuntuguide.org, that we cannot be held responsible for any information at those links. If you find a dead link or misinformation at one of the links please post the link here and the section of the guide it is found in. Or if you have time and want to be a really good person, fix the link for us by editing the guide. Thank you!!!

Report a Dead or Misinformative Link

If you find a "Dead Link" or a "Misinformative Link" please post it here along with the section you found it in. Thank you!

http://www.ubuntu-nl.org/source-o-matic/

In: How to manually update Ubuntu

About Ubuntu and Official Ubuntu Derivatives

Ubuntu 7.10 Guides and Links


Ubuntu Screenshots

Ubuntu 7.10 Screenshots Gallery

Kubuntu 7.10 Guides and Links

Kubuntu Screenshots

Kubuntu 7.10 Screenshots Gallery

Xubuntu 7.10 Guides and Links

Xubuntu Screenshots

Xubuntu 7.10 Screenshots Gallery

Edubuntu 7.10 Guides and Links

Offical Edubuntu Website Wikipedia: Edubuntu

Gobuntu 7.10 Guides and Links

Wikipedia: Gobuntu

Translation and localization

Chinese, Japanese, Portuguese and most European languages have better support in Ubuntu than any other languages. If your language does not have enough support, then you can help Ubuntu by translating it in your preferred language. To translate, visit https://translations.launchpad.net/ubuntu and login (register if not already registered). Choose your preferred language and start translating.

Updates and Upgrades and Installing Software

How to add extra repositories

Menu Method for Adding Repositories

  • Choose distribution-friendly repositories. These are part of the Ubuntu distribution system. This is the recommended method.
System-->Administration-->Software Sources

Check the repositories you think you will need (main, universe, restricted, multiverse). You probably won't need the 'sources' repository.

  • Add any third-party repositories. Such repositories are not monitored in any way. Some are quite popular, however. Use any third-party repository at your own risk.
System-->Administration-->Software Sources-->Third-party software-->Add

Add the name of your repository. In this example, we will use Medibuntu, a popular third-party repository not affiliated with Ubuntu in any way.

APT line: deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ gutsy free non-free
  • Download any needed gpg keys and add them to the keylist. This key verifies the repository to your system. The Medibuntu repository (not affiliated with Ubuntu) example is shown:
wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -

Manual Method for Adding Repositories

  • Create a backup of your current list of sources.
sudo cp -p /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list_backup
  • Open the list of sources in a text editor

Ubuntu users:

sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Replace everything with the following lines
To use your local mirror you can add "cc." before archive.ubuntu.com (cc = your country code)
e.g. deb http://lv.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy main restricted
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy main restricted

## Major bug fix updates produced after the final release of the
## distribution.

deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates main restricted
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates main restricted

##Universe

deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy universe
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy universe
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates universe
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates universe

## Multiverse

deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy multiverse
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy multiverse
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates multiverse
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-updates multiverse

## Backports

deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-backports main restricted universe multiverse

## Canonical Partner Repository 

deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu gutsy partner
deb-src http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu gutsy partner
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security main restricted
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security main restricted
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security universe
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security universe
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security multiverse
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu gutsy-security multiverse

## PLF REPOSITORY (Unsupported.  May contain illegal packages.  Use at own risk.)
deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ gutsy free non-free
  • Save the edited file
wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
sudo apt-get update

How to Upgrade from Feisty to Gutsy

How to edit Automatic Updates

  • Enable automatic updates from the menu:
System-->Administration-->Software Sources-->Updates

Select Important Security Updates and Recommended Security Updates and any other desired updates. Choose frequency of updates.

How to manually update Ubuntu

  • From the command line:

use http://www.ubuntu-nl.org/source-o-matic/ page to generate the /etc/apt/sources.list file

take a backup of your existing /etc/apt/sources.list file

create a new /etc/apt/sources.list file from the generated page available on the browser

now run the following commands

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
  • From the menu:
System -> Administration -> Update Manager

Note: For those using aptitude instead of apt-get, the upgrade and dist-upgrade options have been deprecated in favour of safe-upgrade and full-upgrade, respectively. --Sentientfluid 21:25, 11 January 2008 (EET)

Add-on Applications

Home Automation / Home Theater /Home Security

Complete Systems

Linux MCE

LinuxMCE is an integrated home theater/security camera and motion detector/home automation/telephone PBX/intercom system for your home. It is a community project that is a fork of the Linux Pluto commercial endeavour. There is a version that runs on Kubuntu 7.04 (Feisty) and a version for Kubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy). LinuxMCE can run either as a standalone system on a single PC, or as a network of multimedia PCs within the home (one of which runs as a "Core" server). A large number of multimedia devices can be integrated into the system. For more info see the LinuxMCE website.

To install LinuxMCE on a single PC or on a central Core server, the DVD installation is recommended (preferably on an empty computer with an Nvidia graphics card (6000, 7000, or 8000 series)). The disk will install the Kubuntu OS as well as the LinuxMCE system.

LinuxMCE can be installed as an add-on package to an existing Kubuntu system. To do this, the LinuxMCE 2 CD installation is recommended. A Kubuntu LiveCD is also needed for installation, even if you already have a full Kubuntu installation in place. (The LinuxMCE installation uses the Kubuntu LiveCD for additional modules.) The LinuxMCE version must match the Kubuntu version -- i.e. the LinuxMCE 710 version CDs require the Kubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy) Live CD.

With the 2 CD installation, it is possible to run Kubuntu separately from LinuxMCE on the same PC. In a network of multimedia PCs, however, it is recommended to dedicate at least one PC to function as a LinuxMCE core server.

LinuxMCE incorporates MythTV, Pluto home automation, Motion security surveillance, Asterisk PBX, VDR video disk recorder, and other home automation/security/theater packages in an integrated platform.

At this time, the automatic installer for Linux MCE uses the KDE desktop (Kubuntu). There are users that have made Linux MCE work with the Gnome desktop (Ubuntu), but it is recommended to stick with the automatic installation instructions for now.

PVR (Personal Video Recorder)

Mythbuntu

Mythbuntu is an Ubuntu-based derivative (based on the Xubuntu (XFCE) desktop) that is meant to function as a standalone PVR, based on MythTV. It can be used, however, with a Gnome (Ubuntu), KDE (Kubuntu) or XFCE (Xubuntu) desktop, which can be added at any later time.

Home Security

Install Zoneminder surveillance system

Zoneminder manages surveillance cameras and stores images on the hard disk. Images can be viewed using a (LAMP) server remotely. X10 devices can be triggered using built-in perl scripts. For more info see the Zoneminder website.

There is a package for Gutsy in the universe repository. If you enable the universe repository, you should be able to install the package from Synaptic Package Manager.

If that does not work, try the instructions that worked for Feisty:

  • You must have the LAMP server installed. In addition, you will need additional modules:
sudo apt-get install ffmpeg libarchive-tar-perl libarchive-zip-perl libdate-manip-perl libdevice-serialport-perl
sudo apt-get install libjpeg62 libmime-perl libstdc++6 libunwind7 libwww-perl zlib1g
  • Download the .deb package from the package manager's website:

ftp://www.northern-ridge.com.au/zoneminder/ubuntu/edgy/zoneminder_1.22.3-8_i386.deb

  • Install using the Debian package manager. (No other method seems to work.)
dpkg -i zoneminder_1.22.3-8_i386.deb
  • (Note: If some dependencies are still unsatisfied, make sure you have these packages installed):
sudo apt-get install libc6 libc6.1 libgcc1 libgcc4 libstdc++6
(These should already be installed as part of the LAMP installation):
sudo apt-get install apache2-mpm-prefork libapache2-mod-php5 libmysqlclient15off mysql-client mysql-server php5  php5-mysql

If your installation is successful, you will now need to set up the configuration files and databases for Zoneminder.

  • Copy the configuration file and restart the Apache2 server.
sudo ln -s /etc/zm/apache.conf /etc/apache2/conf.d/zoneminder.conf
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 reload
  • View Zoneminder from your web browser:
http://localhost/zm
  • Set up a MySQL database for Zoneminder
If this is the first time you have used MySQL, the default global MySQL superuser root will not have a password. You should set one now. Instructions for setting mySQL initial privileges are here.
In short:
mysql -u root
mysql> UPDATE mysql.user SET Password=PASSWORD('your_new_password') WHERE User='root';
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
mysql> quit
In addition, you can set up an additional global MySQL user (such as mysql_user, for example) by following the instructions here. That way you can reserve root login for emergencies.
In short:
mysql -u root
mysql> CREATE USER 'mysql_user'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'mysql_user_passwd';
mysql> quit

Now you must create a MySQL database for use by Zoneminder. This is an administrative MySQL command, so you must use one of your global MySQL users (either root or mysql_user, as created in the example above). You can name your Zoneminder database anything you want, instead of zmdatabase.

mysqladmin -u root -p CREATE zmdatabase

or

mysqladmin -u mysql_user -p CREATE zmdatabase

Create users for the Zoneminder database. As always, I create a root user for emergency use. I use the same password for root as I do elsewhere on my system. Then I also create a user named zm_user (but you could also creat a user named mysql_user, to keep everything consistent). [I use a unique user here because this is a home security system, after all, and I don't want it breached.] These users are specific to this database; they can be the same users as used elsewhere in the system or can be unique users.

mysql> GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, CREATE, DROP, INDEX, ALTER, CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES, LOCK TABLES ON zmdatabase.* TO 'zm_user'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';
mysql> GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, CREATE, DROP, INDEX, ALTER, CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES, LOCK TABLES ON zmdatabase.* TO 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password'; (I used my usual root password here).
mysql> quit
mysqladmin reload

Note: mysql commands (i.e. any entered at the mysql> prompt) must end with a semicolon. If you forget the semicolon, nothing will happen.

Miscellaneous Applications

WiFi Radar - Simple Wireless Configuration in Ubuntu

If you want to configure your wireless configuration in Ubuntu try WiFi Radar

Hotwire - Graphical terminal for Ubuntu

If you want graphical terminal for Ubuntu check this Very Useful

How to install Epiphany web browser in Ubuntu

If you want to How to install Epiphany web browser in Ubuntu follow this procedure

Midori - a lightweight web browser in Ubuntu

If you want to How to install Midori web browser in Ubuntu follow this procedure

apturl - protocol handler in Ubuntu Gutsy Gibbon

If you want to install ubuntu package from web browser here is simple tool

sysvconfig - utility for configuring init script links

sysvconfig - utility for configuring init script links,service command in ubuntu

EasyBCD - A dual-boot manager

EasyBCD is a free Windows-based program that makes it easy to dual-boot Windows Vista and Ubuntu (amongst other distros), safely and quickly.

QGRUBEditor - A visual GRUB configuration editor

QGRUBEditor - A visual GRUB configuration editor

Howto Install qBittorrent in Ubuntu Gutsy

Enable Drag and Drop capabilities to aMSN

Mount/Unmount .iso Images in oneclick

Startup Manager

StartUp Manager - change settings in Grub, Grub2 and Usplash

Cinelerra - Video Editing Software

Cinelerra - Video Editing Software .If you want to install Cinelerra use this tutorial

Adobe Reader Gutsy amd64/i386

Note that you do NOT need to install Adobe Reader to view PDF files; Ubuntu includes a PDF viewer (called Evince) which is sufficient for most users. The following is provided for users who may need functionality found only in Adobe Reader.

First

echo "deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ gutsy free non-free" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list

Second

wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add - && sudo apt-get update

Third we add plug ins and Reader

sudo aptitude install acroread acroread-plugins acroread-escript

You can also install the plug-in for Firefox

sudo aptitude install mozilla-acroread

If you get "Unable to find the HTML rendering library (libgtkembedmoz)..."

Specifiy the folder location in Edit -> Prefences -> Internet

  • Browser Executable: /usr/bin/firefox
  • libgtkembedmoz Folder: /usr/lib/firefox/

third is to download the .deb package from http://www.adobe.com and double click

Enjoy Adobe Reader

OpenOffice add ons

To open Microsoft Office .docx files in OpenOffice, you have to install this convertor.

Download the convertor

[1]

Amd64 users should download this package instead: [2]

Install the package

sudo dpkg -i odf-converter_1.0.0-2~getdeb1_i386.deb  #for i386 users
sudo dpkg -i odf-converter_1.0.0-2~getdeb1_amd64.deb #for amd64 users

Alternatively, you can simply double-click the .deb to install it. You can now open and edit .docx files using OpenOffice.org.

Genealogical Research and Analysis Management Program (Gramps)

GRAMPS, the Genealogical Research and Analysis Management Programming System, is an Open Source genealogy program written in Python, using the GTK/GNOME interface. GRAMPS has the ability to import GEDCOM files that are used in such programs as FamilyTree Maker for Windows and can produce reports in various formats such as the popular ABIWord and OpenOffice.org formats as well as HTML and PDF.

sudo apt-get install gramps

Desktop

Howto Tweak Ubuntu System

If you want to tweak ubuntu check this

AMOR - a creature for your desktop

If you want to add some fun to your ubuntu desktop this is for you

Advanced Desktop Effects (Compiz Fusion)

Ubuntu 7.10 Gutsy Gibbon comes shipped with Compiz Fusion pre-installed, which means less tinkering with sensitive configuration files. For most part, Compiz needs proprietary drivers for your graphics card to work properly, so make sure you install those if needed.

To enable desktop effects, turn them on by navigating your GNOME-menu to System > Preferences > Appearance. Under the tab Visual Effects you'll find three settings; None, Normal and Extra. To turn Compiz on, choose one of the two latter.

If you wish to customize your Compiz options and plugins, such as animations and Desktop Cube, first install the configuration tool:

 sudo apt-get install compizconfig-settings-manager

Then either choose the now available Custom and Preferences from the above Visual Effects menu, or start the settings manager via the menu System > Preferences > Advanced Desktop Effects Settings. You can also start the application from the terminal or run dialog (ALT + F2), using the command ccsm.

ATI users and Compiz

Some ATI cards don't need their proprietary drivers to work with Compiz as the open-sourced driver (radeon) also has support for 3D acceleration. However, the open-sourced driver isn't as fast as the closed-sourced (fglrx) one, so if you need the proprietary one you'll have to tinker around in the terminal a little.


1. After you've installed the driver, either through the proprietary manager or directly from ATI's site, you'll have to setup the Xorg configuration file to work with your new driver. Always remember to back up the original file before altering, in case something goes wrong. Open up a terminal and enter:

  sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.bak
  sudo aticonfig --initial --input=/etc/X11/xorg.conf

This will disable the default radeon driver and replace it with ATI's own.


2. Now, let's tell Compiz not to care about drivers that are blacklisted:

  echo SKIP_CHECKS="yes" >> $HOME/.config/compiz/compiz-manager

Alternatively, you could whitelist the driver, which is a much prettier solution. Run this command to edit the Compiz startup-script:

 gksudo gedit /usr/bin/compiz

Search for Driver whitelist and add fglrx to the end of the line, like this:

 # Driver whitelist
 WHITELIST="nvidia intel ati radeon i810 fglrx"


3. Reboot your computer, login and enable Compiz as mentioned above et voilà! Behold Compiz and ATI hugging.

Live system monitoring

sudo apt-get install netspeed

Right click on the free area of the upper panel and select "Add to Panel...". Add "System Monitor" and "Network Monitor". Right Click on System Monitor and select Preferences. Add the monitor resources that you want to monitor.

Desktop session recording

It is possible to record the whole desktop session along with mouse pointer and sound system. It is a very useful tool for video screenshot as ordinary still picture screenshots generated by pressing Print Screen cannot demonstrate everything. Three applications that can do this for you are Istanbul, Wink and gtk-recordMyDesktop.

Istanbul

Instalbul is easy to use but not very stable.

sudo apt-get install istanbul
Wink
sudo apt-get install wink
gtk-recordMyDesktop
sudo apt-get install gtk-recordmydesktop

International Clock Gnome Applet (OpenSuse contribution)

To switch to the new international clock applet download it from Here then install it with dpkg.

Remove the old clock gnome applet right-clicking on it and then add a new applet to the panel with a right-click too over the empty place:

>Add to panel...>Miscellaneous>International Clock>Add

You got it.

Add World Map and choose World locations using its Preferences menu

Data Sync Applications

If you want to sync your data between your Ubuntu PC and your USB drive,Remote Computer,Picasa Albums and many more use Conduit

Unison - file synchronization tool

Backup

Ubuntu Backup Options If you want to backup your Ubuntu Desktop Use Sbackup

rdiff-backup Use rdiff-backup ubuntu

Simple Ubuntu Desktop Backup with Backerupper

Home User Backup Application for Ubuntu Desktop Users

Games

Frozen Bubble

To install Frozen Bubble simply run:

sudo apt-get install frozen-bubble

or use Synaptic Package Manager under System > Administration menu, to locate and install the package.

How to solve Sudoku

There is a simple Perl script for solving gnome-sudoku. It does not support trial-and-error.

Super Nintendo Emulator (ZSNES) 1.510 for i386/AMD64

For support or questions see http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=588744

ZSNES 1.51 is included in the Official Gutsy i386 repos. However, there is no official AMD64 version, and the i386 version is known to have issues in Gutsy (see http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=571666). There is a workaround available for i386 users who are experiencing this error (see http://ubuntuforums.org/showpost.php?p=3604026&postcount=22).

  • Add a 3rd Party Repository
echo "deb http://packages.dfreer.org gutsy main" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list
wget http://packages.dfreer.org/7572013D.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
sudo apt-get update
  • Install using one of the lines below
sudo apt-get install zsnes32 #for amd64 users
sudo apt-get install zsnes   #for everyone else
  • Applications > Games > zsnes or zsnes32

Playstation Emulator (pSX) 1.13 for i386/AMD64

For support or questions see http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=394097

  • Add a 3rd Party Repository
echo "deb http://packages.dfreer.org gutsy main" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list
wget http://packages.dfreer.org/7572013D.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
sudo apt-get update
  • Install using one of the lines below
sudo apt-get install psx32 #for amd64 users
sudo apt-get install psx   #for everyone else
  • Applications > Games > pSX or pSX32HOW TO CHANGE

KDE games

To install the games from KDE 3 (recommended for Kubuntu users), install the package kdegames. This can be done with:

sudo apt-get install kdegames

UrbanTerror 4.1

  • UrbanTerror 4.1 is a Multi-player First Person Shooter. The Game uses the open source quake 3 engine and features many real weapons and free to use servers for multi-player functionality.

More information can be found at UrbanTerror

  • You can manually download and install UrbanTerror from the following webpage [3]
  • Installing UrbanTerror is now easier than ever: download, extract, make the ioUrbanTerror.i386 file executable, double click to play
  • After downloading the file, unzip it
  • Now open up a terminal window and change into the UrbanTerror directory you just extracted
  • run the following command to make your ioUrbanTerror.i386 file executable:
sudo chmod +x ioUrbanTerror.i386
  • Now you can double click on the ioUrbanTerror.i386 file to run the game.

CD/DVD

How To Add DVD Playback Capability

To add playback of DVD movies on Ubuntu 7.10 gutsy gibbon, you need to run the following scripts:

  • Note: Must have an internet connection to continue!
  • Note: Illegal in U.S. and some other countries, please verify are are allowed to do so before continuing.
sudo /usr/share/doc/libdvdread3/install-css.sh

(Run the above script, if it doesn't work, run the below script, then run the above script again.)

sudo apt-get install libdvdread3

If you get messages that the css key can not be found you may set the regioncode of your optical drive

sudo apt-get install regionset
sudo regionset

Then follow the instructions...

Also, if you get a message like "C compiler cannot create executables"

sudo apt-get install build-essential

How to rip a DVD video

dvd::rip is a full featured DVD copy program written in Perl. It provides an easy to use but feature-rich Gtk+ GUI to control almost all aspects of the ripping and transcoding process. It uses the widely known video processing swissknife transcode and many other Open Source tools.

sudo apt-get install dvdrip

How to burn video DVD

dvdauthor is a program that will generate a DVD movie from a valid mpeg2 stream that should play when you put it in a DVD player.

sudo apt-get install dvdauthor

ManDVD is a another program to author DVDs.

KMediaFactory is another easy to use authoring tool.

How to burn a CD/DVD

nautilus-cd-burner is a basic and pre-installed program to write a CD or DVD. Serpentine is a pre-installed audio CD creator program. Serpentine can convert flac and mp3 on the fly, when making audio cds. nerolinux is a non-free CD/DVD/Blu-Ray/HD-DVD recorder. k3b is a great CD/DVD writing tool for KDE (ideal for Kubuntu users). But if you are looking for GTK/Gnome alternatives, then brasero, cdw/gcdw, gcdmaster, graveman and gnomebaker might impress you.

dvdisaster provides a margin of safety against data loss on CD and DVD media caused by scratches or aging media. It creates error correction data which is used to recover unreadable sectors if the disc becomes damaged at a later time.

Internet

Browser Plug-ins

Ubuntu automatically installs plug-ins required to browse a site in Firefox. But if you want to install plug-ins run the following in Terminal:

For Java plug-in:

sudo apt-get install sun-java6-plugin

For Flash plug-in:

sudo apt-get install flashplugin-nonfree

There's a known bug affecting the Flash plug-in in the Gutsy repo. Some people get the following error after executing the above command:

md5sum mismatch install_flash_player_9_linux.tar.gz
The Flash plugin is NOT installed.

The fix can be found here.

Or if you want to support the open source flash plugin:

sudo apt-get install mozilla-plugin-gnash

For VLC plug-in (automatically installs VLC also):

sudo apt-get install mozilla-plugin-vlc

For MPlayer plug-in (automatically installs MPlayer also):

sudo apt-get install mozilla-mplayer

For Real player plug-in (automatically installs helix-player):

sudo apt-get install mozilla-helix-player

For kaffeine plug-in (automatically installs kaffeine also):

sudo apt-get install kaffeine-mozilla

For image-zoom plug-in (to zoom images in a page):

sudo apt-get install mozilla-imagezoom

For adblock plug-in (to block ads in a web page):

sudo apt-get install mozilla-firefox-adblock

Gutsy includes the option to add extensions to Firefox through the Ubuntu repositories. The option to add these extensions is included by default. To see and add Ubuntu Add-ons:

  • In Firefox, Go to Tools > Add-ons
  • Click "Get Ubuntu Addons"
  • To see all available add-ons, click the list next to "Show:" and choose "All Available Applications"
  • Choose whichever add-ons you want, and click "Apply Changes"
  • You can see which add-ons you've installed in the normal Firefox add-on box.

(Note: All Ubuntu add-ons are also available through the Synaptic package manager.)


Flash 9 on 64 bits system (x86_64)

Open your terminal and simply type:

   sudo apt-get install flashplugin-nonfree nspluginwrapper

It will automatically configure nspluginwrapper and install flash as well as shockwave.

Download Manager (Downloader for X)

To install Downloader for X simply run:

sudo apt-get install d4x

or use Synaptic Package Manager under System > Administration menu, to locate and install the "d4x" package.

FTP client (FileZilla)

FileZilla is a powerful FTP client that came from windows enviroment. Reaching its third version it became cross-platform and is available through the Ubuntu Gutsy Repositories.

To install FileZilla FTP client simply run:

 sudo apt-get install filezilla

or use Synaptic Package Manager under System > Administration menu, to locate and install the "filezilla" package.

Configuring Evolution for Gmail

Visit http://mail.google.com/mail/ and click settings (should be in top right corner). Select Forwarding and POP/IMAP.

  • If you want to use POP, select either "Enable POP for all mail (even mail that's already been downloaded)" or "Enable POP only for mail that arrives from now on".
  • If you want to use IMAP, select "Enable IMAP".

Save changes.

Open Evolution from Applications -> Internet -> Evolution Mail. If no mail account has been created before, a mail account setup wizard will automatically be opened. Otherwise open it from Edit -> preferences -> Mail Accounts -> Add. Click Forward. Enter your email address for Gmail (including @gmail.com). Click Forward.

  • If you have enabled POP from Gmail set "Server Type" to POP, "Server" to pop.gmail.com, and "Use Secure Connection" to "SSL encryption".
  • If you have enabled IMAP from Gmail, set "Server Type" to IMAP, "Server" to imap.gmail.com, and "Use Secure Connection" to "SSL encryption".

Click Forward. Click Forward. Set "Server" to smtp.gmail.com, and "Use Secure Connection" to "SSL encryption". Click Forward. Click Forward. Click Apply.

Note that IMAP support for GMAIL is being rolled-out currently (Oct. 2007) but is not available to everyone with a GMAIL account yet. So use POP until IMAP is available for every user.

SwiftFox

Swiftfox is the Firefox web browser, but built with optimizations to increase speed on specific CPU types. It is compatible with all Firefox extensions and themes, and uses the same settings location as Firefox, so you can use both transparently.

Instructions from getswiftfox.com

  • Add the Swiftfox repository
 sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add this line at the bottom
 deb http://getswiftfox.com/builds/debian unstable non-free
  • Update apt sources
 sudo apt-get update
  • Check your CPU compatibility here
  • Install your version of Swiftfox
 sudo apt-get install swiftfox-pentium4
  • Run with
 Programs > Internet > Swiftfox
  • There is also an [installer] available that is distro independent. It is a script that downloads and installs Swiftfox in the /opt directory and attempts to use existing Firefox plugins. The installer is probably the best way for most non-Ubuntu and non-Debian users to install Swiftfox.

Azureus (Java BitTorrent client)

The simplest way to install Azureus is:

sudo apt-get install azureus

But it has lots of dependencies. An alternate method is discussed here. Additionally you can create a file /usr/share/applications/Azureus.desktop containing the following lines to make it appear in the main menu:

[Desktop Entry]
Encoding=UTF-8
Type=Application
Terminal=false
Name=Azureus
Exec=/usr/local/azureus/azureus
Comment=Java BitTorrent client
Categories=Application;Network;
MimeType=application/x-bittorrent;
Icon=/usr/local/azureus/Azureus.png

(here it is assumed that azureus is installed in /usr/local directory)

Update: A brand-new Azureus package is now available in gutsy-backports, which is highly preferable to the version in the main repositories. It fixes many stability problems and is compiled using icedtea/Java 7. By the time you read this, it may be available in the main repositories. Therefore you might want to make sure you have the gutsy-backports repository enabled before installing azureus via apt-get.

Deluge (A lightweight BitTorrent client written in python)

If you want a client with lower memory and CPU usage than Azureus you might want to try out Deluge. However, due to stability problems with the version available in the Ubuntu repository, it's probably better to install the latest version using the handy Gutsy-specific package from the official Deluge website. To install, just click on the debian package for your version and architecture (i386 for 32-bit systems and x86_64 for 64-bit systems) and choose to run it with GDebi package installer.

DC++ client (Linuxdcpp)

  • Install:
sudo apt-get install linuxdcpp
  • Then go
Main Menu->Intenet->DC++

Using mobile phone/GPRS/EDGE as Internet modem

  • Create a file called 'gprs':
sudo gedit /etc/chatscripts/gprs
  • Paste the text below in the file and save and close it:
TIMEOUT		120
ABORT           'BUSY'
ABORT           'ERROR'
ABORT           'NO CARRIER'
''              'ATE1'
OK		AT+CGDCONT=1,"IP","internet"
OK		ATD*99***#3
# or OK		ATD*99#
CONNECT		\d\c
  • Note: Pay attention to the line containing 'AT+CGDCONT=1,"IP","internet"'. This might vary depending on your mobile service provider. It would be best to call customer service and make sure you get the 'APN' from them.
  • Create another file called 'gprs'. Notice that it's a different location:
sudo gedit /etc/ppp/peers/gprs
  • Paste the text below in the file and save and close it:
# You usually need this if there is no PAP authentication
noauth
# The chat script (be sure to edit that file, too!)
connect "/usr/sbin/chat -v -f /etc/chatscripts/gprs"
# Set up routing to go through this PPP link
defaultroute
# Set this to /dev/ircomm0 or similar
/dev/ttyACM0
# Speed
115200
# Reconnect on disconnect
persist
# Be extra verbose
debug
# You may need these
passive
noipdefault
noproxyarp
ipcp-accept-local
ipcp-accept-remote
ipcp-restart 2
ipcp-max-configure 20
ipcp-max-failure 20
asyncmap 0xa0000
novj
nodeflate
nobsdcomp
# Use remote DNS
usepeerdns
# With GPRS, authentication is normally done  automatically
# via your cellphone number, so leave login name empty
user ""
  • Note: Pay attention to the line containing '/dev/ttyACM0'. This port might vary depending on your phone model and connection type. I also made it a choice to connect directly to /dev/ttyACM0. You could always symlink to /dev/modem by running the command:
sudo ln -sf /dev/ttyACM0 /dev/modem
  • Create yet another file called 'gprs':
sudo gedit /usr/sbin/gprs
  • Paste the text below in the file and save and close it:
#!/bin/bash

PATH="/bin:/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/X11R6/bin:/usr/local/bin"
export PATH

XDIALOG_HIGH_DIALOG_COMPAT=1
export XDIALOG_HIGH_DIALOG_COMPAT

# Get root
[ "`id -u`" != "0" ] && exec sudo "$0" "$@"

TMP="/tmp/gprsconnect$$"

bailout(){
rm -f "$TMP"
exit 0
}

DIALOG="dialog"
[ -n "$DISPLAY" ] && [ -x /usr/bin/Xdialog ] && DIALOG="Xdialog"
trap bailout 1 2 3 15

# LANGUAGE etc.
[ -f /etc/sysconfig/knoppix ] && . /etc/sysconfig/knoppix
[ -z "$LANG" ] && export LANG
[ -z "$LANGUAGE" ] && export LANGUAGE
[ -z "$CHARSET" ] && export CHARSET

disconnect(){
poff
#$DIALOG --clear --title "$TITLE1" --msgbox "$MESSAGE_DISCONNECT" 8 35
exit 0
}

trap disconnect 1 2 3 15


#$DIALOG --title "$TITLE1" --yesno "$MESSAGE1" 12 65 || bailout
#[ -x /etc/init.d/sysklogd ] && /etc/init.d/sysklogd start >/dev/null 2>&1
# echo "AT" >/dev/modem
sleep 1
if [ -n "$DISPLAY" ] && type xterm >/dev/null; then
pon gprs
xterm -T "$TITLE_LOG" -e bash -c 'tail -n 0 -f /var/log/messages | egrep -e "(chat|ppp)"'
disconnect
else
# Start pppd right here.
pppd updetach call gprs 
sleep 2
exit 0
fi
  • Make the file executable by running the following command:
sudo chmod +x /usr/sbin/gprs
  • Connect your phone to the cable and and make sure it's powered on. (When I run the 'lsusb' command I get 'Bus 003 Device 006: ID 22b8:4802 Motorola PCS'. This is because I have a motorola phone with USB modem connected to my Ubuntu box.)
  • Note: Make sure the phone itself already has the gprs service configured on it. This can be done by your dealer. Some service providers can send the settings (gprs template) to your phone and you can save it.
  • Try connecting to the internet by running the following command:
sudo gprs
  • Note: Use this method if you don't don't already have access to an internet connection. If you are using Ubuntu and you have internet access you can always install kppp and configure it to use your phone modem. If you are using Kubuntu you should already either have kppp installed.

Using USB EVDO Internet modem

  • Create /etc/ppp/peers/1xevdo with this content
ttyUSB0  #assuming /dev/ttyUSB0 is the modem's device
460800
debug
noauth
defaultroute
usepeerdns
connect-delay 10000
user your-ten-digit-number@vzw3g.com  #replace vzw3g with your provider's string
show-password
crtscts
lock
lcp-echo-failure 4
lcp-echo-interval 65535
connect '/usr/sbin/chat -v -t3 -f /etc/ppp/peers/1xevdo_chat'
  • Create /etc/ppp/peers/1xevdo_chat with this content (This is the modem's script. If you use minicom to control your modem, this will be the commands you use to dial out)
TIMEOUT 70
ABORT 'NO CARRIER'
ABORT 'ERROR'
ABORT 'NO DIALTONE'
ABORT 'BUSY'
ABORT 'NO ANSWER'
'' 'ATZ'
'OK' 'AT&F0'
'OK' 'ATE0v1'
'' 'AT+CSQ'
'OK' 'ATDT#777'
'CONNECT'
  • In /etc/rc.local or some startup script, add this,
/usr/sbin/pppd call 1xevdo

, to instruct pppd to lookup 1xevdo's configuration.

Multimedia Players

How to install Mplayer with Multimedia Codecs

Simple guide for mplayer and codecs

  • Download SMPlayer (a great front-end for MPlayer) from here and double click to install it. The smplayer front-end is also available to install through synaptic package manager.
Mplayer on 64bit with wmv9 support

Playing wmv9 files on AMD64 doesn't exactly work out of the box. To get it working, you will have to install the 32bit version of mplayer, along with all the necessary codecs. On my relatively new install of Gutsy, I didn't need to install any library files, which made getting it to work that much easier. That being said, follow these steps and you should be watching wmv9 files in no time.

Download the version of mplayer32 for Edgy (it works fine) and place into temporary directory

mkdir mplayer32temp
cd mplayer32temp
wget http://folk.ntnu.no/grannas/debs/mplayer32_20070130-1_amd64.deb

Extract the package you just downloaded, and install to the proper locations (hit 'n' when it asks to replace a file)

sudo dpkg -x mplayer32_20070130-1_amd64.deb ./
sudo mv -i usr/bin/* /usr/bin/
sudo mv -i usr/lib32/* /usr/lib32/

Get the latest win32 codecs from mplayerhq (link is current as of Nov 04, 2007), extract and install (again, hit 'n' when it asks to replace a file)

wget http://www3.mplayerhq.hu/MPlayer/releases/codecs/essential-20071007.tar.bz2
tar jxfv essential-20071007.tar.bz2
sudo mv -i essential-20071007/* /usr/lib/win32/

play a wmv9 file and enjoy.

mplayer32 foobar.wmv

How to install amaroK Multimedia Player

  • Note: Amarok is already installed if you are using KDE.
sudo apt-get install amarok
  • Run from menu:
Applications -> Sound & Video -> amaroK
How to uninstall amaroK
sudo apt-get --purge autoremove amarok

How to get Mouse over preview of MP3 files working

sudo apt-get install mpg321
sudo apt-get install ubuntu-restricted-extras
sudo apt-get install pulseaudio
sudo apt-get install pulseaudio-esound-compat
sudo apt-get install libasound2-plugins

The above method breaks the sound in Skype

you can also get Mouse over preview to work by installing:

sudo apt-get install mpg321
sudo apt-get install mpg123-esd
sudo apt-get install vorbis-tools
sudo apt-get install esound
sudo apt-get install ubuntu-restricted-extras

with this system Skype still functions

How to install VLC Media Player

sudo apt-get install vlc

To uninstall VLC Media Player:

sudo apt-get --purge autoremove vlc

How to install Banshee Music Manager and Player

sudo apt-get install banshee

To uninstall:

sudo apt-get --purge autoremove banshee

How to encode/decode audios

There is a great command line tool, sox which not just a ordinary encoder/decoder but a good composer. Read its manual for more information.

Input(s) → Balancing → Combiner → Effects → Output

sudo apt-get install sox

sox cannot handle Real Audio format. For that you need mplayer which converts a .rm file to a .wav file and then use sox to convert wave file to other file.

 mplayer -ao pcm:file=output.wav input.rm

How to encode/decode videos

mencoder, avidemux, transcode, ffmpeg2theora, etc. are some video converting tools. Read their manuals for information.

sudo apt-get install mencoder avidemux transcode ffmpeg2theora

How to edit audios

sudo apt-get install lmms
sudo apt-get install audacity

How to edit videos

sudo apt-get install ubuntustudio-video

Text-to-Speech

Visit https://help.ubuntu.com/community/TextToSpeech

Programming / Web Development

Quanta Plus

(Quanta is a KDE application, but also works on GNOME.) To install Quanta, HTML/XML/PHP/Etc Web Creation Software:

sudo apt-get install quanta kompare kxsldbg cervisia
Applications > Programming > Quanta Plus

Netbeans IDE

Netbeans is a platform independent IDE for Java. But it also supports C/C++, Ruby, portals and lots of other stuffs as plug-ins. At the point of writing, version 5.5.1 is the latest stable release and can be installed by:

sudo apt-get install netbeans5.5

Alternately you can download Netbeans 6.0 and install it manually. The size of the installation package varies from 11 MB to 200 MB.

Netbeans with Web & Java EE pack

If you want to use NetBeans for web development and want to integrate with Java EE, download the "Netbeans with Web & Java EE" pack. The plug-in mechanism of installing additional modules are not recommended as it installs it on user directory (~/.netbeans/6.0beta2/modules/) rather than system-wide installation directory (/usr/local/netbeans-6.0beta2/nb6.0/modules/).

Netbeans with Web & Java EE pack comes with 2 built in runtime environments:

  • GlassFish V2 Build 58g
  • Apache Tomcat 6.0.14

Those are ideal for both development and production use. Thus you do not have to install either Sun Java Application Server of Apache Tomcat separately. Also uninstalling Netbeans will not uninstall them. You have to uninstall them separately.

But in case you want to install the servers separately, you typically have to run Netbeans as root. Alternately, you can also change the configuration files' owner/group and permissions of Tomcat and GlassFish to work with Netbeans.

Eclipse IDE

Eclipse IDE is an alternative of Netbeans IDE. Actually, it is somewhat more popular among Linux users. You can install eclipse directly from Eclipse website or can install it using apt-get:

sudo apt-get install eclipse

Anjuta IDE

Anjuta is an IDE used primarily for C/C++ development. Not as robust as other integrated development environments. However, it does feature some useful plugins that provide functionality that most other IDE's have. (GUI development, project wizards, etc.)

sudo apt-get install anjuta

Utilities

Compression tools

Zip, Gzip and Bzip2 are the most popular compression tools available in almost every every Linux. But of late two new compression tools available: p7zip (http://7-zip.org/), ace and rar (http://www.rarlab.com/). 7-zip is a open-source project, but rar and ace are not.

sudo apt-get install rar unrar
sudo apt-get install p7zip-full
sudo apt-get install unace

Ark is the compression tool for kde, and has support for more formats including rar.

sudo apt-get install ark

Clipboard Manager (Glipper)

To install Glipper simply run:

sudo apt-get install glipper

or use Synaptic Package Manager under System > Administration menu, to locate and install the "glipper" package.

Password Manager (KeePassX)

KeePass is a crossplatform password manager. To install it simply run:

sudo apt-get install keepassx

or use Synaptic Package Manager under System > Administration menu, to locate and install the "keepassx" package.

How to fix/integrate bluetooth with nautilus

On Some systems bluetooth "Browse Device" fuction doesn't work properly.

To Fix This:

sudo apt-get install gnome-vfs-obexftp

or

sudo aptitude install gnome-vfs-obexftp

How to install Google Earth (World map utility)

Google earth is a world map viewer. It can show 3D buildings and bridges in 3D view. It shows satellite pictures by default. The latest version also includes sky viewer. See http://earth.google.com/ for more details.

Google Earth is available in the Medibuntu Package archive. To install google-earth from Medibuntu:

echo "deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ gutsy free non-free" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list
wget -q http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add - && sudo apt-get update
sudo aptitude install googleearth

Alternatively you can install Google Earth directly from the Google installer:

Download Google Earth in to Your Desktop. Open terminal and run:

chmod +x ~/Desktop/GoogleEarthLinux.bin
sudo ./~/Desktop/GoogleEarthLinux.bin

Follow the instructions to complete the instructions. To uninstall Google earth, do the following:

sudo su
/opt/google-earth/uninstall

How to install Picasa (photo organizer from Google)

Picasa is software that helps you instantly find, edit and share all the pictures on your computer. Picasa makes advanced editing simple by putting one-click fixes and powerful effects at your fingertips. And Picasa makes it a snap to share your pictures – you can email, print photos home, and even post pictures on your own blog. You can install it in four ways:

sudo apt-get install picasa
  • Download the Self-extracting installer and follow the instruction set for Google Earth.
  • Install the Windows version (with the help of WINE).

How to install Google Desktop (search utility)

Google Desktop is a desktop search application that gives you easy access to information on your computer and from the web. Desktop makes searching your own email, files, music, photos, and more as easy as searching the web with Google. You can download Google Desktop in two ways:

sudo apt-get install google-desktop-linux


How to install ntop (network monitoring utility)

Ntop is a network monitoring utility. You can monitor local devices as well as devices with Netflow output (like a Cisco router). It's very easy to install too, open a terminal and type:

sudo apt-get install ntop

Now that it is installed, you have to do some basic setup. Once again, in the terminal, type:

sudo ntop

You will be asked for a password, and then to confirm the password. This will be the admin password for the ntop web interface. Next, we want to install "Dot", which is a part of the "Graphviz" package:

sudo apt-get install graphviz

Now, again in the terminal type:

sudo /etc/init.d/ntop start

Thats it! ntop is running! Try browsing to http://127.0.0.1:3000 to get started. You will have to add the path to dot to the ntop configuration.

Admin -> Configure (Enter admin user/pass) -> Preferences

At the bottom add a new preference:

dot.path  /usr/bin/dot

You should now have a network map for the local interface under IP -> Local -> Network Traffic Map

Visit http://www.ntop.org/ for more information.

How to install applications for study of religious texts

How to install Gnomesword (Bible study program)
sudo apt-get install gnomesword sword-language-pack-en sword-text-web
  • If you require other languages type:
sudo apt-cache search bible
  • Take a look at the sword-language-pack's and the sword-text's for additional languages and install as needed.

Gnomesword is found under Applications-->Accessories.

  • Under KDE, use kio-sword instead of Gnomesword:
sudo apt-get install kio-sword
How to install a Quran researching tool (Zekr)

Zekr is an open platform Quran study tool for simply browsing and researching on the Quran.

  • Make sure that You have enabled universe and multiverse Ubuntu repositories: #How to add extra repositories.
  • Install zekr with the following command:
sudo apt-get install zekr ttf-sil-scheherazade ttf-farsiweb
  • You can add more Quran translations from here.
  • If you like to upgrade to the latest stable version of zekr, which supports Quran Recitation and advanced boolean/regular expression search, follow instructions available Zekr wiki.

How to install applications for Education

How to install Mnemosyne

Mnemosyne is a sophisticated free flash-card tool which optimizes your learning process. To install the latest version in the repositories run the following command

sudo apt-get install mnemosyne

or use Synaptic Package Manager under System => Administration menu, to locate and install the mnemosyne package.

To install the latest version (the one in the repository is somewhat out of date) first install the dependencies:

sudo apt-get install python python-pygame python-qt3 python-support python-xml

then download the latest source package from here:

wget http://easynews.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/mnemosyne-proj/mnemosyne-1.0.tgz
(correct as of 3 Jan 2008)

Decompress it:

tar -xzf mnemosyne-1.0.tgz

go to the directory

cd mnemosyne-1.0/

run this command to install it:

sudo python setup.py install

The latest version automatically puts itself in your Applications menu, but in case it doesn't, to create a launcher for it:

System => Preferences => Main Menu => Education (or wherever) => New Item:
Name: Mnemosyne
Command: mnemosyne

Security

How to Add standard Users

sudo useradd -d /home/<username> -m <username>

The -d is for creating the Home directory for the user

To Set the password for the new account use this;

sudo passwd <username>

Or if you want to have ubuntu run you through a wizard like process that asks for every piece of information use this:

sudo adduser <username>

How to Delete users accounts

sudo userdel <username>

This will however not delete the Home directory. To delete the Home directory just use this:

sudo rm -r /home/<username>/

How to recover user passwords

sudo apt-get install john
sudo john /etc/shadow

How to reset root password

Restart Ubuntu in safe mode and type:

passwd

to change root password.

How to create or change GRUB menu password

Visit here.

How to change root password if grub password is forgotten

Visit here. To prevent this, you have to set a bios password and set hard disk as the first boot device.

How to install TrueCrypt

See TrueCrypt with GUI on Ubuntu 7.10.

Servers

DHCP Server

How to share your internet connection with PCs connected to your server

Read the full article on wiki.steenbe.nl


Samba Server

How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service

sudo apt-get install samba smbfs

How to add/edit/delete network users

sudo smbpasswd -a system_username
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smbusers
    • Insert the following line into the new file
system_username = "network username"
    • Save the edited file
  • To add network user
sudo smbpasswd -a system_username
  • To delete network user
sudo smbpasswd -x system_username
  • To enable network user
sudo smbpasswd -e system_username
  • To disable network user
sudo smbpasswd -d system_username
    • By Default network users are disabled after adding them, make sure you run the enable network user command above.

How to share home folders with read only or read/write permission (Authentication=Yes)

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Remove the ; in front of the following lines (there will text in between explaining what they do):
;[homes]
;comment = Home Directories
;browseable = no
;valid users = %S
;writable = yes
    • If you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder then change
 # By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change next
 # parameter to 'yes' if you want to be able to write to them.
 ;   writable = no
    • Replace with the following lines
  writable = yes
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share group folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)

sudo mkdir /home/group
sudo chmod 777 /home/group/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
 security = user
 username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[Group]
  comment = Group Folder
  path = /home/group
  public = yes
  writable = no
  valid users = system_username1 system_username2
  create mask = 0700
  directory mask = 0700
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup
  • Or if you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder change
  writable = yes
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read only or read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)

sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers

Then follow either 1. or 2.

  • 1. Save the edited file.
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart
  • 1. Right click the folder and select 'Share folder'. Then change 'Do not share' to share with the network you would like.
  • 1. In Share Properties note the read box. If you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder un-tick this.

OR

  • 2. Append the following lines at the end of file
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = yes
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody 
  force group = nogroup
  • 2. Or if you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder
  writable = yes
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read only or read/write permissions (Authentication=No)

sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following line
  security = share

Then follow either 1. or 2.

  • 1. Save the edited file.
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart
  • 1. Right click the folder and select 'Share folder'. Then change 'Do not share' to share with the network you would like.
  • 1. In Share Properties note the read box. If you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder un-tick this.

OR

  • 2. Append the following lines at the end of /etc/samba/smb.conf (for a read-only folder)
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = no
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup
  • 2. Or if you want other network users to be able to edit to the folder
  writable = yes


  • 2. Save the edited file
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to print on remote Ubuntu machine via samba

 sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf.backup
 gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
Find the following lines
 ...
 # printing = cups
 # printcap name = cups
 ...
and uncomment them.
 printing = cups
 printcap name = cups
Restart cups server
 sudo /etc/init.d/cupsys restart
Now printers working on your Ubuntu machine should be acessible via samba.

iTunes-compatible Media server

If you want iTunes-compatible Media server in Ubuntu try this

Groupware server Setup With eGroupware

Follow this simple guide to setup Groupware server Setup With eGroupware

GLPI - IT and asset Managemet Software

If you want IT and asset Managemet Software in Ubuntu try this

Heartbeat2 Xen cluster with drbd8 and OCFS2

This is nice Heartbeat2 Xen cluster with drbd8 and OCFS2 setup in ubuntu

PostgreSQL

PostgreSQL is a well supported and open source database server. There is a long debate regarding whether MySQL is better or PostgreSQL. Actually, there are similar debates like it: Gnome vs KDE, Perl vs Python, PHP vs JSP, Java vs .Net (or Mono). But from installation point of view, it has been seen that PostgreSQL is lighter and requires less dependency than MySQL.

Installing PostgreSQL

To install PostgreSQL (both client and server):

sudo apt-get install postgresql-8.2

To install PostgreSQL documentation:

sudo apt-get install postgresql-doc-8.2

To install JDBC3 driver for PostgreSQL:

sudo apt-get install libpg-java

To enable php support for PostgreSQL:

sudo apt-get install php5-pgsql

To do administrative works graphically:

sudo apt-get install pgadmin3

To do web-based administrative works:

sudo apt-get install phppgadmin

Configuring PostgreSQL

To use postgresql, create a database instance and a user/role:

sudo -u postgres createdb $USER
sudo -u postgres createuser $USER

Making both database instance and user/role as your login ID lets you to start PostgreSQL client very easily:

psql

To login as the administrator:

sudo -u postgres psql

To be able to login from remote machine or from PHP or through JDBC driver, you have to set your password from PostgreSQL client (psql):

ALTER USER user PASSWORD 'pass';

replace user and pass by your user name and password respectively. To test whether remote login works or not, run:

psql -h host -p 5432 -d database -U user

Visit http://www.php.net/manual/en/ref.pgsql.php to see how php works with PostgreSQL.

Using pgadmin3

To configure PostgreSQL using pgadmin3:

  • Open psql client as administrator postgres (see above Configure PostgreSQL)
  • Change the password for the administrator postgres (see above)
  • Open Applications -> System Tools -> pgAdmin III from main menu.
  • Open File -> Add Server...
  • Set Address to localhost or 127.0.0.1 (or something you have set)
  • Give a Description by which this connection will be identified.
  • Accept default port (5432), SSL (_blank_), Maintenance DB (postgres) and Username (postgres)
  • set the Password that you have set earlier. Click OK.

Using phppgadmin

To configure PostgreSQL using phppgadmin run:

sudo ln -s /usr/share/phppgadmin /var/www/phpPgAdmin

Set a password for administrator: postgres (see #Configuring_PostgreSQL).

Open /etc/phppgadmin/config.inc.php and change:

$conf['extra_login_security'] = false;

It will enable administrative login. Finally visit http://localhost/phpPgAdmin/ to login.

Using PostgreSQL with OpenOffice

  • First download the JDBC driver for PostgreSQL from postgresql.org.
  • If this is your first attempt to use OpenOffice.org Database, a wizard will appear that won't let you access the normal menu items. However you need to be able to access the Tools menu to tell OpenOffice where the JDBC driver is. So instead of opening OpenOffice.org Database, launch OpenOffice.org Word Processor. Go to Tools -> Options. On the navigational tree to the left, open the first node (OpenOffice.org) and go to "Java". Click the "Class Path" button. When the Class Path dialog box comes up, click the "Add Archive" button. Navigate to the directory where you downloaded the driver from postgresql.org, and select the jar file. Click "OK". You have to restart OpenOffice for the change in Class Path to take effect, so close all OpenOffice applications that you may have open.
  • Now open Applications -> Office -> OpenOffice.org Database.
  • Select 'Connect to an existing database'. From the list select JDBC and click Next.
  • Make Datasource URL to:
jdbc:postgresql://localhost/database

Replace localhost by your hostname, database by the database instance you have created.

  • Set JDBC driver class to:
org.postgresql.Driver
  • Click 'Test class' to make sure JDBC driver class connects Datasource URL properly. Click Next.
  • Type your User name and select 'Password required' option.
  • Click Test connection. A popup dialog will appear. Enter your password and click OK.
  • If everything works properly, then a confirmation dialog will appear.
  • Click Next. Some optional settings will appear. Click Finish to complete.
  • When asked where to save the database, navigate to ~/.openoffice.org2/user/database (where ~ is your home directory), and save it there. I gave it the same name as my database instance, to which OpenOffice appended a .odb extension.

Using PostgreSQL JDBC driver

The following Java code is a simple program to illustrate how JDBC can be used with Postgresql:

// pgVersion.java

import java.sql.*;

class pgVersion {
 public static void main(String arg[]) throws Exception {
  if(arg.length!=4) {
   System.out.println("usage: java pgVersion host database user password");
   return;
  }
  // Class.forName("org.postgresql.Driver");
  Driver driver=new org.postgresql.Driver();
  DriverManager.registerDriver(driver);
  String url="jdbc:postgresql://"+arg[0]+"/"+arg[1]+"?user="+arg[2]+"&password="+arg[3];
  Connection conn=DriverManager.getConnection(url);
  Statement stat=conn.createStatement();
  ResultSet rs=stat.executeQuery("SELECT version()");
  rs.next();
  System.out.println(rs.getString("version"));
  rs.close();
  stat.close();
  conn.close();
  DriverManager.deregisterDriver(driver);
 }
}

You can run the former code in two ways:

  • Using CLASSPATH environment variable:
export CLASSPATH=/usr/share/java/postgresql.jar:.
javac pgVersion.java
java pgVersion host database user password

Here host, database, user and password should be substituted according to your configuration. To make $CLASSPATH permanent, you have to save the command in either /etc/bash.bashrc or ~/.bashrc.

  • Alternately, you can run as follows:
javac -classpath /usr/share/java/postgresql.jar pgVersion.java
java -classpath /usr/share/java/postgresql.jar:. pgVersion host database user password

The output is as expected:

PostgreSQL 8.2.5 on i486-pc-linux-gnu, compiled by GCC cc (GCC) 4.1.3 20070831 (prerelease) (Ubuntu 4.1.2-16ubuntu1)

MySQL

According to this page both MySQL and PostgreSQL are good alternatives of proprietary softwares like DB2, Sybase, Oracle, SQL Server etc.

To install both the server and client:

sudo apt-get install mysql-server-5.0

db4free is a great database server for tryout different things remotely. If you want to use this site, then you do not have to install MySQL server. Just install the client, documentation and php or jdbc connectivity.

IBM DB2

Visit here for software available from IBM. According to this page, DB2 can be installed on ubuntu.

Download

To download DB2 trial visit here and select: IBM DB2 9.5 Data Server trial. Then you have to sign in (create an account if not already created) in order to download. Choose either of the following:

  • DB2 9.5 data server trial for Linux(R) on AMD64 and Intel(R) EM64T systems (x64)
  • DB2 9.5 data server trial for Linux(R) on System z

Then answer questions and click 'I confirm' at the bottom. Finally click 'I confirm' button to start downloading.

Alternately, visit here and select: IBM DB2 9.5 Express-C. Then choose DB2 Express-C 9.5 for Linux and click continue. Then answer questions and click 'I confirm' at the bottom. Finally select either of the following:

  • DB2 Express-C for Linux operating system, 32-bit architecture
  • DB2 Express-C for Linux operating system, 64-bit architecture

click 'I confirm' button to start downloading.

Installing DB2

Option 1: Download and install in one step. DB2 Express-C data server This is available from the Ubuntu repositories and requires Ubuntu 7.10 or newer to run. Enable the Ubuntu Partner Repository and install the server with the following command:

sudo apt-get install db2exc

Option 2: I choose 'DB2 Express-C for Linux operating system, 32-bit architecture' to demonstrate how to install. If you have chosen a different version, make necessary changes accordingly. Let's assume the downloaded file is on your home directory. Then do the following:

tar -xf db2exc_950_LNX_x86.tar.gz
cd ~/exp
sudo apt-get install libaio1
sudo apt-get install libstdc++5
sudo ./db2setup

Select 'Install a Product' from the left side of the generated window and click 'Install New'. Another window will be opened. Then following the instructions to complete the installation. You are encouraged to create new user and groups (dasusr1/dasadm1, db2inst1/db2iadm1, db2fenc1/db2fadm1) during installation.

Uninstalling DB2

If you have installed with all default settings (as mentioned above) then just running the following commands would remove the db2 completely. In case you have changed something during installation, then make appropriate changes accordingly.

cd /opt/ibm/db2/V9.5
./instance/db2ilist
sudo instance/db2idrop db2inst1

You may also have DAS (DB2 Administration Server) installed. If so when you issue the db2_deinstall command you will see the following error: "The DB2 installer detects that the DAS is using the current DB2 copy to be uninstalled. The deinstallation process can not continue." To uninstall DAS issue the following:

./instance/daslist
sudo instance/dasdrop dasusr1

Continue with the deinstallation.

sudo install/db2_deinstall -a
cd && sudo rm -r /opt/ibm/db2
sudo userdel -r dasusr1
sudo userdel -r db2fenc1
sudo userdel -r db2inst1

sudo groupdel dasadm1

If you get this error: "groupdel: cannot remove user's primary group." You will need to go to the /home directory and see what other db2 users are created there. For example you could have dasusr2, dasusr3, db2fenc2, db2fenc3, db2inst2, db2inst3, etc. Issue the "sudo userdel -r username" command where username is the db2/das username in your home directory until all the usernames have been deleted. Once this is done you will now be able to successfully re-issue the groupdel commands.

sudo groupdel db2fadm1
sudo groupdel db2iadm1

Before running those commands, please make sure:

  • Make sure, db2 is not running.
  • Identify DB2 installation directory (E.g /opt/ibm/db2/V9.5)
  • Identify DB2 instances (using db2ilist command, see the second command)
  • Drop each and every instances (using db2idrop command, third command)
  • If you have other IBM softwares in /opt/ibm then remove only /opt/ibm/db2 directory.
  • Delete user and group accounts that you have created for db2.

Oracle database

A problem might occur if your swap space is less than 1 GB. In that case you have to do the following:

  • Turn off the swap space. (run 'man swapoff' for help)
  • Resize the swap partition. (run 'man fdisk' and 'man cfdisk' for help)
  • Restart the system. (not mandatory, but recommended)
  • Edit the /etc/fstab file to update the UUID of the swap partition. (#How_to_find_the_UUID_of_a_device)
  • Turn on the swap space. (run 'man swapon' for help)

SSH

How to install SSH Server for remote administration service

sudo apt-get install ssh

How to SSH into remote Ubuntu host

The Ubuntu host must be running the SSH Server. Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service.

In this example:

Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.2 username is a valid user on the remote host

ssh username@192.168.0.2

You can tunnel to a URL as well:

ssh username@foobar.dyndns.org

If your LAN uses a dynamic IP to connect to the Internet, you can use a Dynamic IP service (such as DynDNS) to assign a static URL to your LAN (foobar.dyndns.org, for example). An SSH request over the Internet to your URL (e.g. foobar.dyndns.org) would then be routed by the DynDNS service to your modem/router. Your router must then be set to forward the port used for the SSH tunnel to your host machine on the LAN. (SSH tunnels generally occur by default over port 22, but it can be changed (see below)).

For some humor: Read Etymology of foobar. You can explicitly select the port number (instead of port 22) for the SSH tunnel:

ssh username@foobar.dyndns.org:11022

However, if you do this, the host SSH server must be listening on the same port (port 11022 in the example). The port to listen to can be set in the sshd_config file of the OpenSSH server (provided in Ubuntu) on your host. Also, your router must be configured to forward port 11022 to your OpenSSH host.

How to change SSH Server Port Number

Q: Why doing this? A: Port 22 is default and attackers will try this one. Move it and tell them in subtle way: Nothing to see here. Move along.

Open /etc/ssh/sshd_config for editing

gksu gedit /etc/ssh/sshd_config

Look for the line

# What ports, IPs and protocols we listen for
Port 22

Change 22 to the value you want, then save and restart the SSH server

sudo /etc/init.d/ssh restart

Note: Google for secure sshd to find more advanced security settings for ssh.

Using SSH to Port Forward

ssh -L <local port>:<remote computer>:<remote port> <user>@<remote ip>

An example is:

ssh -L 6669:94.92.10.15:6667 foowho

In this example, local port 6669 on the local client computer is tunneled by encrypted SSH over the default port 22 to the router at 94.92.10.15. The router must be set up to forward port 22 to whatever the internal LAN IP (such as 192.168.0.56) of the SSH host is. The host is running OpenSSH (sshd service) and is set to listen to port 22. It then routes the incoming data to the host port 6667, where presumably some other program is waiting for data. foowho has an account on the host running the OpenSSH server.

SSH tunnels can also be established using URLs and even alternate ports. An example is:

ssh -L 5900:foobar.dyndns.org:5900 foowho -p 11022

In this example, local port 5900 on the client is forwarded through an SSH tunnel on port 11022 to foobar.dyndns.org. The DNS service translates foobar.dyndns.org into the appropriate WAN (Internet) IP address, where the router is listening. The router is set up to forward port 11022 to the LAN machine hosting the OpenSSH server, which is listening on port 11022. It then sends the data to whatever program is running on port 5900 on the host.

  • You can forward a local port to a different port on the remote host.
Example: Make port 80 (web server/browser) on the remote host at 10.0.2.10 available locally as port 81
ssh -L 81:10.0.2.10:80 user@office.net
  • You can create secure SSH tunnels to multiple hosts using multiple ports.
ssh -L 81:10.0.2.10:80 -L 82:10.0.2.20:80 -L 83:10.0.2.30:80 user@office.net

Now, local port 81 locally forwards to port 80 on the host at 10.0.2.10, local port 82 forwards to port 80 on the host at 10.0.2.20 and local port 83 forwards to port 80 on the host at 10.0.2.30. In this example, user has an account on all three host machines at 10.0.2.10, 10.0.2.20, and 10.0.2.30.

  • Once port forwarding is set up by ssh, an application is directed to the SSH tunnel for port usage by using the loopback as the destination.
Example 1:
ssh -L 81:10.0.2.10:80 user@office.net
http://localhost:81 or http://127.0.0.1/:81

will direct a web browser to use port 81 locally, which is being redirected by SSH to port 80 on the remote host at 10.0.2.10.

Example 2:
ssh -L 5900:foobar.dyndns.org:5900 foowho
vncviewer 127.0.0.1 or vncviewer localhost

will direct vncviewer (which uses port 5900 by default) to direct its traffic through the ssh tunnel to the host at foobar.dyndns.org, where, presumably, a VNC server is listening on port 5900.

Using an SSH reverse tunnel to help a friend (allowing you to log in to his/her machine)

Have you convinced a friend (anna) to use Linux? Bravo, but perhaps you don't yet want anna to operate her own terminal and do the advanced maintenance on her machine herself. The problem is, her machine is hidden behind a firewall, or behind NAT, and you can't just use SSH to connect to it. The solution: have her machine connect to yours, with a tunnel leading back to hers that you can use for login and maintenance.

When she has a problem, you can tell her to set up an SSH connection from her machine to yours, with a tunnel from your machine back to hers so that you can login and maintain her computer remotely for her. This works even if anna is behind a firewall, behind, NAT, or has a dynamic IP address or private IP address. As long as anna's machine can use SSH to get to your machine, you can tunnel back to hers.

First, set up SSH on anna's machine (only needs to be done once):

  • On anna's machine, install the ssh-client (ssh) and ssh-server (sshd) packages. See #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service above. You only need to install these packages once.
  • On anna's machine, create yourself an account in the wheel group. (Or, if she agrees, you could log in using her account when you need to; but, if she messes up her account it might be better for you to have your own account on her machine.)
  • Identify a machine into which both you and anna can login. This could be your own machine, or a machine that isn't yours but on which SSH is available and on which you both already have accounts. She needs an account to log in and so do you on this common machine.
  • Create, if necessary, an anna account on this common machine that allows anna to log in to the machine.
  • Let's suppose that this common machine is named yourserver.homelinux.org.
  • Make sure you both can log in to yourserver.homelinux.org using SSH.

Once you both have SSH accounts set up on yourserver.homelinux.org, any time you want access to her machine, do this:

  • Have anna set up the SSH tunnel: Tell anna to open a terminal window. Have her type the following SSH command on her machine to create the SSH connection from her machine to yours, with the reverse tunnel from your machine to hers:
ssh  -R  55555:localhost:22  anna@yourserver.homelinux.org
[anna's yourserver password:] *******

Note: yourserver is a computer to which you both have access. It has sshd running and you both can log into it .

  • Once anna has connected to yourserver.homelinux.org and created the tunnel, you must also connect to the same machine to use the tunnel. Once you are logged in to yourserver.homelinux.org, you enter the following SSH command:
ssh  -p  55555  userid@localhost
[userid's password on anna's machine:] (you need to know that as well)

The password you type is the password for userid on anna's machine, since that is where the 55555 tunnel leads - to anna's machine. This tunnel lets you log in to anna's machine using localhost posrt 55555 on yourserver.homelinux.org.

Note:

  • Consider adding yourself as a local user on anna's machine. Your userid must be member of the wheel group to permit the use of sudo.
  • You could even set this up for anna and create a desktop button for her to establish the tunnel. voila!
  • The common machine yourserver.homelinux.org could also be a computer to which you both have remote access (work, school ...).

Reference> http://www.brandonhutchinson.com/ssh_tunnelling.html

Using SSH as a SOCKS Proxy

This enables the creation of a secure SOCKS proxy tunnel over the internet for web browsing purposes. For example, you can create an SSH connection to your home from an internet cafe. Simply configure your web browser or applications to access the internet via your SOCKS proxy. Any websites or other resources requested will actually be downloaded/received via your home. This means all web browsing (and other network) activities are encrypted and therefore more private.

ssh -D <local port> <user>@<remote ip>

An example is:

ssh -D 8001 94.92.10.15

The above example will create a SOCKS proxy running on port 8001.

Configure your web browser (or other network settings) to point to your SOCKS proxy server. The hostname will be "localhost" and the port will be the port number you specified after the "-D" parameter.

In Firefox, the proxy server can be configured as follows:

  • Select "Edit" > "Preferences" from the menu
  • Click "Advanced" main tab and "Network" secondary tab
  • Click "Settings" next to "Configure how Firefox connects to the Internet"
  • Select "Manual proxy configuration"
  • For "SOCKS Host", enter "localhost". The port number in the above example would be "8001"
  • Click "OK"
  • Click "Close"

An example is:

Host: localhost Port: 8001

SSH Filesystem

install package: sshfs, see http://fuse.sourceforge.net/sshfs.html

sudo aptitude update
sudo aptitude install sshfs

Optionally, add user to group fuse to manage mount-point permissions.

sudo adduser <local user> fuse

(propogate new group membership: restart or open new shell, e.g., Ctrl+Alt+F1)

Create writable mount point, e.g, <mount point> = /media/remote

sudo mkdir <mount point>
sudo chgrp fuse <mount point>
sudo chmod 775 <mount point>

Mount command

sshfs [<user>@]<host>:[<path>] <mount point>

Unmount command

fusermount -u <mount point>

Ubuntu 7.10 LAMP Server

LAMP stands for Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP. Installing a "LAMP server" installs all four packages in an integrated package.

For Desktop Edition users:

System->Administration->Synaptic Package Manager->Edit->Mark Packages by Task-->
LAMP Server --> Apply 

That's it. All the packages will be installed for you.


For Server Edition users:

If you are looking for simple LAMP Server at the time of a new Ubuntu Server installation, including webmin installation, then see:

How to install Apache and PHP5

Install Apache

sudo aptitude install apache2

Install PHP5 and the Apache PHP5 module

sudo aptitude install php5 libapache2-mod-php5

Restart Apache

sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

Go to http://localhost to verify the installation. If you want to change the port, edit the file /etc/apache/ports.conf and change where it says "Listen 80" to say "Listen" + the desired port number, e.g. "Listen 8080"

How to Install Webmin

Webmin is an browser-based administration tool for Apache, PHP, MySQL, and Much More.

wget http://garr.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/webadmin/webmin_1.400_all.deb

(If newer version exist, just replace x.400 with newer version number.

sudo apt-get install libnet-ssleay-perl libauthen-pam-perl libio-pty-perl libmd5-perl

If hasn't setup ed the root password yet, type: sudo passwd root (In Ubuntu root password is not setuped during install process.) If prefer not to setup root password, must manual enter user name and password for webmin administrator account, if root exist, just use it to login with.

sudo dpkg -i webmin_1.400_all.deb

To use webmin, type the following in a browser: (Make sure to use HTTPS not HTTP)

Sun Java Application Server (Java EE)

Official documentation

Installing Application Server

Sun Java Application Server is the heart of Java EE. Download either of the following versions:

  • Java EE 5 SDK Update 3
  • Java Application Platform SDK Update 3 Beta
  • Sun Java System Application Server 9.1 (under individual download section)

Alternately you can download GlassFish application server (community maintained):

Make the download file executable and run as root by:

chmod +x Desktop/filename
sudo ./Desktop/filename

Lets assume $JAVAEE_HOME indicates the installation directory. The default installation directory for Sun Java System Application Server 9.1 is /opt/SUNWappserver/. Now, either add $JAVAEE_HOME/bin in your PATH or make a link of asadmin and asant in your path by

sudo ln -s $JAVAEE_HOME/bin/asadmin /usr/local/bin/asadmin
sudo ln -s $JAVAEE_HOME/bin/asant /usr/local/bin/ant

The command 'asadmin' is the main and most important command for Java Application server. Ant is also useful to automate building process.

Application Server configuration

When Java EE installs, a domain 'domain1' is automatically installed with it in $JAVAEE_HOME/domains/ which is the default directory for all domains. Generally this directory ($JAVAEE_HOME/domains/) is not writable. So, as a unprivileged user you can create your own domain in your home directory.

Application Server domain settings

To create, start, stop and delete a domain in your home directory:

asadmin create-domain --adminport 4848 --domaindir ~ mydomain
asadmin start-domain --domaindir ~ mydomain
asadmin stop-domain --domaindir ~ mydomain
asadmin delete-domain --domaindir ~ mydomain

Alternately you can make $JAVAEE_HOME/domains/ writable to do domain-related works from default domain directory. E.g.

sudo chmod a+w $JAVAEE_HOME/domains/
asadmin create-domain --adminport 4848 mydomain
asadmin start-domain mydomain
asadmin stop-domain mydomain
asadmin delete-domain mydomain

If you have only one domain in the default domains directory ($JAVAEE_HOME/domains/) then you do not have to give the domain name to start or stop a domain. E.g.

asadmin start-domain
asadmin stop-domain

You can save the login information to ~/.asadminpass file in order to administer an application server domain from command line. If you do not login, you have to provide username and password for each administrative work (analogous to su and sudo commands). To login:

asadmin login --host localhost --port 4848

Deploying and un-deploying a web or ejb module is very easy. Just do the following:

asadmin deploy test1.war
asadmin deploy test2.ear

asadmin undeploy test1.war
asadmin undeploy test2.ear
Application Server data Source settings

DataSource configuration can be done easily from web based administration console. Here command line method is given:

sudo ln -s /usr/share/java/postgresql.jar /opt/SUNWappserver/domains/domain1/lib/postgresql.jar
asadmin create-jdbc-connection-pool --datasourceclassname org.postgresql.ds.PGSimpleDataSource --property
    serverName=localhost:portNumber=5432:databaseName=database:user=user:password=pass jdbc/postgresql
asadmin create-jdbc-resource --connectionpoolid jdbc/postgresql database

First, we have made this driver accessible from the domain. In the second command, we have created a data source connection pool which has been assigned a JNDI name in the third command. Here all the colon (:) separated values are database related. Change them according to your database settings. Now you can create a Connection by, e.g.:

Context ic = new InitialContext();
DataSource ds = (DataSource)ic.lookup("database");
Connection conn = ds.getConnection();

To see available data sources and their corresponding JNDI names:

asadmin list-jdbc-connection-pools
asadmin list-jdbc-resources

To delete both connection pool, you have to delete JNDI name first. E.g.

asadmin delete-jdbc-resource database
asadmin delete-jdbc-connection-pool jdbc/postgresql

Tomcat 6

Installing tomcat

Tomcat can be found in universe repository but it has some drawbacks (e.g. lots of dependencies, unavailability of version 6.x, do not use Sun Java). Thus manual installation is recommended.

Download latest stable version of tomcat from http://tomcat.apache.org/download-60.cgi and extract it in /usr/local as root. Add "JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/java-6-sun/" to /usr/local/apache-tomcat-6.x.x/bin/setclasspath.sh after the first occurrence of "CLASSPATH=". Make sure that sun-java6-jre is installed. Make a soft-link of /usr/local/apache-tomcat-6.x.x/bin/catalina.sh as /usr/local/bin/tomcat to access easily. Optionally you can remove .exe and .bat files and edit .sh files to remove cygwin, os400 and darwin related codes.

Although not necessary, but the ant program would be useful here. You can also install its documentation.

OpenEJB Server

OpenEJB is an open source, modular, configurable, and extendable EJB Container System and EJB Server. Visit here to see the installation instructions for OpenEJB under Tomcat 6.

Using tomcat with NetBeans

You have to make the configuration files readable because Netbeans generally do not run with administrative privilege. To use Tomcat with with NetBeans, you have to set a user with manager role. A typcal $CATALINA_HOME/conf/tomcat-users.xml file would look like:

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>
<tomcat-users>
  <role rolename="admin"/>
  <role rolename="manager"/>
  <role rolename="tomcat"/>
  <user username="admin" password="admin" roles="admin"/>
  <user username="manager" password="manager" roles="manager"/>
  <user username="tomcat" password="tomcat" roles="tomcat"/>
</tomcat-users>

Edit this file after you have started tomcat once. Any data placed in the <tomcat-users> element is erased during the first start of tomcat. You can also use tomcat that comes with NetBeans web & Java EE pack.

Configure Database Connection Pool (DBCP) of Tomcat

A database connection pool creates and manages a pool of connections to a database. Recycling and reusing already existing connections to a dB is more efficient than opening a new connection. It is still possible and valid to open and close connection for each servlet/jsp (visit #Using_JDBC_driver for details).

Before proceeding, let's assume that $CATALINA_HOME denotes tomcat installation directory (typically: /usr/local/apache-tomcat-6.0.14).

echo $CATALINA_HOME
sudo ln -s /usr/share/java/postgresql.jar $CATALINA_HOME/lib/postgresql.jar
sudo mkdir $CATALINA_HOME/webapps/dataSourceTest
sudo chown $USER:$USER $CATALINA_HOME/webapps/dataSourceTest
cd $CATALINA_HOME/webapps/dataSourceTest
mkdir META-INF WEB-INF WEB-INF/classes

Create WEB-INF/web.xml and set its content:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<web-app xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee"
 xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
 xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_2_5.xsd"
 version="2.5">

 <resource-ref>
   <description>PostgreSQL connectivity</description>
   <res-ref-name>jdbc/postgresql</res-ref-name>
   <res-type>javax.sql.DataSource</res-type>
   <res-auth>Container</res-auth>
 </resource-ref>

 <description>
   Page for testing
 </description>
 <display-name>Testing page</display-name>
 <servlet>
   <servlet-name>pgsqlVersion</servlet-name>
   <servlet-class>pgsqlVersion</servlet-class>
 </servlet>
 <servlet-mapping>
   <servlet-name>pgsqlVersion</servlet-name>
   <url-pattern>/pgsqlVersion</url-pattern>
 </servlet-mapping>
</web-app>

Create META-INF/context.xml and set its content (replace hostname, database instance name, user id and password):

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<Context>
 <Resource
   name="jdbc/postgresql"
   auth="Container"
   type="javax.sql.DataSource"
   driverClassName="org.postgresql.Driver"
   url="jdbc:postgresql://host/database"
   username="user"
   password="password"
   maxActive="20"
   maxIdle="10"
   maxWait="-1"/>
 <WatchedResource>WEB-INF/web.xml</WatchedResource>
 <WatchedResource>META-INF/context.xml</WatchedResource>
</Context>

Create pgsqlVersion.java and set its content:

import java.io.*;
import java.sql.*;
import javax.sql.*;
import javax.naming.*;
import javax.servlet.*;
public class pgsqlVersion extends GenericServlet {
 public void service(ServletRequest request, ServletResponse response) {
  try {
  response.setContentType("text/html");
  PrintWriter pw=response.getWriter();
  Context initContext = new InitialContext();
  Context envContext  = (Context)initContext.lookup("java:/comp/env");
  DataSource ds = (DataSource)envContext.lookup("jdbc/postgresql");
  Connection conn = ds.getConnection();
  Statement stat=conn.createStatement();
  ResultSet rs=stat.executeQuery("SELECT version()");
  rs.next();
  pw.println(rs.getString("version"));
  rs.close();
  stat.close();
  } catch(Exception e) { }
 }
}

Create index.html and set its content:

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Frameset//EN"
   "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/frameset.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<title>PostgreSQL datasource</title>
</head>
<frameset rows="80%, 20%">
  <frame src="pgsqlVersion.java">
  <frame src="pgsqlVersion">
</frameset>
</html>

Then compile the servlet:

export CLASSPATH=$CATALINA_HOME/lib/postgresql.jar:$CATALINA_HOME/lib/servlet-api.jar:.
javac -d WEB-INF/classes/ pgsqlVersion.java

Finally, visit http: //host:8080/dataSourceTest. Thats all!

Zenoss Network Monitoring Server

Zenoss is a full-featured open source networking monitoring application. To install a version of Zenoss which includes all dependencies, first add the repository by typing:

   sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list

Αnd paste in the end of the file:

  ## Zenoss - Ubuntu
  ## Please report any bugs at http://dev.zenoss.org/trac
  deb http://dev.zenoss.org/deb main stable

Save the file and exit. Then type:

   sudo apt-get install zenoss-stack

Start zenoss:

   sudo /etc/init.d/zenoss-stack start

Then in your browser, visit http://yourhost:8080, where yourhost is the FQDN of the server on which you installed Zenoss. Zenoss docs are available at http://docs.zenoss.com.

Nagios Network Monitoring Server

It should be noted that this howto instructs you to build nagios from its sources, while it exists on the official repositories.

NFS Server

  • Read Linux NFS FAQ
  • Run this command for each computer to determine the IP Addresses for each one:
ifconfig

Installing NFS Server

Use this script or follow the guide:

sudo apt-get install nfs-kernel-server nfs-common portmap

Reconfigure Portmap to not bind to loopback interface:

sudo dpkg-reconfigure portmap 
sudo /etc/init.d/portmap restart

Define which folders to share (export):

sudo nano /etc/exports

Add share (export) definitions:

This will export path to all IP addresses between 192.168.1.1 and 192.168.1.254 with Read/Write access:

/path/to/shared/files 192.168.1.0/24(rw,no_root_squash,async)

This will export path to all IP addresses between 192.168.1.1 and 192.168.1.254 with Read Only access:

/path/to/shared/files 192.168.1.0/24(ro,async)

192.168.1.0/24 above would be the clients IP Address

When finished, save changes and restart the NFS Server:

sudo /etc/init.d/nfs-kernel-server restart

Export your new configuration:

sudo exportfs -a

Installing NFS Client

Use this script (For installing nfs client and mounting automatically) or follow the guide:

sudo apt-get install portmap nfs-common

Mounting Manually

cd ~
mkdir temp
sudo mount 192.168.1.1:/path/to/shared/files temp

192.168.1.1 above would be the Servers IP Address

You may need to restart NFS services:

sudo /etc/init.d/portmap restart
sudo /etc/init.d/nfs-common restart

Mounting Automatically

Create mountpoint:

sudo mkdir /mnt/files

Edit configuration:

gksudo gedit /etc/fstab

Add something similar to below:

192.168.1.1:/path/to/shared/files /mnt/files nfs rsize=8192,wsize=8192,timeo=14,intr 0 0

Test new configuration:

sudo mount -a

Reboot to test automatic mounting.

Hardware

NVidia Driver

First, determine what kernel you have running:

user@localhost:~$ uname -a
Linux localhost 2.6.22-14-generic #1 SMP Sun Oct 14 23:05:12 GMT 2007 i686 GNU/Linux

I have the generic kernel, so I need to install the following:

sudo apt-get install linux-restricted-modules-generic


After that's done, go to System > Administration > Restricted Drivers Manager and turn on the driver.

Some users may receive an error screen: "The software source for the packsge nvidia-glx-new is not enabled." This can be overcome by going to System > Administration > Software Sources and ticking all the boxes under the heading "Downloadable from the Internet", click close and then allow Ubuntu to reload the package lists. The NVidia drivers can then be enabled using the method above.

You can optionally prevent showing NVidia logo on startup by:

sudo nvidia-xconfig --no-logo

Envy- nvidia driver installer script

Alternatively you can auto install nvidia drivers using Envy. Download and run the application.

Overclock NVIDIA graphics card and change fan speeds

Download NVClock: http://www.linuxhardware.org/nvclock/#download

Extract package to your home folder.

In Terminal, input the following commands in order:

cd nvclock0.8b2
./configure
make
sudo make install

To set video card fan speed to run at startup, input the following into “Sessions,” where X = % maximum fan speed:

nvclock -f -F X

Wacom tablet

By default, options for the Wacom tablet are commented out. Type the following command to edit the xorg.conf file.

gksu gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf

Uncomment the following by removing the "#" or just replace the tree lines:

InputDevice     "stylus"	"SendCoreEvents"
InputDevice     "cursor"	"SendCoreEvents"
InputDevice     "eraser"	"SendCoreEvents"

Save and restart your X-session by typing CTRL-ALT-BACKSPACE.

Microsoft Intellimouse

To get the scroll wheel and side buttons to be recognized, change your /etc/X11/xorg.conf mouse section to look like the following:

   Section "InputDevice"
       Identifier     "Configured Mouse"
       Driver         "mouse"
       Option         "CorePointer"
       Option         "Device" "/dev/input/mice" 
       Option         "Protocol" "ExplorerPS/2"
       Option         "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"
       Option         "Emulate3Buttons" "true"
       Option         "Buttons" "7" 
       Option         "ButtonMapping" "1 2 3 6 7"
   EndSection

If you want the wheel scroll button to scroll in firefox rather than the side buttons make "ZAxisMapping" "6 7" and "ButtonMapping" "1 2 3 4 5".

At this point you can reboot your computer or restart X (Ctrl-Alt-BackSpace) to see if your forward/back buttons work in FireFox. You can test in a terminal with xev.

Logitech Marble Mouse

To get the scrollwheel effect on Logitech trackball (Marble Mouse), change your /etc/X11/xorg.conf mouse section to look like the following:

   Section "InputDevice"
       Identifier "MarbleMouse"
       Driver     "mouse"
       Option     "Protocol" "auto"
       Option     "CorePointer"
       Option     "Device" "/dev/input/mice"
       Option     "Buttons" "5"
       Option     "ButtonMapping" "1 8 3 6 7"
       Option     "EmulateWheel"  "true"
       Option     "EmulateWheelTimeout" "300"  # msec
       Option     "EmulateWheelButton"  "6"
       Option     "YAxisMapping"        "4 5"
   EndSection

Make sure that you have "MarbleMouse" under the server layout section as well.

The big left and right buttons work normally (click, right click) and pressing them at the same time acts as a middle click. Holding the small left button will let you scroll up and down with the trackball. Clicking small left and right buttons will let you go back/forward in firefox.

Thanks to imjustabill and Buffalo Soldier from the Ubuntu Forum. This works well on my computer.

Logitech MX510

To have the extra buttons on your MX510 working with X, you'll have to install and configure the evdev-drivers. Open up a terminal and enter:

 sudo apt-get install xserver-xorg-input-evdev

Now, all you have to do is configure Xorg to work with the new driver. Always remember to back up original files before altering:

 sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.bak
 gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf

Locate and replace the InputDevice section which holds the information for your mouse, for example with the identifier Configured Mouse, and replace it with:

 Section "InputDevice"
        Identifier      "Configured Mouse"
        Driver          "evdev"
        Option          "CorePointer"
        Option          "Name"  "Logitech MX510"
 EndSection

Logout or kill the X session using <CTRL><ALT><BACKSPACE> and login again. This should get all of your buttons and scrollwheel up and running, and even let you navigate the webbrowser history using the thumb buttons on the side.

Logitech MX518

I got the side mouse buttons on my Logitech MX518 working in Firefox. I am using the "evdev" driver, not the "mouse" driver. I am using Kubuntu 7.10 Gutsy, which already has the package "xserver-xorg-input-evdev" installed by default.

Simply change the mouse section of your /etc/X11/xorg.conf to this:


 Section "InputDevice"
       Identifier      "Configured Mouse"
       Driver          "evdev"
       Option          "CorePointer"
       Option          "Buttons"       "7"
       Option          "ZAxisMapping"  "4 5"
       Option          "ButtonMapping" "1 2 3 6 7"
       Option          "Name"  "Logitech USB-PS/2 Optical Mouse"
 EndSection

Disable CAPS LOCK

I like to remap mine to <Ctrl>. Just run gnome-keyboard-properties with "System > Preferences > Keyboard", click on the "Layout Options" tab and then on the arrow next to "Ctrl key position". Selecting "Make CapsLock an additional Ctrl" does the trick.

Enabling NUM LOCK at boot

The Default behavior is for the NUM LOCK key to be off; if you are on a desktop and have a keypad though, entering digits from it can be much quicker and you may wish to have it enabled for entering login password, etc. Here's how:

  • From Synaptic, download and install "numlockx," or, from the command line;
  sudo apt-get install numlockx
  • To get it working, you now have to edit the appropriate startup file. First, make sure you have a working backup of the file:
  sudo cp /etc/gdm/Init/Default /etc/gdm/Init/Default.bak
  • Next, modify the gdm/Init file. In terminal:
  gksudo gedit /etc/gdm/Init/Default
  • Scroll down to the end of the file, and above the line that says "exit 0" add the following:
  if [ -x /usr/bin/numlockx ]; then
  /usr/bin/numlockx on 
  fi
  • Next time you reboot, your NUM LOCK should default to "on."

BSNL Broadband (dataone) speedup

BSNL Broadband or Dataone provides high speed (2Mbps) Internet connectivity in India. The DNS servers provided by the BSNL (61.1.96.69 and 61.1.96.71) are very slow. Instead use Either of these:

208.67.222.222 and 208.67.220.220 or

4.2.2.1 and 4.2.2.2 or

search Google for free DNS service providers.

Citrix ICA client

The Citrix client no longer suffers from any of the previous Ubuntu version's problems of UTF8 font issues, OpenMotif depends, or flaky/broken browser integration. It just works!

  • Download the latest en.linuxx86.tar.gz (currently v10.6) from Citrix.com and save to your desktop
  • Right-click tar.gz file, and Extract Here
  • Open a Terminal
 Programs > Accessories > Terminal
  • Change to the directory where we extracted the client
 cd Desktop/en.linuxx86
  • Run the setup program
 ./setupwfc
  • Select the defaults

Now, web files from Metaframe Presentation Server, Citrix Access Gateway, etc webpages will work fine in Firefox.

Someone may wish to add an entry on how to use the client to connect to a local Citrix farm.

WINE

Latest install instructions are always at: WineHQ.org

Add repository key:

 wget -q http://wine.budgetdedicated.com/apt/387EE263.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -

Add repository to apt sources:

 sudo wget http://wine.budgetdedicated.com/apt/sources.list.d/gutsy.list -O /etc/apt/sources.list.d/winehq.list

Update apt sources:

 sudo apt-get update

Install WINE:

 sudo apt-get install wine

The program menu then appears in Programs under Wine, or double-click a Windows/DOS .exe file.

Install Internet Explorer 6 for Wine

IE 6 is not recommended for general usage, but some Windows packages (installed under Wine) require IE6 to complete installation. Furthermore, IE 6 is useful for checking code for developers who want to see how their web pages appear under IE 6.

Install the required package cabextract from Synaptic Package Manager (or from apt-get install cabextract).

Download and run the IEs4Linux installation script from the IEs4Linux website:

     wget http://www.tatanka.com.br/ies4linux/downloads/ies4linux-latest.tar.gz
     tar zxvf ies4linux-latest.tar.gz
     cd ies4linux-*
     ./ies4linux


There is a beta version of the install at http://www.tatanka.com.br/ies4linux/downloads

If you hit advance you have the option to install IE7. I have not gotten it to work as of yet, but IE6 installs with no issues on amd64 and i386

Accept all the defaults for installation.

Wine-Doors

Wine-Doors http://www.wine-doors.org/ packages Windows applications for Wine. The current package list includes Internet Explorer 6.

Debian/Ubuntu package (single click) available for download.

QEMU

Qemu http://fabrice.bellard.free.fr/qemu/ process emulator.

How to run windows XP under qemu

If your hardware supports virtualization, run this script after giving it executing permissions.

VMWare Server

Until the Commercial Ubuntu repository includes the VMWare Server, you can use the following 'How To' to compile from source.

VMWare Tools

If you want to install VMware tools on ubuntu gutsy follow this steps

To be able to use usb devices look at following bug comment at https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/kvm/+bug/156085/comments/5

Parallels Virtualization Software in Ubuntu

If you want to install Parallels Virtualization Software in Ubuntu try this

How to install Broadcom wireless driver

  • This worked for me Kubuntu 7.10 32 bit but there are several ways
  • First, make sure you have the appropriate hardware
lspci | grep Broadcom
  • Output should match this
02:03.0 Network controller: Broadcom Corporation BCM4306 802.11b/g Wireless LAN Controller (rev 02)
  • Then you have to add a repository
gksu gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add
deb  http://ubuntu.cafuego.net gutsy-cafuego bcm43xx
  • Then do this to add the signature
wget http://ubuntu.cafuego.net/AF425CB5.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
  • Back in the console
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install bcm43xx-firmware 
  • Just press yes, let it install, and reboot! Thanks to Pete and the 7.04 guide for this.

Requests

If you have requests that you would like to be part of this guide, write them in Ubuntu_talk:Gutsy.

Troubleshooting

Place solutions to problems you have encountered with Gutsy here. They may be workarounds to bugs or other solutions to other problems.

OpenOffice spell checking problem

This problem is not a bug at all. Some Languages do not have spell checking support, while others do. For example, "English (India)" does not support spell checking but "English (USA)" does. Just go to

Tools -> Options -> Language Settings -> Languages

and select a Western language that has a check mark beside the language name. That's it.

If you want to add languages that support spell checking, install the package myspell-<language> where <language> is the desired language, e.g.:

sudo apt-get install myspell-fr 

to install the French dictionary.

Alternative of SCIM to switch keyboard layout

SCIM might not work properly under Gutsy Gibbon, although works fine under Feisty Fawn. Until the problem is fixed, you can use the alternative method to switch keyboard layout.

  • Go to System -> Administration -> Language Support and install the languages you want to use.
  • Open System -> Preferences -> Keyboard and add the layout that you want to use from Layouts tab.
  • Right click on the free space of upper panel and select "Add to panel...". Add Keyboard Indicator.

Fix Slow boot/faulty splash screen

if your system is booting slowly or your ubuntu splash screen is not being displayed it could be that Usplash has created the splash screen incorrectly

1) edit /boot/grub/menu.lst

 sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst

At the very end of the kernel line after "splash" , add

 "vga=***" 

replace *** with the code from the table below that corresponds with the resolution and colour setting you are using

Screen 640x480 800x600 1024x768 1280x1024 1600x1200
Colors
256 769 771 773 775 796
32,768 784 787 790 793 797
65,536 785 788 791 794 798
16.8M 786 789 792 795 799

the line should look something like this

 kernel		/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.22-14-generic root=UUID=20fd9912-6383-4860-9cd8-88a11909d715 ro quiet splash vga=791

Save that file, close it,

2) edit /etc/usplash.conf

    sudo gedit /etc/usplash.conf

change the resolution to the one you set in the previous step save and close

3) rebuild the bootsplash screen

   sudo update-initramfs -u -k `uname -r`

This rebuilds the image that Grub uses to start the system.

4) reboot

Logout problem

Some users have have faced a hangout problem when whey press the quit button. Currently the following symptom and work-around have been noticed:

  • Press Ctrl-Alt-Backspace to kill X-Window and show the GDM screen.
  • gnome-power-manager service should be on. You can enable it from System->Preferences->Sessions.
  • Wait for 1 minute. The quit window will appear. (the logout problem will vanish for some times).
  • For some users, removing .config/autostart/ directory worked.

Tips And Tricks

It is pointless to add the tricks that is already added in Ubuntu:Feisty#Tips_And_Tricks. So, only new tricks are added.

What to do if Ubuntu freezes

There are different reasons for a computer to crash - there can be a programming bug, a memory issue, or other. When your computer seems to be dead, don't panic! And don't reach for that power button! There are five simple things you can try before killing the power:

  1. Is the computer frozen? Try going into one of the VTs by pressing <Ctrl><Alt> and F1. This way you may still have control of the computer and manage to kill the application which caused the problem. More on killing applications later.
  2. If you can't change into a VT, try to kill the X session. This can be done by pressing <Ctrl><Alt><Backspace>. All applications that were opened during the session will automatically be killed, so you should gain control over the computer after you've been sent back to the login screen.
  3. OK, no changing to VT. maybe X has total control over keyboard and mouse. so were gonna take that back, by using the sysrq shortcut (<ctrl>?) + <alt> + <PrtScrn/SysRq> and while holding theese down press R. this should force a release of your keyboard and mouse. now (if you can )change to a VT <ctrl> + <alt> + <F1> and login. restart your x by typing sudo /etc/init.d/gdm restart. (try running top to see if any programs are using all of your cpu.)
  4. OK, so you can't kill X or go into VT. Let's do a reboot, which can safely be done by pressing <Ctrl><Alt><Delete>. The machine will beep and start running the shutdown scripts.
  5. If for some reason one or more of the shutdown scripts does not work and the computer stops while at the rebooting process, press the key combination again (<Ctrl><Alt><Delete>) to do a force reboot. This is not safe if the scripts haven't gotten around to unmount the local filesystems.
  6. If you have an ATI video card on a laptop with AMD 64bit processors then go into your BIOS settings and set the video card to use UMA+Sideport if it's available. This is known to occur in Compaq R4000 with AMD Athlon64 and ATI Radeon XPress 200M, for example.
  7. Final way out: Your computer doesn't obey and none of above methods seem to give any response. Here's a little trick that might help, not known to many Linux users! The kernel has a small userspace communication line opened, so even if the computer has crashed badly (I haven't tried this during kernel-panic, though, can anyone confirm?) you can make it reboot safely. This method is safe, but should be used only if everything else fails! Hold down <Ctrl>, <Alt> and <PrtScrn/SysRq>. While holding down these, type the following letters - in order - R E I S U B. The computer will unmount any filesystems that are locally mounted, and safely bring down the system. If you have trouble remembering the letter combination; think busier, only backwards.

How to find the UUID of a device

  • This is useful if changes are made to the partition table or a new hard drive is added to the computer.
  • When the UUID(s) change an error will be caused during boot.
  • Pressing <Ctrl>-D will allow the boot to continue but to fix the problem:

-> Open fstab file:

sudo gedit /etc/fstab

-> In another terminal run this commmand:

ls -l /dev/disk/by-uuid/  

-> Or you can type this to list all of your devices:

blkid
  • Compare the UUID's and any that are different in fstab from the list must be changed. The easiest way is copy and paste.
  • Some other things may have to be edited as well like the mount point, type (ext2, ext3, ntfs, etc) , options, dump, pass, etc.

For more help editing fstab look Here:

  • To list the UUID of a specific device:
sudo vol_id -u device
  • Where device might be /dev/sdxy.

Example: sudo vol_id -u /dev/sda1

Enable vim syntax highlighting

The source of vi/vim command is vim-tiny package which does not support syntax highlighting. Install vim:

sudo apt-get install vim

Then open /etc/vim/vimrc and uncomment syntax on

Replace

"syntax on

With

syntax on

HAL

If you have problem failed to initialize HAL, and devices such as card reader,or shutdown problem, power meter doesn´t appear..please find this line in /etc/init.d/rc

sudo vim /etc/init.d/rc find this line : CONCURRENCY=shell

To fix this:

sudo nautilus

Navigate to /etc/ look for the folder rc2.d rename s12hal to s13hal, and S50dbus to S12dbus.

This problem is caused by HAL loading before DBUS and causing the error. These commands should fix the problem, but if they do not, try

sudo gedit /etc/init.d/rc

and turn CONCURRENCY=shell to CONCURRENCY=none

Enable Sirius Internet Radio for Firefox

Launch the player from www.sirius.com. After authenticating, you will now be able to select which stream to play. Selecting the stream will launch vlc.

Remove unwanted language/locale files

sudo apt-get install localepurge
sudo localepurge

Auto starting pidgin at login

Goto System -> Preferences -> Sessions. Click Add. A popup window will appear. Set Name to "Pidgin" and Command to "/usr/bin/pidgin". Click OK. Make sure that it is enabled.

sudo/gksu without password

EDITOR=gedit gksu visudo

Find "Defaults !lecture,tty_tickets,!fqdn" and replace by "Defaults timestamp_timeout=-1".

Speed-up Ubuntu

Open System -> Preferences -> Sessions and remove the startup programs that you do not need (e.g. Bluetooth Manager, Evolution Alarm Notifier, Restricted Driver Manager, Tracker, User folders update, Visual).

Open System -> Preferences -> Appearance and make Visual Effects to None.

Open System -> Administration -> Services and disable the services that you do not need (e.g. alsa-utils, bluetooth, brltty, hdparm, acpid, apmd, screen).

How to change the USplash Screen on startup/shutdown

When you add another Desktop Environment, the USplash screen may change (saying Kubuntu instead of Ubuntu). If you want to change it, do the following:

sudo update-alternatives --config usplash-artwork.so

This will bring up a list of installed USplash screens. Type the number that corresponds to the one you want and press Enter. Then type:

sudo dpkg-reconfigure usplash

Then reboot.

How to change the brown screen shown after the GDM Login window

One trick for get rid of the the brown screen shown after the GDM Login window is open the file /etc/gdm/PreSession/Default in a text editor with administrator privileges:

sudo gedit /etc/gdm/PreSession/Default

and search for the part that says:

# Default value
if [ “x$BACKCOLOR” = “x” ]; then
BACKCOLOR="#dab082"
fi

and change it to:

# Default value
if [ “x$BACKCOLOR” = “x” ]; then
BACKCOLOR=(new color in hex)
fi

For more information about this issue, please see the Launchpad bug report.

How to boot Ubuntu from ISO image on hard drive or USB stick

Copy ISO image to any partition or flash drive which you have. Add to kernel parameters:

find_iso=/path/to/image/ubuntu-live-cd.iso boot=casper

In the GRUB menu: press 'e', then point to kernel string, then again press 'e'. After edition press 'Enter', then 'b'.

If you boot from CD/DVD press 'F6'.

Guide Development

Note: This section was taken from the Feisty Guide and edited appropriately.

Place ideas here to increase the look and performance of this guide.

  • Add a guide to OpenLDAPServer setup. IE - Users and Groups stored on central server with login from any client machines on the network.
  • Add a section about how to install XEN and other non commercial virtual machines.
  • Add a new section for Gnome Themes from http://art.gnome.org and KDE Themes from http://www.kde-look.org/.
  • Have entries under their headings in alphabetical order.
  • Try to keep the guide neat and clutter free.
  • Possible "Short Version" Table of contents without each "How to".
  • Add a [top] link to the end of each article.
  • If possible, include a 'find/search' function to easily access queries.
    • This can be done in Firefox with <Ctrl>-F.
  • instead of 'apt-get install', there could be the new Gutsy apturl feature for easier installation of software
  • Awesome guide! What's lacking here and on the installation is generic guidance about installing hardware drivers. Especially for devices for internet connectivity, this is a make-or-break issue. If my WiFi adapters don't get installed automatically (they didn't) then it's a complete disaster for people who don't have easy internet access by another computer.
  • Guide should include info on mounting network folders on startup, just like previous guides. How hard can it be just to copy-paste when a new guide is to be released and then add/edit new stuff, in stead of writing each guide from scratch?
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