Ubuntu:Edgy ru

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Неофициальное руководство начинающего пользователя Ubuntu 6.10 (Edgy Eft)

Ubuntu 6.10 (Edgy Eft) был выпущен 26 октября 2006 г. Это руководство все еще в разработке. Приветствуется любая помощь в развитии и дополнении данного руководства.

Начало этому руководству было положено Chua Wen Kiat (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia). В настоящее время поддержка осуществляется Linux Center of University of Latvia и всеми желающими внести свой вклад.

Для того чтобы вносить изменения необходимо зарегистрироваться

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Старые версии


Список всех страниц: Ubuntu:Edgy/TOC


Contents


Общие замечания

  1. Это Неофициальное руководство начинающего пользователя Ubuntu 6.10 (Edgy Eft). Оно никоим образом не связано с Ubuntu и Canonical Ltd.
  2. Текст, написанный в голубой рамке - это команды для исполнения в терминальном режиме (Applications → System Tools → Terminal), а иногда, если указано, для других целей.
  3. Для уменьшения вероятности опечатки, скопируйте и вставьте команды в Терминал (правой кнопкой мыши → "Скопировать" или "Вставить". Также для копирования можно использовать Ctrl+C/Ctrl+Ins и Ctrl+V/Shift+Ins для вставки)
  4. "sudo" означает исполнение суперпользователем. "sudo" запросит пароль. Пожалуйста введите пароль пользователя
  5. Если вы хотите узнать больше о консольной команде, просто посмотрите раздел справки используя команду "man". Например, "man sudo" покажет страницу помощи по команде "sudo".
  6. Если Вам надоело постоянно писать "apt-get", прочтите #Более простая замена apt-get (Synaptic)
  7. командам "apt-get" и "wget" требуется соединение с Internet для установки/обновления/загрузки программ
  8. Чтобы загрузить файл, нажмите правой кнопкой мышки на ссылке → выберите "Save Link As..." → убедитесь в правильности имени и расширения файла
  9. Если Вы хотите помочь в переводе Ubuntu на ваш родной язык или еще каким-либо способом, посетите https://launchpad.net/
  10. Да пребудет с Вами вечно дух "человечности к другим"...
Если у вас 64х битная версия замените все строки с "i386" на "amd64"

Введение

Где посмотреть скриншоты и деморолики Ubuntu

Где посмотреть скриншоты и деморолики Kubuntu

Где посмотреть скриншоты и деморолики Xubuntu

Где посмотреть скриншоты и деморолики Edubuntu

Где посмотреть скриншоты и деморолики *buntu

Где искать новые программы

Где искать элементы оформления для вашего рабочего стола

Установка дополнительного программного обеспечения

Как подключить дополнительные репозитарии

sudo cp -p /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list_backup
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Замените всё следующими строками
Чтобы использовать локальное зеркало, расположенное в Вашей стране, Вы можете добавить "cc." перед archive.ubuntu.com (cc = код Вашей страны)
например deb http://lv.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy main restricted universe multiverse
## Ставьте знак комментария (##) перед любой строкой если хотите, чтобы она не обрабатывалась.   
## Используйте данный sources.list на свой страх и риск.

deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy main restricted universe multiverse

deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-proposed main restricted universe multiverse

## MAJOR BUG FIX UPDATES produced after the final release
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-updates main restricted universe multiverse

## UBUNTU SECURITY UPDATES
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-security main restricted universe multiverse

## BACKPORTS REPOSITORY (Неподдерживаемый. Может содержать нелегальные пакеты. Пользуйтесь на свой страх и риск.)
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-backports main restricted universe multiverse

## PLF REPOSITORY (Неподдерживаемый. Может содержать нелегальные пакеты. Пользуйтесь на свой страх и риск.)
deb http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/ edgy free
deb http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/ edgy non-free
deb-src http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/ edgy free
deb-src http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/ edgy non-free
                                                                                                                                         
## CANONICAL COMMERCIAL REPOSITORY (Размещён на серверах Canonical, не на серверах Ubuntu.
## RealPlayer10, Opera, DesktopSecure и многое другое в перспективе.) 
deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu edgy-commercial main

## Listen
#deb http://theli.free.fr/packages/ edgy listen
  • Сохраните отредактированный файл
wget -q http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
sudo aptitude update
  • Правьте файл sources.list идущий в дистрибутиве Ubuntu только если Вы чётко понимаете что Вы делаете. Конфликт репозитариев может привести к неустойчивой работе.

Как добавить дополнительные репозитарии, расположенные на DVD

Для пользователей, не имеющих широкополосного подключения, скачивание пакетов из интернета, может стать настоящей проблемой. Вы можете скачать пакеты в DVD-образах, записать на DVD-диск и использовать при каждой установке; при этом вам не понадобится скачивать что-либо снова.

  • Скачайте DVD:
для архитектуры i386
Main Repository
Universe - Multiverse - Restricted DVD1
Universe - Multiverse - Restricted DVD2
Universe - Multiverse - Restricted DVD3
или для архитектуры amd64
Main Repository
Universe - Multiverse - Restricted DVD1
Universe - Multiverse - Restricted DVD2
Universe - Multiverse - Restricted DVD3


  • System -> Administration -> Synaptic Package Manager (Система - Администрирование - Менеджер пакетов Synaptic)
  • Добавьте DVD-диск в список репозиториев:
    1. Настройки -> Репозитории -> Third Party
    2. Вставьте первый DVD-диск в привод и щелкните по кнопке Add Cdrom
    3. Присвойте имя добавленному DVD
    4. Повторите то же самое для каждого DVD-диска

"Автоматизированные" методы

Как установить EasyUbuntu
  • Прочтите #Общие замечания
  • Easy Ubuntu is a small straight-forward utility that allows novice users to easily install a wide variety of content for Ubuntu such as media codecs, fonts, Macromedia Flash and Sun Java.

Откройте терминал Menu -> Accessories -> Terminal и выполните следующие команды

wget http://easyubuntu.freecontrib.org/files/easyubuntu-3.023.tar.gz
tar -zxf easyubuntu-3.023.tar.gz
cd easyubuntu
cp packagelist-dapper.pot packagelist-edgy.pot
cp packagelist-dapper.xml packagelist-edgy.xml
sudo python easyubuntu.in
  • From the Easy Ubuntu window, check the appropriate boxes to download and install content to Ubuntu.
  • Note: Users of the previous EasyUbuntu 3.0 version may experience issues with installing Flash and Java.
  • If you would like automatic update, then follow these instructions:

в зависимости от используемой версии Ubuntu:

На Ubuntu:

sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list

На Kubuntu:

sudo kate /etc/apt/sources.list

На Xubuntu:

gksudo mousepad /etc/apt/sources.list

В вашем текстовом редакторе, который откроется, добавьте в конец файла /etc/apt/sources.list:

deb http://easyubuntu.cafuego.net main easyubuntu

From now on, EasyUbuntu should be automatically updated.

Как деинсталировать EasyUbuntu
sudo aptitude remove easyubuntu
  • Delete the easyubuntu directory
Как установить Automatix2 на Ubuntu, Kubuntu, и Xubuntu
  • Прочтите #Общие замечания
  • Automatix2 is Automatix written in python with a more user friendly interface and better overall design for automating the installation of the most commonly requested applications in Ubuntu/Kubuntu/Xubuntu linux.
  • Note: Before installing, please note that certain codecs it provides may be prohibited in certain countries. You are responsible for ensuring those laws are not broken.
  • Note: Please note that if you are using Xubuntu where it says "sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list" please replace with "gksudo mousepad /etc/apt/sources.list".
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list 
  • Add the following lines at the end of file
## Automatix repo
deb http://www.getautomatix.com/apt edgy main
  • NOTE: Kubuntu/Xubuntu users will need to uncomment (remove the # before the word "deb") all the additional sources as well as add the automatix repository.
  • Now save and close /etc/apt/sources.list and run the following commands from terminal (one by one, hitting enter after each step)
wget http://www.getautomatix.com/apt/key.gpg.asc
gpg --import key.gpg.asc
gpg --export --armor 521A9C7C | sudo apt-key add -

  • Update APT
sudo aptitude update
  • Run the following commands to install Automatix2
sudo aptitude install automatix2

  • Automatix2 can be started from the the Menu
Menu -> System -> Automatix
  • Automatix2 can be run from terminal by typing the folowing
automatix2
Ещё один скрипт для установки дополнительных программ

Примечание: Многие из этих программ включены в Automatix2.

wget http://www.iki.fi/kuparine/comp/ubuntu/install.sh
sh install.sh

Больше информации об этом методе инсталяции может быть найдено по адресу http://www.iki.fi/kuparine/comp/ubuntu/install.html

Ubuntu Updates

Apt, Software and Package Basics

Вот некоторые основные сведения о том, как пользоваться утилитой APT.

  • Установка пакетов
sudo aptitude install <packagename>

Примеры:

sudo aptitude install mpd sbackup
  • Удаление пакетов
sudo aptitude remove <packagename>

Примеры:

sudo aptitude remove mpd sbackup
  • Поиск пакетов
sudo aptitude search <keywords>

Примеры:

sudo aptitude search Music MP3
sudo aptitude search "Text Editor"
  • Обновление базы Apt (используйте после добавления/удаления Apt репозиториев)
sudo aptitude update
  • Апгрейд пакетов
sudo aptitude upgrade
  • Upgrade entire distribution
sudo aptitude dist-upgrade
  • Установка скачанного Ubuntu (Debian) пакета (.deb)
sudo dpkg -i package.deb
  • Удаление Ubuntu (Debian) пакета
sudo dpkg -r package
  • Reconfigure/Repair installed package
sudo dpkg-reconfigure package

Примеры:

sudo dpkg-reconfigure mpd
  • Handling ".tar.gz" (Tar/GZip) Archives

Разархивировать:

tar xvzf package.tar.gz

Создать:

tar cvfz package.tar.gz folder
  • Handling ".tar.bz" (Tar/BZip) Archives

To extract:

tar xvjf package.tar.bz

To create:

tar cvjf package.tar.bz folder
  • Extracting ".bz" Archives
bunzip2 file.bz
  • Extracting ".gz" Archives
gunzip file.gz
  • Building from Source

Make sure you have all the neccesary development tools (i.e. libraries, compilers, headers)

sudo aptitude install build-essential
sudo aptitude install linux-headers-`uname -r`

Extract your package (as detailed above)

tar xvzf package.tar.gz

Commence the build process

cd /path/to/extracted/package
./configure
make
make install

If build is successful, consider making an Ubuntu (Debian) package (.deb) for future use:

Install package tools:

sudo aptitude install checkinstall

Rebuild package using "checkinstall":

cd /path/to/extracted/package
./configure
make
checkinstall

Keep the resulting ".deb" file for future use. It can be installed using:

sudo dpkg -i package.deb

Note: These are basic instructions that may not always work. Some packages require additional dependencies and optional parameters to be specified in order to build them successfully.

Как вручную проапдейтить Ubuntu

sudo aptitude update
sudo aptitude upgrade
sudo aptitude dist-upgrade

ИЛИ

Используйте Update Manager: System -> Administration -> Update Manager

Add-On Applications

Java & Non-Media Browser Plug-ins

Как установить J2SE Runtime Environment (JRE) v5.0 с плагином для Mozilla Firefox

Замечание: Программа включена в Automatix2. If you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo aptitude install sun-java5-jre sun-java5-plugin
  • При запросе согласитель с положениями лицензии DLJ.

Как установить JRE v5.0 Update 10

Note: Program included in Automatix2. If you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

Choose "Java Runtime Environment (JRE) 5.0 Update 10" and click on "Download"
Accept License Agreement 
Download the "Linux self-extracting file"
  • Install the required tool :
sudo aptitude install java-package
  • Create the Ubuntu package :
fakeroot make-jpkg jre-1_5_0_10-linux-i586.bin
  • Install the resulting package :
sudo dpkg -i sun-j2re1.5_1.5.0+update10_i386.deb


  • Перезапустите Mozilla Firefox
  • If you get an error, try changing the 10's in the filenames to the appropriate version number.

How to Upgrade to Java Development Kit (JDK) v6.0

  • Set downloaded *.bin file permissions to executable (chmod +x)
  • Run the bin file in a terminal
  • Move the extracted directory to /usr/lib/jvm
mv ./jre1.6.0 /usr/lib/jvm/
  • Edit /etc/jvm and add /usr/lib/jvm/jre1.6.0 to the top of JVMs offered:
gksudo gedit /etc/jvm
  • Back-up you current java links
sudo -s
cd /etc/alternatives
mv java_vm java_vm_bkup
mv java java_bkup
  • Make new links (still in sudo mode and in /etc/alternatives directory)
ln -s /usr/lib/jvm/jre1.6.0/bin/java_vm
ln -s /usr/lib/jvm/jre1.6.0/bin/java
  • Note that this will not update your browser's plugins.

Как установить Java Development Kit (JDK) v5.0

Замечание: Program included in Automatix2. If you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo aptitude install sun-java5-jdk
  • Accept the licence agreement that appears.
  • Set Sun's JVM as default Java version:
sudo update-java-alternatives -s java-1.5.0-sun
  • Edit /etc/jvm and move /usr/lib/jvm/java-1.5.0-sun to the top of JVMs offered:
gksudo gedit /etc/jvm
  • To fix the Ubuntu "libfontmanager" issue that can kill the entire JVM (e.g. JasperReports), remove these troublesome fonts:
mkdir ~/fonts_backup
sudo mv /usr/share/fonts/truetype/ttf-gujarati-fonts/aakar-medium.ttf ~/fonts_backup/
sudo mv /usr/share/fonts/truetype/ttf-gujarati-fonts/Rekha.ttf ~/fonts_backup/

Installing Blackdown Java (for AMD64 systems with 64-bit Firefox)

Note: If you wish to use 64-bit Firefox and not install 32-bit Firefox on an AMD64 system, you will want to use Blackdown Java. Currently, Sun Java does not provide a 64-bit browser plugin. This option is only recommended for those running 64-bit only systems because there is no Java 1.5 alternative.

sudo aptitude install j2re1.4 j2re1.4-mozilla-plugin

How to install Flash Player (Macromedia Flash) Plug-in for Mozilla Firefox

Note: By default Ubuntu contains Flash version 7. If you have added all the repositories (backports) from this guide you will get version 9 beta 2. Note: Adobe has released Flash 9 for Linux which works with Firefox, Mozilla, and Seamonkey. At the time of this writing, you need to download the release directly from Adobe

Note: Program included in Automatix2. If you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo aptitude install flashplugin-nonfree
sudo update-flashplugin

Note: AMD64 users is not currently able to use the Adobe Flash plugin described above and may attempt the following procedures if you want to play flash video in Firefox. Another workaround is to install Opera Browser and add Flash Player 9 plugin in Opera.

Note: if you get an error message that the package is not found, try the Gnash (GNU Flash substitute)

sudo aptitude install mozilla-plugin-gnash

If for some reason the Gnash plugin does not work for you, you can try the older GPL flash plugin. This plugin is no longer being developed, but works for some content.

sudo aptitude install libflash-mozplugin
  • Restart Mozilla Firefox


Note: if firefox crashes when visiting a website with flash content, do the following:

sudo gedit /usr/bin/firefox

and add the following line as last but one line of the file:

export XLIB_SKIP_ARGB_VISUALS=1

Now firefox shouldn't crash anymore. (Launchpad bug report: [1])

  • Restart Mozilla Firefox


Note: if sound doesn't work in Flash Player (for example on YouTube):

sudo aptitude install alsa-oss
gksudo gedit /etc/firefox/firefoxrc

Change:

FIREFOX_DSP=""

To:

FIREFOX_DSP="aoss"
  • Restart Mozilla Firefox. Now sound should work in Flash Player.

How to install PDF Reader (Adobe Reader) with Plug-in for Mozilla Firefox

sudo aptitude install acroread mozilla-acroread acroread-plugins
  • Applications -> Office -> Adobe Reader
  • Restart Mozilla Firefox

Note: Adobe Reader 7.0 will not run if SCIM is running. You are running SCIM if you have installed another language to Ubuntu via System -> Administration -> Language Support. To circumvent, do the following

gksudo gedit /usr/bin/acroread

Измените:

#!/bin/sh
#

на:

#!/bin/sh
#
GTK_IM_MODULE=xim

Save the file. Now Adobe Reader 7.0 should work.

See also:

Как установить Google Toolbar в Firefox

Текущая версия Google Toolbar отлично работает в Ubuntu 6.06 с Firefox 1.5+

Запустите Firefox, перейдите по ссылке ниже

http://www.google.com/tools/firefox/toolbar/

затем нажмите на большую кнопку "Download Google Toolbar".

,официальная версия от Google пока не работает с Firefox 2.0 на Ubuntu Edgy, но есть пакет (rebuild) который работает - Google Toolbar Edgy (скачайте этот файл и запустите его в Firefox 2.0), больше информации вы можете получить по адресу UbuntuForums.org thread Внимание! Это расширение не подписано Mozalla, используя - используйте на свой страх и риск.

Internet

Как установить Firefox32 на AMD64

Taken from Ubuntu Forums This guide is only for installing a 32-bit edition of firefox in a 64-bit enviroment. Firefox is installed by default in Ubuntu Edgy

sudo aptitude update
sudo aptitude install ia32-libs gsfonts alsa-oss
sudo aptitude install ia32-libs-gtk lib32asound2 lib32ncurses5 ia32-libs-sdl
wget http://home.comcast.net/~next/firefox32-2.0-ubuntu-amd64.deb
wget http://home.comcast.net/~ubuntu64user/ia32-lib-firefox-amd64.deb
sudo dpkg -i --force-overwrite ia32-lib-firefox-amd64.deb
sudo dpkg -i firefox32-2.0-ubuntu-amd64.deb
sudo chmod +x /usr/local/bin/firefox32
  • Applications > Internet > Firefox32
How to install Flash 9 for Firefox32
wget http://fpdownload.macromedia.com/get/flashplayer/current/install_flash_player_9_linux.tar.gz
sudo tar -xzvf install_flash_player_9_linux.tar.gz
cd /usr/lib32/firefox32/plugins
sudo mv ~/install_flash_player_9_linux/libflashplayer.so /usr/lib32/firefox32/plugins/
sudo mv ~/install_flash_player_9_linux/flashplayer.xpt /usr/lib32/firefox32/plugins/
How to install Java v5.0.11 for Firefox32

Note: Download the "Linux (self-extracting file)", not the 64-bit package.

cd ~/Desktop
sudo chmod 777 ./jre-1_5_0_11-linux-i586.bin
sudo ./jre-1_5_0_11-linux-i586.bin
  • Accept the EULA
sudo mkdir /usr/local/java32
sudo cp -r -p ./jre1.5.0_11/* /usr/local/java32 
cd /usr/lib32/firefox32/plugins/
sudo ln -s /usr/local/java32/plugin/i386/ns7/libjavaplugin_oji.so ./
sudo chown -R <username>:users ~/.java

How to install Mplayer32 with Plugin for Firefox32

Как установить Opera web browser

sudo aptitude install libqt3-mt
wget http://ftp.wayne.edu/opera/linux/910/final/en/i386/shared/opera_9.10-20061214.6-shared-qt_en_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i opera_9.10-20061214.6-shared-qt_en_i386.deb
  • Applications -> Internet -> Opera
  • To get java working go to Tools->Preferences->Advanced->Content-> Check "Enable Java". Click the "Enable Java..." button enter "/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.5.0-sun/jre/lib/i386" (for sun java) in the new dialog and then click the "Validate Java Path" button.
sudo dpkg -i --force-all opera-static_9.10-20061214.1-qt_en_i386.deb

If you want to uninstall it for some reason, run

sudo apt-get remove opera
Install OpenMotif in Opera
sudo dpkg -i --force-all openmotif_2.1.30-5_i386.deb
How to install Flash Player in Opera
  • Since Opera is a 32-bit application and it also works in amd64 system. Installing Flash Player and other 32-bit plugins in Opera is a workaround for amd64 users who are not able to run those applications in other web browsers. Here is the way to install Flash Player for Opera.
  • Open Opera, click "Tools --> Advanced --> Plugins" to check the default plugin path. Assume it is "/usr/lib/opera/plugins/"
  • Download the latest flash plugin tarball install_flash_player_9_linux.tar.gz from http://www.adobe.com
tar -zxvf install_flash_player_9_linux.tar.gz
cd install_flash_player_9_linux
sudo cp libflashplayer.so /usr/lib/opera/plugins
sudo cp flashplayer.xpt /usr/lib/opera/plugins
  • If your Opera plugin path is something else, just replace the path in the above commands with your own path.
How to install Java J2SE (JRE) Runtime Environment for Opera
  • In addition to serving the purpose of running JRE for i386 users, the following method can also be used for amd64 users to run JRE from a web page.
tar -zxvf jre-1_5_0_11-linux-i586.bin
# Then you will see folder "jre1.5.0_11"
sudo cp jre1.5.0_11 /usr/lib
cd /usr/lib/opera/plugins
sudo ln -s /usr/lib/jre1.5.0_11/plugin/i386/ns7/libjavaplugin_oji.so .
  • Open Opera. Go to "Tool --> Preferences --> Advanced --> Contents". Select "Enable Java", and click button "Java Options" and select "/usr/lib/jre1.5.0_11/lib/i386" as the Java path. You can click button "Validate Java path" to validate it. Then click OK.
  • Restart Opera. Note that Opera opens separate X window for Java applications. You can use the mouse to resize the window for Java app.

How to install Download Manager (Downloader for X)

sudo aptitude install d4x
  • Applications -> Internet -> Downloader for X
How to uninstall Download Manager (Downloader for X)
sudo aptitude remove d4x

How to install FTP Client (gFTP)

sudo aptitude install gftp
  • Applications -> Internet -> gFTP
How to uninstall gFTP
sudo aptitude remove gftp

How to install IRC Client (XChat)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo aptitude install xchat xchat-systray 
  • Applications -> Internet -> XChat IRC
How to uninstall XChat
sudo aptitude remove xchat xchat-systray

Как установить почтовую программу Mozilla Thunderbird

Замечание: Эта программа включена в состав Automatix2. Если вы уже использовали Automatix2, эта программа могла быть установлена автоматически

sudo aptitude install mozilla-thunderbird
  • Applications -> Internet -> Thunderbird Mail Client

How to install Newsreader (Pan)

sudo aptitude install pan
  • Applications -> Internet -> Pan Newsreader

How to install RSS/RDF/Atom Newsreader (RSSOwl)

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin.tar.gz -C /opt/
sudo chown -R root:root /opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin/
gksudo gedit /usr/bin/runRSSOwl.sh
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
export MOZILLA_FIVE_HOME=/usr/lib/mozilla-firefox
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:${MOZILLA_FIVE_HOME}:${LD_LIBRARY_PATH}
cd /opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin/
./run.sh
  • Save the edited file
sudo chmod +x /usr/bin/runRSSOwl.sh
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/RSSOwl.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=RSSOwl
Comment=RSSOwl
Exec=runRSSOwl.sh
Icon=/opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin/rssowl.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Internet -> RSSOwl

How to install Internet Explorer + Flash 9 (IEs4Linux)

This will install a wine'd version of Internet Explorer 6 with Flash 9, as well as IE 5.5/5.01 if you really want them.

  • Note: This installed Flash 9 will NOT be available in browsers other than IE.
  • Note: Adobe has released Flash 9 for Linux(x86) which works with Firefox, Mozilla, and Seamonkey.
  • Install Cabextract. Open a terminal and run
sudo aptitude install cabextract
  • Open a terminal and run this:
wget http://www.tatanka.com.br/ies4linux/downloads/ies4linux-latest.tar.gz
tar zxvf ies4linux-latest.tar.gz
cd ies4linux-*
./ies4linux

Do not run this as root (no sudo), as this can cause the script to malfunction and ruin your X configuration.

How to install Messenger (Skype)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. If you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

  • With Edgy the Skype is not included in the Ubuntu repositories anymore.
sudo aptitude install libqt3-mt
wget http://www.skype.com/go/getskype-linux-deb
sudo dpkg -i skype_debian-*.deb
(Install 32-bit Skype in AMD64)

Note: This method will install 32-bit libraries in /usr/lib32.

  • Download the 32-bit libraries:
sudo aptitude install ia32-libs ia32-libs-gtk lib32asound2
  • Download i386 package of gcc-3.3-base, libstdc++5, libasound2.

Note: If these links become invalid, search for the packages at http://packages.ubuntu.com

wget http://lug.mtu.edu/ubuntu/pool/main/g/gcc-3.3/gcc-3.3-base_3.3.6-13ubuntu2_i386.deb
wget http://lug.mtu.edu/ubuntu/pool/main/g/gcc-3.3/libstdc++5_3.3.6-13ubuntu2_i386.deb
  • Download i386 package of skype from www.skype.com.
wget http://www.skype.com/go/getskype-linux-deb
sudo dpkg --force-architecture -i gcc-3.3-base_3.3.6-13ubuntu2_i386.deb
sudo dpkg --force-architecture -i libstdc++5_3.3.6-13ubuntu2_i386.deb  
  • Download libqt-mt.so.3 and put it in /usr/lib32
cd /tmp
wget http://bombazyn.mine.nu/Ubuntu/asound32-qtmt32.tar.bz2
cd /usr/lib32
sudo tar xjvf /tmp/asound32-qtmt32.tar.bz2
  • Download libaudio.so.2 and libaudio.so.2.4 and put it in /usr/lib32
cd /tmp
wget http://lug.mtu.edu/ubuntu/pool/main/n/nas/libaudio2_1.8-2_i386.deb
ar -x libaudio2_1.8-2_i386.deb
tar zxf data.tar.gz
sudo cp usr/lib/libaudio.so.2.4 /usr/lib32/
sudo cp usr/lib/libaudio.so.2 /usr/lib32/
  • Install Skype.
cd ~/
sudo dpkg --force-architecture -i skype_debian-*.deb
  • To run Applications > Internet > Skype
(Alternative Method - Official Skype Repository)
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add the following lines to the end of file
## Official Skype Repository
deb http://download.skype.com/linux/repos/debian/ stable non-free
sudo aptitude update
sudo aptitude install skype
  • To run Applications > Internet > Skype

Peer to Peer (P2P)

How to install File share utility (LinuxDC++)

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/linuxdcpp.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf linuxdcpp.tar.gz -C /opt
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/linuxdcpp.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Encoding=UTF-8
Name=LinuxDC++
Exec=linuxdcpp
Terminal=false
Type=Application
StartupNotify=true
Icon=/opt/linuxdcpp/pixmaps/linuxdcpp.png
Categories=Application;Network;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Internet -> LinuxDC++
  • If you want to build the latest version from CVS use this guide

How to install P2P BitTorrent Client (Azureus)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo aptitude install azureus
  • Applications -> Internet -> Azureus
(Alternative Method)

The above method installs a version of Azureus compiled with gcj, the free alternative to Sun's Java.

wget http://kent.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/azureus/Azureus_2.5.0.4_linux.tar.bz2
sudo tar jxvf Azureus_2.5.0.4_linux.tar.bz2 -C /opt/
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/azureus.desktop
  • Add the following to the new file
[Desktop Entry] 
Name=Azureus
Comment=Java BitTorrent Client
Exec=/opt/azureus/azureus
Icon=/opt/azureus/Azureus.png
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Internet -> Azureus
How to uninstall Azureus
sudo aptitude remove azureus

How to install P2P BitTorrent Client (Bittornado)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo aptitude install bittornado bittornado-gui

After installing Bittorrent or Bittornado open a firewall for your local IP

sudo iptables -I INPUT -p tcp --destination-port 6881:6999 -j ACCEPT

Now if you specify those ports in your client and you will see better down and up speeds.

  • Applications -> Internet -> Bittornado Client
How to uninstall Bittornado
sudo aptitude remove bittornado bittornado-gui

Как установить P2P клиент eMule (aMule)

Note: Программа включена в Automatix2 и Easy Ubuntu. Если вы уже используете одну из них, эта программа возможно уже установлена.

sudo aptitude install amule
  • Applications -> Internet -> aMule
Как удалить P2P клиент eMule (aMule)
sudo aptitude remove amule

How to install P2P Gnutella Client (FrostWire)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

wget -c http://fuse.frostwire.com/frostwire/4.13.1/frostwire-4.13.1.5-1.i586.deb
sudo dpkg -i frostwire-4.13.1.5-1.i586.deb
  • Applications -> Internet -> FrostWire

An additional stage for users of Beryl (as of Beryl-0.1.4).

How to use utorrent

This assumes you have downloaded utorrent and installed wine.

   sudo gedit /usr/bin/utorrent

Paste the inside of that file

   #!/bin/sh
   cd ~/YOURPATH/utorrent
   if [ "$1" != "" ]; then
   var="`echo $1 | sed 's/\//\\\/g'`"
   var="Z:${var}"
   wine utorrent.exe "$var"
   else
   wine utorrent.exe
   fi

Replace "YOURPATH" with the location of uTorrent. Save and exit then type the following to make it executable.

   sudo chmod a+x /usr/bin/utorrent


How to install P2P Gnutella Client (LimeWire)

When you are prompted to install Dash, select “NO.”

sudo dpkg-reconfigure dash
wget http://www.limewire.com/LimeWireSoftLinux
sudo alien -d LimeWireLinux.rpm
sudo dpkg -i *.deb

Multimedia Players & Browser Plug-ins

Как установить кодеки

sudo aptitude install gstreamer0.10-ffmpeg gstreamer0.10-gl gstreamer0.10-plugins-base \
gstreamer0.10-plugins-good gstreamer0.10-plugins-bad gstreamer0.10-plugins-bad-multiverse \
gstreamer0.10-plugins-ugly gstreamer0.10-plugins-ugly-multiverse libxine-extracodecs w32codecs 

Stubby: Все кодеки работают нормально кроме wmv.

TTo: Чтобы заставить работать WMV9 попробуй:

sudo aptitude install gstreamer0.10-pitfdll && rm -r ~/.gstreamer-0.10/


Tip: WMV9 на amd64 может работать только в vlc (без настройки, из официального репозитория) или установи mplayer (Версию 1.0rc1 или выше)

How to install DVD playback capability

ironss: gstreamer dvd plugin is available as part of plugins-bad (or ugly?) and does not work reliably. However, Totem works with the xine backend to play back DVDs. This will keep you going until gstreamer gets dvd playback. Note that you do not have to install xine-ui or mplayer as suggested in

sudo aptitude install libdvdread3 
sudo /usr/share/doc/libdvdread3/install-css.sh
sudo aptitude install totem-xine

Stubby: gstreamer dvd plugin not ported to Edgy yet. following instructions will not work properly

sudo aptitude install libdvdcss2

How to install MIDI sound server (Timidity++)

  • Read #General Notes
  • Read #How to add extra repositories
  • Timidity allows for the playback of MIDI by those who do not have MIDI hardware or MIDI processing built into their sound card (most users) via a software synthesizer.
  • First install Timidity
sudo aptitude install timidity
  • Set up Timidity to start on boot
sudo gedit /etc/default/timidity
  • Uncomment the following line (remove the "#" sign)
#TIM_ALSASEQ=true
  • Set the required modules to load as well
sudo gedit /etc/modules
  • Add the following modules to the end of the file
snd-seq-device
snd-seq-midi
snd-seq-oss
snd-seq-midi-event
snd-seq
  • Restart your computer

How to install Multimedia Playing Server (MPD)

Note: MPD is a audio playing server. It acts as a digital jukebox allowing playlist management over the network. The computer with MPD running on needs to be connected to an Amplifier (or similar) as it does not stream audio by default, it simply plays it. However, it can be configured to stream using Icecast and JACK.

Music Player Daemon (MPD)

  • Install MPD
sudo aptitude install mpd
  • Create link to your audio (MP3 etc) collection
sudo ln -s /path/to/your/music /var/lib/mpd/music/collection
  • Restart MPD
sudo /etc/init.d/mpd restart
  • Advanced Configuration
gksudo gedit /etc/mpd.conf
  • Install standard Gnome client

Alternative clients, including web-based versions are detailed on the MPD Wiki.

sudo aptitude install gmpc
  • Configure GMPC

Click Applications > Sound & Video > Gnome Music Player Client

Click on Options icon, set Host, Port and connection options. The default settings will connect to MPD running on "localhost". Set the "Autoconnect" option if required. The default MPD port is 6600, make sure you unblock this port on your firewall.

  • Using GMPC

Click on Playlist icon. Expand the "Browse Filesystem" tree, right-click on your audio collection and click "Update". This will cause the MPD server to reindex your audio files. No files are changed during this process.

When completed, navigate through your audio via the "Browse Filesystem" tree. Right-click on folders and tracks to add them to playlist, or manage existing playlist.

How to install Multimedia Player (xine-ui)

sudo aptitude install xine-ui libxine-extracodecs
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> xine

How to install Multimedia Player (VLC) with plug-in for Mozilla Firefox

sudo aptitude install vlc vlc-plugin-* mozilla-plugin-vlc
  • In order to stream video via vlc, you also need to install the following packages.
sudo aptitude install avahi-daemon
sudo aptitude install avahi-utils
Applications -> Sound and Video -> VLC Media Player

How to install Multimedia Player (Mplayer) with plug-in for Mozilla Firefox

sudo aptitude install mozilla-mplayer
Applications -> Sound and Video -> MPlayer Movie Player


Tip: For AMD64 Users

If you want to easily install the latest version of mplayer (Version 1.0rc1 at the moment of writing) that it is supporting the native playback of videos using the WMV9 codec add the following repository into your sources.list.

deb http://ubuntu.moshen.de/ edgy misc multimedia

How to install Multimedia Player (Totem) with plug-in for Mozilla Firefox

sudo aptitude install totem-gstreamer-firefox-plugin
  • Restart Mozilla Firefox
How to uninstall Totem with plug-in for Mozilla Firefox
sudo aptitude remove totem-gstreamer-firefox-plugin

How to install Multimedia Player (XMMS)

sudo aptitude install xmms xmms-skins
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/xmms-wma_1.0.4-2_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i xmms-wma_1.0.4-2_i386.deb
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> XMMS

How to install Multimedia Player (Songbird)

First download this shell script from Psychocats.net Open up the terminal and type these commands in one at a time

cd Desktop
chmod +x installsongbird.sh
./installsongbird.sh
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> Songbird

To remove if you want use this shell script and use the same instructions that you used to install songbird but substitute install with remove.

Как установить мультимидийный плеер Amarok

sudo aptitude install amarok
  • Приложения -> Sound & Video -> amaroK


Note: If amaroK complains about the "dcopserver" program not running, follow this tip from http://www.ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=107269&highlight=dcopserver Make sure to replace "myusername" with your user name!

sudo chown -R myusername:myusername /home/myusername/.*
How to uninstall amaroK
sudo aptitude remove amarok

How to install Music Manager and Player (Banshee)

sudo aptitude install banshee
How to uninstall Banshee
sudo aptitude remove banshee

How to install Multimedia Player (RealPlayer 10)

sudo aptitude install realplay
Note: 'realplay' installs RealPlayer 10 from PLF repository, which you should be enabled if you followed this guide. 'realplayer' installs RealPlayer 8 from multiverse.
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> RealPlayer 10
  • It will also install all the necessary plugins automagically for it to view embedded real videos in Firefox
  • To avoid issues of flickering or screen going blank when switching windows, goto
  • RealPlayer 10 -> Tools -> Preferences -> Hardware -> Uncheck XVideo

Alternative Source

Then add execute permissions to the installer and execute it.

chmod +x RealPlayer10GOLD.bin
sudo ./RealPlayer10GOLD.bin

How to install Stream Directory Browser (streamtuner)

sudo aptitude install streamtuner streamripper
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> streamtuner
How to uninstall Stream Directory Browser (streamtuner)
sudo aptitude remove streamtuner streamripper

How to install Internet TV (DemocracyTV beta)

  • If your system has a 32bit processor (i386) open a Terminal and type
wget http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/pculture.org/democracy/linux/ubuntu/democracyplayer-data_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_all.deb
wget http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/pculture.org/democracy/linux/ubuntu/democracyplayer_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_i386.deb
sudo aptitude upgrade
sudo dpkg -i democracyplayer-data_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_all.deb
sudo aptitude install mozilla-browser mozilla-psm mozilla-dev
sudo dpkg -i democracyplayer_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_i386.deb


  • if your system has a 64bit processor (amd64)
wget http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/pculture.org/democracy/linux/ubuntu/democracyplayer-data_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_all.deb
wget http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/pculture.org/democracy/linux/ubuntu/democracyplayer_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_amd64.deb
sudo aptitude upgrade
sudo dpkg -i democracyplayer-data_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_all.deb
sudo aptitude install mozilla-browser mozilla-psm mozilla-dev
sudo dpkg -i democracyplayer_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_amd64.deb

  • in both cases you might also need to install dependencies of the player package if dpkg returns a dependency error.
sudo aptitude -f install
  • to get support for more formats you have to install libxine-extracodecs (check Restricted Formats for more info)
sudo aptitude install libxine-extracodecs

or use an alternate procedure: double click (or right click and select "Open with gdebi") on the deb files so they are opened with gdebi, first democracyplayer-data_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_all.deb and after that democracyplayer_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_i386.deb (if you have a 32bit processor) or democracyplayer_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_amd64.deb (if you have a 64bit processor)

  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> Democracy TV

Multimedia Editors & misc tools

How to install Music Organizer (Cowbell)

sudo aptitude install cowbell
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> Cowbell Music Organizer
How to uninstall Cowbell
sudo aptitude remove cowbell

How to install ID3 Tag Editor (EasyTAG)

sudo aptitude install easytag
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> EasyTAG
How to uninstall ID3 Tag Editor (EasyTAG)
sudo aptitude remove easytag

Как удалить программу для редактирования видео (Kino)

sudo aptitude install kino
sudo aptitude install kinoplus
sudo aptitude install kino-timfx
sudo aptitude install kino-dvtitler
  • Приложения -> Sound & Video -> Kino Video Editor
Как удалить программу для редактирования видео (Kino)
sudo aptitude remove kino kinoplus kino-timfx kino-dvtitler

How to install Audio Editor (Audacity)

sudo aptitude install audacity

to add the mp3 encoder library:

sudo aptitude install liblame-dev
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> Audacity
How to uninstall Audacity
sudo aptitude remove audacity

How to install Music Composition Program (NoteEdit)

sudo aptitude install noteedit lilypond
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/noteedit.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=NoteEdit
Comment=A free music score editor
Exec=noteedit
Icon=/usr/share/app-install/icons/noteedit.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;AudioVideo;
  • Save the file
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> NoteEdit

How to install FMOD Ex audio libraries

wget "http://www.fmod.org/files/fmodapi40605linux.tar.gz"
tar xvzf fmodapi40605linux.tar.gz
cd fmodapi40605linux
sudo make install # neads no compiling

Image Editors, Viewers,etc.

How to install Image Viewer (digiKam)

sudo aptitude install digikam digikamimageplugins kipi-plugins
  • Applications -> Graphics -> digikam

How to install Picasa image organizer

gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add the following lines at the end of file
# Google Picasa for Linux repository
deb http://dl.google.com/linux/deb/ stable non-free
  • Save the edited file
sudo aptitude update
sudo aptitude install picasa
  • Applications -> Graphics -> Picasa

How to install Vector Graphics Editor (Inkscape)

sudo aptitude install inkscape


Second installation method:

1. Download the official Inkscape Linux installer.
2. Choose a mirror and save it to your Desktop.
3. Right-click it, enable "Properties --> Permissions --> Owner:Execute" and close the dialogue box. (One-time procedure)
4. Double-click it and follow the instructions.
5. Install the support code system-wide, if you have the root password. (One-time procedure)

NOTE: You can and should install the program as a User, rather than Root. This is easily accomplished with the second method.

Development & Programming

How to install WYSIWYG Web Authoring System (Nvu)

sudo aptitude install nvu
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Programming -> Nvu

How to install Web Authoring System (BlueFish)

sudo aptitude install bluefish

  • Applications -> Programming -> Bluefish Editor

How to install Web Development Environment (quanta plus)

sudo aptitude install quanta
  • Applications -> Programming -> Quanta Plus

How to install Project Management Application (Planner)

sudo aptitude install planner
  • Applications -> Office -> Project Management

How to install jedit

wget -c http://optusnet.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/jedit/jedit_4.3pre8_all.deb
sudo dpkg -i jedit_4.3pre8_all.deb
  • Applications -> Programming -> Programmers text editor jedit

How to install Python Development Tools

Python Dev Tools

sudo aptitude install gcc libc6-dev python-dev python-setuptools python2.4-profiler

Install EZ Setup (tool for installing Python stuff)

wget http://peak.telecommunity.com/dist/ez_setup.py
sudo python ez_setup.py

Upgrade Setup Tools

sudo easy_install -U --script-dir /usr/local/bin setuptools

Install TurboGears Framework (optional)

sudo easy_install --script-dir /usr/local/bin TurboGears

How to install Integrated Development Environment (Anjuta)

sudo aptitude install anjuta
  • Applications -> Programming -> Anjuta IDE

How to install C# Integrated Development Environment (MonoDevelop)

sudo aptitude install mono mono-gmcs mono-gac mono-utils monodevelop

How to install Java Integrated Development Environment (Eclipse)

sudo aptitude install eclipse
  • By default Eclipse will use GNU's java instead of Sun's. This will make Eclipse run very slowly and crash from time to time. To solve this problem, we will use Sun's JVM.
  • Install Sun JRE:
sudo aptitude install sun-java5-jre sun-java5-plugin sun-java5-bin sun-java5-fonts
  • Make Sun's JVM default:
sudo update-alternatives --config java
  • Choose the line that says
/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.5.0-sun/jre/bin/java.
  • Edit the JVM Configuration file:
gksudo gedit /etc/jvm
# This file defines the default system JVM search order. Each
# JVM should list their JAVA_HOME compatible directory in this file.
# The default system JVM is the first one available from top to
# bottom.

/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.5.0-sun
/usr/lib/jvm/java-gcj
/usr/lib/jvm/ia32-java-1.5.0-sun
/usr


  • Next, we need to tell Eclipse to use this JVM as well. This can be done on systemlevel or userlevel.
  • System:
gksudo gedit /etc/eclipse/java_home
# This file determines the search order the Eclipse Platform uses to find a
# compatible JAVA_HOME. This setting may be overridden on a per-user basis by
# altering the JAVA_HOME setting in ~/.eclipse/eclipserc.

/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.5.0-sun
/usr/lib/jvm/java-gcj
/usr/lib/kaffe/pthreads
/usr/lib/j2se/1.5
/usr/lib/j2se/1.4
/usr/lib/j2sdk1.5-ibm
/usr/lib/j2sdk1.4-ibm
/usr/lib/j2sdk1.5-sun
/usr/lib/j2sdk1.4-sun
  • User:
gedit ~/.eclipse/eclipserc
JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.5.0-sun/


  • Applications -> Development -> Eclipse

How to install OpenCobol

  • After installing the build-essential, Run these lines of code
sudo aptitude install open-cobol
sudo aptitude install libdb4.4-dev libncurses5-dev libncursesw5-dev
  • Make a file called test.cob and put in this sample code (indentation is required)
	IDENTIFICATION DIVISION.
		PROGRAM-ID. hello.
		PROCEDURE DIVISION.
		DISPLAY "Hello World!".
		STOP RUN.
  • Save this, and open up a terminal in the directory that this file is in, and run the following command
cobc test.cob
./test
  • The program will output

hello world!

How to install Basic Compilers (build-essential)

sudo aptitude install build-essential

Finance

How to install Accounting Application (GnuCash)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo aptitude install gnucash
  • Applications -> Office -> GnuCash

How to install Personal Accounting Software (Eqonomize!)

sudo aptitude install eqonomize
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/eqonomize.desktop
  • Add the following to the new file
[Desktop Entry] 
Name=Eqonomize!
Comment=Personal Accounting Software
Exec=eqonomize %i %m -caption "%c"
Terminal=false
Type=Application
MimeType=application/x-eqonomize
Categories=Application;Office;
X-DCOP-ServiceType=Unique
X-DCOP-ServiceName=eqonomize
X-KDE-StartupNotify=true
Comment=Personal finances manager / bookkeeping software
X-Ubuntu-Gettext-Domain=desktop_eqonomize
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Office -> Eqonomize!

CD & DVD burning & ripping

How to install DVD Ripper (dvd::rip)

sudo aptitude install dvdrip vcdimager cdrdao subtitleripper
sudo ln -fs /usr/bin/rar /usr/bin/rar-2.80
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/dvdrip.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=dvd::rip 
Comment=dvd::rip
Exec=dvdrip
Icon=/usr/share/perl5/Video/DVDRip/icon.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;AudioVideo;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> dvd::rip

How to install DVD Ripper (AcidRip)

sudo aptitude install acidrip

Note: AcidRip will not recognize dvd if dma is turned on. If so undo the process #How to speed up CD/DVD-ROM.

How to install CD Ripper (Goobox)

sudo aptitude install goobox
sudo rm -f /usr/share/applications/goobox.desktop
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/goobox.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=CD Player & Ripper
Comment=Play and extract CDs
Exec=goobox
Icon=goobox.png
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;AudioVideo;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> CD Player & Ripper

How to install CD/DVD Burning Application (GnomeBaker)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo aptitude install gnomebaker
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> GnomeBaker

How to install CD/DVD Burning Application (K3b)

sudo aptitude install k3b libk3b2-mp3
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> K3b

Network

How to install Dialup PPP Client (GNOME PPP)

sudo aptitude install gnome-ppp
  • Applications -> Internet -> GNOME PPP

How to install Broadband ADSL/PPPoE Client (RP-PPPoE)

wget -c http://www.roaringpenguin.com/files/download/rp-pppoe-3.8.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf rp-pppoe-3.8.tar.gz -C /opt/
sudo chown -R root:root /opt/rp-pppoe-3.8/
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/RP-PPPoE.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=RP-PPPoE
Comment=RP-PPPoE
Exec=gksudo /opt/rp-pppoe-3.8/go-gui
Icon=pppoeconf.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Internet -> RP-PPPoE

How to use Bluetooth to share files

sudo aptitude install bluez-utils gnome-bluetooth
  • Open Applications -> Accessories -> Bluetooth file sharing
  • You're now able to receive files from other Bluetooth-devices
  • To send a file: find a file to send, right click and choose "Send to", wait until the other device is detected, and click "send".

To see if your Bluetooth-device is supported check this site: http://www.holtmann.org/linux/bluetooth/features.html

Система

Как установить Boot-Up Manager (BUM)

sudo aptitude install bum
  • System -> Administration -> Boot-Up Manager

Как установить редактор разделов диска (GParted)

sudo aptitude install gparted
  • System -> Administration -> GNOME Partition Editor (GParted)

Как установить дополнительные шрифты

sudo aptitude install xfonts-intl-arabic
sudo aptitude install xfonts-intl-asian
sudo aptitude install xfonts-intl-chinese
sudo aptitude install xfonts-intl-chinese-big
sudo aptitude install xfonts-intl-european
sudo aptitude install xfonts-intl-japanese
sudo aptitude install xfonts-intl-japanese-big
sudo aptitude install xfonts-intl-phonetic
sudo aptitude install gsfonts-x11
sudo aptitude install msttcorefonts
sudo fc-cache -f -v
Tip: if Microsoft core fonts are too small you can improve the look by importing configuration file:
wget http://www.osresources.com/files/centos-windows-fonts/fontconfig.tbz
sudo tar xvjpf fontconfig.tbz -C /etc/fonts/
Note: Ubuntu Edgy comes with the DejaVu fonts (derived from Bitstream Vera) and provides adequate support for Latin, Greek and Cyrillic based languages.

Безопасность

Как установить файрвол (Firestarter)

sudo aptitude install firestarter
  • System -> Administration -> Firestarter

How to install a GUI desktop On-Access Anti-Virus Scanner for KDE (KlamAV)

Follow the Kubuntu KlamAV installation procedure described in the KlamAV FAQ. Read the instructions carefully - there is more to the installation than simply apt-get-ing the klamav package.
  • Applications -> System -> KlamAV Anti-Virus Manager

Как установить сетевой анализатор траффика (Ethereal)

Замечание: Ethereal has been abandoned by its developers in favor of Wireshark.
sudo aptitude install ethereal
  • Applications -> Internet -> Ethereal

Как установить сетевой анализатор траффика (Wireshark)

sudo aptitude install wireshark
  • Applications -> Internet -> Wireshark

Как установить сканер уязвимостей (Nessus)

sudo aptitude install nessus
sudo aptitude install nessusd
sudo nessus-adduser
sudo ln -fs /etc/init.d/nessusd /etc/rc2.d/S20nessusd
sudo /etc/init.d/nessusd start
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/Nessus.desktop
  • Вставьте следующие строки в новый файл:
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Nessus
Comment=Nessus
Exec=nessus
Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/nessus.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;System;
  • Сохраните отредактированный файл
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Nessus

Архиваторы / Пакеты/ Сжатие

Как установить архиватор 7z ( .7z)

sudo aptitude install p7zip-full

Как установить архиватор RAR (rar)

Замечание: Программа включена в Automatix2. Если уже используется Automatix2 , эта программа установлена

sudo aptitude install rar unrar
  • Applications -> Accessories -> Archive Manager

Как установить конвертор .rpm в .deb (Alien)

sudo aptitude install alien

Как создавать Ubuntu/Debian пакеты (CheckInstall)

sudo aptitude install checkinstall
  • When compiling software from source, replace "make install" with "checkinstall"
./configure
make
checkinstall

A Debian package (.deb) will now be created in the current directory.

  • To install the created package
sudo dpkg -i package_name.deb
  • Consider copying your package to a personal Apt Repository

#Personal Apt Repository

Игры

Как установить игру Tuxracer

sudo aptitude install planetpenguin-racer planetpenguin-racer-data planetpenguin-racer-extras
  • Applications -> Games -> planetpenguin-racer

Как установить игру Frozen-Bubble

sudo aptitude install frozen-bubble
  • Applications -> Games -> Frozen-Bubble

Как установить игру Scorched3D

sudo aptitude install scorched3d
  • Applications -> Games -> Scorched 3D

How to install real-time-strategy game (globulation 2 alpha21)

wget http://globulation2.org/releases/0.8.21/glob2_alpha21_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i glob2_alpha21_i386.deb

You might also need to install dependencies if dpkg returns a dependency error

sudo aptitude -f install

To play use this command:

glob2

How to install KDE Edutainment applications

sudo aptitude install kdeedu
  • Applications -> Education -> ...

How to install Nexuiz a 3d deathmatch game

  • Unpack the archive for example to /opt directory (ca. 200 MB needed)
sudo unzip nexuiz-<version>.zip -d /opt
wget http://www.kde-look.org/content/download.php?content=27478
tar -zxf 27478-nexuiz-fire.tar.gz
sudo mv Nexuizicon* /opt/Nexuiz/
rm 27478-nexuiz-fire.tar.gz
  • Create a Desktop Entry
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/nexuiz.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Nexuiz
Comment=A 3D Deathmatch Game
Exec=/opt/Nexuiz/nexuiz-linux-sdl.sh
Icon=/opt/Nexuiz/Nexuizicon64x64.png
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Game;
  • If you experience problems you can exchange the Exec line with: Exec=/opt/Nexuiz/nexuiz-linux-glx.sh

Yet to be Categorized

How to install 3D modeling tool (Blender 3d)

sudo aptitude install blender
  • Applications -> Graphics -> Blender 3D modeller

How to install Chinese Input Method (SCIM)

Please follow the official Ubuntu guide HERE

How to install Desktop Applets (gDesklets)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo aptitude install gdesklets gdesklets-data

How to install virtual planetarium (Stellarium)

sudo aptitude install stellarium
  • Applications -> Other -> Stellarium

How to install Google Earth

wget -c http://dl.google.com/earth/GE4/GoogleEarthLinux.bin
sudo sh GoogleEarthLinux.bin
  • Leave /usr/local/google-earth as the installation path
  • After installation click Exit. If you instead chose to run the application, read the Note below.
sudo cp /opt/google-earth/googleearth.desktop /usr/share/applications/
  • Applications -> Internet -> Google Earth
  • Note: If you run Google Earth for the first time from the installer, it will require root privileges to run the next time. To fix that:
sudo chmod 777 -R ~/.googleearth

How to install Virtual Machine Manager (VMware Server)

  • Register an account here to get your free serial number. The number will be emailed.
sudo aptitude install linux-headers-`uname -r` build-essential xinetd
wget -c http://download3.vmware.com/software/vmserver/VMware-server-1.0.1-29996.tar.gz
tar xzf VMware-server-1.0.1-29996.tar.gz -C /tmp
cd /tmp/vmware-server/distrib
sudo ./vmware-install.pl
  • Accept all defaults and enter your serial.
  • Applications -> System Tools -> VMware Server Console
  • Please see this thread if you have problems: Ubuntu Forums

Как установить приложения Windows в Linux (Wine)

Wine не эмулятор Emulator. Wine is an Open Source implementation of the Windows API on top of X and Unix. Think of Wine as a compatibility layer for running Windows programs. Wine does not require Microsoft Windows, as it is a completely free alternative implementation of the Windows API consisting of 100% non-Microsoft code, however Wine can optionally use native Windows DLLs if they are available.

In other words, Wine will let you run Windows applications in Linux.

  • Сначала добавтьте репозитарий для Wine:
gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • В конец этого файла добавьте следующие строки
# Repository for wine
deb http://wine.budgetdedicated.com/apt edgy main
deb-src http://wine.budgetdedicated.com/apt edgy main
  • Сохраните отредактированный файл
  • Acquire public key
gpg --keyserver hkp://subkeys.pgp.net --recv-keys 58403026387EE263
gpg --export --armor 58403026387EE263 | sudo apt-key add -
  • Update and install Wine package
sudo aptitude update
sudo aptitude install wine

How to install a Quran researching tool (zekr)

Zekr is an open platform Quran study tool for simply browsing and researching on the Holy Quran. It is a Quran-based project, planned to be a universal, open source, and cross-platform application to perform most of the usual refers to Quran. The main idea is to build an as generic as possible platform to accept different Islamic resources.

Currently Zekr has English, Farsi, French, German, Arabic, Indonesian, Russian, Dutch, Kurdish, Malay, and Turkish built-in language packs. In addition, it includes English, Farsi, and Russian Quran translations.

  • Make sure that Sun JRE is the default JRE.
  • Download and install zekr:
wget http://superb-west.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/zekr/zekr_0.5.0b2-1_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i zekr_0.5.0b2-1_i386.deb

How to install a Drop Down Terminal like in First Person Shooters (tilda)

Do you want a console like in a first person shooter? Tilda should take care of you.

sudo aptitude install tilda
  • The default keybinding is F1. To change the default keybinding, either enter tilda -C at the terminal, or right click on the tilda terminal then click Preferences. While in preferences, you can change other things such as transparency, font, size, and window size.

How to install a password manager (Revelation)

sudo aptitude install revelation
  • Applications -> Accessories -> Revelation Password Manager
How to uninstall Revelation
sudo aptitude remove revelation

How to Automatically cycle Flickr images as your Ubuntu desktop wallpaper

Check here for Ubuntu Wallpapers You want to make your ubuntu desktop more Colourful and Beautiful this is for you


How to install WinPopup (LinPopUp)

sudo aptitude install linpopup
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/linpopup.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=LinPopUp
Comment=LinPopUp
Exec=linpopup
Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/linpopup.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Utility;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Accessories -> LinPopUp

How to install Desktop Publishing Application (Scribus)

sudo aptitude install scribus
  • Applications -> Office -> Scribus

How to install Diagram Editor (Dia)

sudo aptitude install dia-gnome
  • Applications -> Graphics -> Dia

How to install Compiled HTML Help (CHM) Viewer (xCHM)

sudo aptitude install xchm
  • Applications -> Graphics -> xCHM

Other Desktop Environments

How to install KDE

sudo apt-get install kubuntu-desktop
Note: This installation will require ~400MB of disk space
  • System -> Log Out -> Log Out
  • To log in to KDE click on Sessions and choose KDE

How to install XFCE

sudo apt-get install xubuntu-desktop
  • System -> Log Out -> Log Out
  • To log in to XFCE click on Sessions and choose XFCE

How to install XFCE 4.4

sudo aptitude update
sudo aptitude install xubuntu-desktop
  • Also recomended to install thunar-volman, the tool for automatic mount of removable devices
sudo aptitude install thunar-volman

How to install XFCE 4.4 RC2

  • to install Xfce 4.4 RC2 on a fresh install:
sudo apt-get install build-essential gcc pkg-config libglib2.0-0 libglib2.0-dev libgtk2.0-0 libgtk2.0-dev \
     libxml2-dev libvte-dev libvte9 libxpm-dev libxpm4 libasound2-dev alsa-base alsa-utils libxml2 \
     libxml-parser-perl libpng12-0 libpng12-dev libice-dev libsm-dev xorg-dev
chmod +x xfce4-4.4RC2-installer.run 
sudo ./xfce4-4.4RC2-installer.run
  • finally to enable Xfce, logout and login choosing xfce session
  • for xubuntu users that upgraded to the latest Xfce. If you are missing the nifty little mouse running in the ubuntu logo at the startup splash, just do a simple copy:
sudo cp /usr/lib/xfce4/splash/engines/libxubuntu.so /usr/local/lib/xfce4/splash/engines/

How to install FluxBox

Here's some Screenshots. Fluxbox is a popular minimalist Window Manager.

sudo apt-get install fluxbox
Make it start when you login through GDM
echo "exec startfluxbox" > ~/.xinitrc
Make it make the pretty sound on login
sudo apt-get install sox
gedit ~/.fluxbox/startup
  • Find this line:
exec /usr/local/bin/fluxbox
  • Put this above it somewhere:
play /usr/share/sounds/login.wav > /dev/null 2>&1 &
  • Listen happily.

Eye Candy

How to install Xgl/Compiz (Nvidia)



sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Find this section
Section "Module"
	Load	"i2c"
	Load	"bitmap"
	...
	Load	"type1"
	Load	"vbe"
EndSection
  • Comment out dri and GLcore (if present)
#	Load	"dri"
#	Load	"GLcore"
  • Make sure the glx module is loaded
	Load	"glx"
  • Find this section (your values may vary)
Section "Device"
	Identifier	"NVIDIA Corporation NV34M [GeForce FX Go5200]"
	Driver		"nv"
	BusID		"PCI:1:0:0"
EndSection
  • Replace with the following lines, leaving the Identifier and BusID as it is
Section "Device"
	...
	Driver		"nvidia"
	...
	Option		"RenderAccel"		"true"
	Option		"AllowGLXWithComposite" "true"
EndSection
  • Find this section
Section "Screen"
	Identifier	"Default Screen"
	Device		"NVIDIA Corporation NV34M [GeForce FX Go5200]"
	Monitor		"Generic Monitor"
	DefaultDepth	16
  • Make sure DefaultDepth is set to 24, if it isn't already
	DefaultDepth	24
  • Save the edited file
  • Install Xgl/Compiz
sudo apt-get install compiz xserver-xgl libgl1-mesa xserver-xorg libglitz-glx1 compiz-gnome
sudo cp /etc/gdm/gdm.conf-custom /etc/gdm/gdm.conf-custom-backup
gksudo gedit /etc/gdm/gdm.conf-custom
  • Replace everything with the following lines
# GDM Configuration Customization file.
#
# This file is the appropriate place for specifying your customizations to the
# GDM configuration.   If you run gdmsetup, it will automatically edit this
# file for you and will cause the daemon and any running GDM GUI programs to
# automatically update with the new configuration.  Not all configuration
# options are supported by gdmsetup, so to modify some values it may be
# necessary to modify this file directly by hand.
# 
# To hand-edit this file, simply add or modify the key=value combination in
# the appropriate section in the template below.  Refer to the comments in the
# gdm.conf file for information about each option.  Also refer to the reference
# documentation.
# 
# If you hand edit a GDM configuration file, you should run the following
# command to get the GDM daemon to notice the change.  Any running GDM GUI
# programs will also be notified to update with the new configuration.
#
# gdmflexiserver --command="UPDATE_CONFIG <configuration key>"
#
# For example, the "Enable" key in the "[debug]" section would be specified by
# "debug/Enable".
#
# You can also run gdm-restart or gdm-safe-restart to cause GDM to restart and
# re-read the new configuration settings.  You can also restart GDM by sending
# a HUP or USR1 signal to the daemon.  HUP behaves like gdm-restart and causes
# any user session started by GDM to exit immediately while USR1 behaves like
# gdm-safe-restart and will wait until all users log out before restarting GDM.
# 
# For full reference documentation see the gnome help browser under
# GNOME|System category.  You can also find the docs in HTML form on
# http://www.gnome.org/projects/gdm/
# 
# NOTE: Lines that begin with "#" are considered comments.
# 
# Have fun!

[daemon]

[security]

[xdmcp]

[gui]

[greeter]

[chooser]

[debug]

[servers]# Override display 1 to use Xgl
0=Xgl 

[server-Xgl] 
name=Xgl server 
command=/usr/bin/Xgl :0 -fullscreen -ac -accel glx:pbuffer -accel xv:fbo 
flexible=true
  • Create a script that runs Xgl/Compiz on startup
gksudo gedit /usr/bin/thefuture
  • Insert the following lines into the new file. Replace .us with appropriate keyboard binding for your region. Eg .gb for United Kingdom. For a full list of keyboard bindings, type ls /usr/share/xmodmap in a terminal. If unsure, leave as .us (United States)
#!/bin/bash
gnome-window-decorator &  
compiz --replace gconf decoration wobbly fade minimize cube rotate zoom scale move resize place\
switcher &
xmodmap /usr/share/xmodmap/xmodmap.us
  • Save the file
sudo chmod 755 /usr/bin/thefuture
  • To run compiz for this session
thefuture
  • To have compiz load on startup
    • System -> Preferences -> Sessions
    • Startup Programs -> Add
/usr/bin/thefuture
  • Troubleshooting
    • If Xgl/Compiz doesn't seem to work, or you get errors, simply restart your machine after adding "thefuture" to Startup programs
    • If moving windows slows down the system, run gconf-editor from the terminal. Find apps/compiz/general/screen0/options. Disable detect_refresh_rate and set refresh rate to 60. Everything should work fine now...
    • If you are using a non default keyboard layout (other language), you might have to change it back to what you need if the keyboard acts funny at System/Settings/Keyboard.
    • You can also set the Super-key to the windows button here.
    • If you don't want "bottom expanded panel", type "killall gnome-panel" in terminal.
  • Tips
    • Switch windows = Alt + Tab
    • Arrange and View All Windows = F12 turns on or off; clicking a window will zoom it to the front
    • Switch desktops on cube = Ctrl + Alt + Left/Right Arrow
    • Switch desktops on cube - with active window following = Ctrl + Shift + Alt + Left/Right Arrow
    • Rotate cube manually = Ctrl + Alt + left-click
    • Make window translucent/opaque = currently only possible with the "transset" utility
    • Zoom-in once = Super-key right-click
    • Zoom-in manually = Super-key + wheel mouse up
    • Zoom-out manually = Super-key + wheel mouse down
    • Move window = Alt + left-click
    • Snap Move window (will stick to borders) = Ctrl + Alt + left-click
    • Resize window = Alt + right-click

How to install Xgl/Beryl (ATI)

(From Beryl Forums) (Also From Ubuntu Forums)

First make sure you have 3d acceleration available in a normal gnome session. There are lots of howtos for this , Google if you need any help with that. So if glxinfo shows direct rendering: yes , then you are good to go. If not xgl and Beryl wont work!

  • Update your system
sudo aptitude update
sudo aptitude dist-upgrade
  • Prepare and update repositories
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add to /etc/apt/sources.list
##BERYL REPOSITORIES
deb http://ubuntu.beryl-project.org edgy main
deb-src http://ubuntu.beryl-project.org edgy main
##BERYL SVN REPOSITORIES
deb http://download.tuxfamily.org/3v1deb edgy beryl-svn
deb-src http://download.tuxfamily.org/3v1deb edgy beryl-svn
  • Download and import the gpg key for beryl project repository
wget http://ubuntu.beryl-project.org/root@lupine.me.uk.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
  • Update your sources
sudo aptitude update
  • Install needed packages
sudo apt-get install xserver-xgl libgl1-mesa xserver-xorg libglitz-glx1 beryl \
beryl-core beryl-manager beryl-plugins beryl-plugins-data beryl-settings emerald \
emerald-themes
  • Make a startup script for xgl
sudo gedit /usr/bin/startxgl
  • Add to /usr/bin/startxgl
#!/bin/sh
Xgl :1 -fullscreen -ac -accel xv:pbuffer -accel glx:pbuffer &
DISPLAY=:1
exec dbus-launch --exit-with-session gnome-session
  • Make the script executable
sudo chmod +x /usr/bin/startxgl
  • Make a xgl session for the login manager
sudo gedit /usr/share/xsessions/xgl.desktop
  • Add to /usr/share/xsessions/xgl.desktop
[Desktop Entry]
Encoding=UTF-8
Name=Xgl
Comment=Start an Xgl Session
Exec=/usr/bin/startxgl
Icon=
Type=Application
  • System > Preferences > Sessions > Startup Programs > Add
beryl-manager
  • Reboot
  • In the login manager you can now choose a session named Xgl
  • Answer to following question that you want to use Xgl for this session only (if something went wrong you are logged in next time using standard session)
  • If everything works fine , you can set it as the default session , remember you can always login a normal gnome session if you want.
  • If you own an x series radeon and have problems with lockups, read this post:

http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=150854

Note for all cards: glxinfo will show that direct rendering is not working , dont worry thats normal when you are running xgl.

How to install Beryl/AIGLX (Nvidia)

(From Ubuntu Forums)


  • Ensure all packages up to date
Install your *ubuntu-desktop metapackage specific to your DE, e.g. sudo apt-get install ubuntu-desktop
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
  • Add repositories
gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add the following line at the end of this file (x86 and amd64):
deb http://ubuntu.beryl-project.org/ edgy main
  • Add key
wget http://ubuntu.beryl-project.org/root@lupine.me.uk.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
  • Save the edited file then update package lists
sudo apt-get update
  • Install Beryl
sudo apt-get install beryl emerald-themes
  • Back up xorg.conf
sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Add this to xorg.conf "Screen" section
# Enable 32-bit ARGB GLX Visuals
    Option "AddARGBGLXVisuals" "True"

# If you are using an older version of compiz that
# does not support rendering into the Composite
# Overlay Window, you will need to disable clipping
# of GLX rendering to the X Root window with this
# option, or you will get a blank screen after
# starting compiz:
    Option "DisableGLXRootClipping" "True"
  • Add this to xorg.conf "Device" section
Option          "TripleBuffer" "true"
  • Restart X with ctrl+alt+backspace
  • Start Beryl (if it doesn't start on its own)
beryl-manager
  • Start Emerald (if it doesn't start on its own)
emerald --replace
  • Have Beryl and Emerald load on login
    • System -> Preferences -> Sessions
    • Startup Programs -> Add
beryl-manager

and

emerald --replace
    • If, on reboot, program menus aren't displaying in the correct layer (you can't see them when you select them because they are displaying behind the window) then right click on the 'Beryl Manager' icon in the panel (the red gem icon) and select 'Reload Window Manager'. The problem should be solved the next time you reboot.

How to install Beryl/AIGLX (Intel i915)

Follow the how-to on beryl project wiki.

If that does not work, check if you have direct rendering enabled (type into the terminal):

glxinfo | grep direct

The output should be:

direct rendering: Yes

If the output says No, check you have direct rendering manager loaded:

lsmod|grep 915

The output should be:

i915   21632  3
drm    74644  4 i915
tsdev   9152  0

If it shows only tsdev line, you can try to configure xorg.conf to driver i810, restart, CTRL-ALT-F1 to terminal session and configure xorg.conf back to use i915. That helped me.

How to install compiz-freedesktop without XGL / AIGLX utilising the latest Nvidia BETA drivers

  • Ensure that all packages are up to date
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
  • Add repositories
gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add the following line at the end of this file for the edgy stable repos
## compiz-freedesktop stable
deb http://gandalfn.club.fr/ubuntu edgy stable
  • Or add the following line at the end of this file for the edgy dev repos
## compiz-freedesktop dev
deb http://gandalfn.club.fr/ubuntu edgy stable dev

Note for compiz-freedesktop git repos: these packages are considered experimental and unstable by nature

  • Or add the following line at the end of this file for the edgy git repos
## compiz-freedesktop git
deb http://gandalfn.club.fr/ubuntu edgy stable dev git
  • Add the GPG key
gpg --keyserver hkp://wwwkeys.eu.pgp.net --recv-keys 0x483170E9 ; \
gpg --export -a 0x483170E9 | sudo apt-key add -
  • Save the edited file then update package lists
sudo apt-get update
  • Install compiz-freedesktop
sudo apt-­get install compiz-­freedesktop compiz­-freedesktop-­gnome gnome-­compiz-­manager
  • Back up xorg.conf
sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Find this section
Section "Screen"
    Identifier     "Default Screen"
    Device         "NVIDIA Corporation NVIDIA Default Card"
    Monitor        "Generic Monitor"
    DefaultDepth    16
  • Make sure DefaultDepth is set to 24, if it isn't already
    DefaultDepth    24
  • Enable 32-bit ARGB GLX Visuals
    Option "AddARGBGLXVisuals" "True"
  • Save the edited file
  • Restart X with Ctrl+Alt+Backspace
  • Logon
  • Press Alt-F2 to open the Run Application window and enter the following in the text box:
compiz­-tray-­icon
  • Click Run to execute
  • Locate the compiz-tray-icon in your system tray, typically in the top right-hand corner of your screen, right-click mouse button and select the GL Desktop option
  • To customize preferences, locate the compiz-tray-icon in your system tray, typically in the top right-hand corner of your screen, right-click mouse button and select the Preferences option

How to install alternate boot splash screen

  • Read #General Notes
  • This installs a minimalistic splash screen that appears when the computer is booting up and shutting down. It is devoid of any text messages.
wget -c http://www.users.on.net/~stubby/usplash-minimalistic_0.1.deb
sudo dpkg -i usplash-minimalistic_0.1.deb
sudo update-alternatives --config usplash-artwork.so
  • Select the minimalistic alternative (/usr/local/lib/usplash/minimalastic.so) by entering the corresponding number. If you ever want to revert back to the original splash, select the default (/usr/lib/usplash/usplash-default.so)

Commercial Applications

How to install Windows 9X/ME/2000/XP (Win4Lin)

How to install Windows Applications (CrossOver Office)

How to install Windows Games (Cedega)

User Administration

How to set/change/enable root user password

sudo passwd root

How to disable root user account

sudo passwd -l root

How to allow root user to login into GNOME

Security Tab -> Security -> Allow root to login with GDM (Checked)

How to switch to root user in Console mode

sudo -s -H
Password: <specify user password>

How to add/edit/delete system users

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Users and Groups
  • Users and Groups
Users Tab -> Add User.../Properties/Delete
or
sudo useradd jim
sudo userdel jim
  • For more info read
man usermod

How to add/edit/delete system groups

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Users and Groups
  • Users and Groups
Groups Tab -> Add Group.../Properties/Delete

How to automatic login into GNOME (not secure)

Security Tab -> Enable Automatic Login (Checked)
Now choose a user from the drop-down menu.

How to allow more sudoers

EDITOR=gedit sudo visudo
  • Append the following line at the end of file
system_username	ALL=(ALL) ALL
  • Save the edited file

OR since everyone in the admin group can use sudo:

sudo adduser a_username admin

This appends the admin group to the user's supplementary group list. They will now have sudo access.

How to use "sudo" without prompt for password (not secure)

EDITOR=gedit sudo visudo
  • Find this line
...
system_username	ALL=(ALL) ALL
...
  • Replace with the following line
system_username	ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL
  • Save the edited file

How to explicitly destroy the "sudo" session

sudo -K

How to change files/folders permissions

Right click on files/folders -> Properties
Permissions Tab -> Read/Write/Execute (Checked the permissions for Owner/Group/Others)

How to change files/folders ownership

sudo chown system_username /location_of_files_or_folders

If you want to change ownership of all containing files and folders recursively, use the -R option like this:

sudo chown -R system_username /location_of_files_or_folders

How to change files/folders group ownership

sudo chgrp system_groupname /location_of_files_or_folders

If you want to change group ownership of all containing files and folders recursively, use the -R option like this:

sudo chgrp -R system_username /location_of_files_or_folders

Аппаратура

Мыши

Activate side-mouse-buttons in FireFox

Just add two lines to xorg.conf will activate side-mouse-buttons in FireFox. This should work with most 5-button mouse. Here is a list of mice that worked with this instruction.

  • Logitech MX310
  • Logitech MX510
  • Logitech MX518
  • Logitech MX700
  • Intellimouse Explorer (first edition)


Backup X.org configuration file

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.bak

Modify the X.org configuration file

gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf

Find the Input Device section for your mouse and add two lines as shown below. You may also increase the number of buttons if your mouse has more than 7, just fix the rest of the section based upon the number of buttons (remember back/forward, wheel click & tilt left/right all count as buttons)

Change:

Section "InputDevice"
	Identifier "Configured Mouse"
	Driver "mouse"
	Option "CorePointer"
	...
	Option "Protocol" "ExplorerPS/2"
	...
	Option "Emulate3Buttons"       "true"
EndSection

to:

Section "InputDevice"
    Identifier     "Configured Mouse"
    Driver         "mouse"
    Option         "CorePointer"
    Option         "Device" "/dev/input/mice" 
    Option         "Protocol" "ExplorerPS/2"
    Option         "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"
    Option         "Emulate3Buttons" "true"
    Option         "Buttons" "7" 
    Option         "ButtonMapping" "1 2 3 6 7"
EndSection


At this point you can reboot your computer or restart X (Ctrl-Alt-BackSpace) to see if your forward/back buttons work in FireFox. They still won't work in Nautilus yet until you install the imwheel dameon.

Install & Configure IMWheel

  • Install IMWheel
sudo apt-get install imwheel
  • Modify IMWheel configuration file
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/imwheel/imwheelrc
  • Insert the following at the bottom of this existing file
".*"
None, Up, Alt_L|Left
None, Down, Alt_L|Right 

"(null)"
None, Up, Alt_L|Left
None, Down, Alt_L|Right


  • Create IMWheel start-up script
sudo mkdir /home/login
gksudo gedit /home/login/mouse
  • Insert the following into this new file
#!/bin/sh
exec xmodmap -e "pointer = 1 2 3 6 7 4 5" &
exec imwheel -k -b "67" &
exec $REALSTARTUP
  • Grant execution for everyone to this new script
sudo chmod +x /home/login/mouse
  • Configure this script to be executed at start-up
    1. Select 'System' > 'Preferences' > 'Sessions'
    2. Click the StartUp tab
    3. Click Add, then input: /home/login/mouse
    4. Click OK, then Close
  • Reboot your computer or your Gnome environment and then test your back/forward mouse buttons in Nautilus

How to configure Apple Mighty Mouse

Apple Mighty Mouse works out of the box, this how to should cover setting up of horizontal scrolling using ball and sidebuttons.

This is placeholder only. Please, provide working howto.

Графический адаптер (видеокарта)

Как установить драйвер графического адаптера (NVIDIA)

sudo apt-get install nvidia-glx nvidia-kernel-common
sudo nvidia-xconfig
  • Если эти команды не включат установленный драйвер, вы можете включить его вручную отредактировав файл конфигурации X:
sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
 
  • и заменив "nv" на "nvidia"
  • Включите XvMC, создав файл конфигурации nVidia XvMC
sudo gedit /etc/X11/XvMCConfig
  • Следующую строку вставьте в созданный файл конфигурации, чтобы сообщить программам-плеерам название разделяемой библиотеки nVidia XvMC:
libXvMCNVIDIA_dynamic.so.1
  • Чтобы использовать XvMC для ускорения воспроизведения видео, используйте следующие флаги. Смотрите подробнее в [2].
xine -V xxmc filename.ts
mplayer -vo xvmc -vc ffmpeg12mc filename.ts

How to install Beta Graphics Driver (NVIDIA)

  • Thanks to Alberto Milone
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add ONE of the following lines based on your architecture
deb http://www.albertomilone.com/drivers/edgy/latest/32bit binary/
deb http://www.albertomilone.com/drivers/edgy/latest/64bit binary/
  • Save the edited file
  • Add the GPG key
wget http://albertomilone.com/drivers/tseliot.asc
gpg --import tseliot.asc
gpg --export --armor albertomilone@alice.it | sudo apt-key add -
  • Update and install
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install nvidia-glx
sudo apt-get upgrade
  • The upgrade should update your linux-restricted-modules & linux-restricted-modules-common packages.
sudo nvidia-xconfig
  • Add a menu option for nVidia Settings
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/NVIDIA-Settings.desktop
  • Insert these lines in the new file and save
[Desktop Entry]
Name=NVIDIA Settings
Comment=NVIDIA Settings
Exec=nvidia-settings
Icon=
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;System;
  • Restart the computer and your new drivers should be installed.
  • Test the install with these 2 programs
glxinfo
glxgears

How to setup pivot (screen rotation) with default X.org NVIDIA drivers

  • Some LCD monitors are equipped with the pivot feature, to take advantage of it the display has to be rotated 90 degrees. The default nVidia drivers shipped with X.org ("nv") support software screen rotation. Note that it's unaccelerated and can be slow, read #How to install Graphics Driver (NVIDIA) if you decide to install the proprietary driver.
  • To rotate the screen find the "Device" section for the "nv" driver in the /etc/X11/xorg.conf file:
Section "Device"                                                                
       Identifier      "NVIDIA Corporation NV34 [GeForce FX 5200]"
       Driver          "nv"
  • Add the following options to this section:
       Option "Rotate" "CW"

Where the "Rotate" option has two possible values (depending on the orientation of the monitor):

  1. CW - rotate the display clockwise (right).
  2. CCW - rotate the display counterclockwise (right).

How to setup pivot (screen rotation) with proprietary NVIDIA drivers

  • Some LCD monitors are equipped with the pivot feature, to take advantage of it the display has to be rotated 90 degrees. The proprietary nVidia drivers support hardware rotation with the Xrandr extension.
  • To enable rotation support find the "Device" section for the "nvidia" driver in the /etc/X11/xorg.conf file:
Section "Device"                                                                
       Identifier      "NVIDIA Corporation NV34 [GeForce FX 5200]"
       Driver          "nvidia"
  • Add the following option to this section:
       Option          "RandRRotation" "on"
  • Then the display can be rotated (direction depends on the orientation of the monitor) by:
  1. Setting the "Rotation" property to either "Left" or "Right" in the "System > Preferences > Screen Resolution" dialog.
  2. Issuing either "xrandr -o left" or "xrandr -o right" command.

How to disable NVIDIA graphics logo on GNOME startup

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Find this section
 ...
Section "Device"
	Identifier	"NVIDIA Corporation NV11 [GeForce2 MX/MX 400]"
	Driver		"nvidia"
	BusID		"PCI:1:0:0"
...
  • Add the following line below it
   Option		"NoLogo"

Как установить драйвер графического адаптера (ATI)

How to Correct the Graphics Resolution (Intel)

  • Intel 915g, 945g, etc. graphics chipsets only have a limited set of resolutions initially installed, despite the correct driver being detected.
  • Install the resolution altering tool:
sudo apt-get install 915resolution
  • Run the following to see the availible modes:
915resolution -l
  • Choose a resolution you don't need and replace, for example the following changes 1920x1440 to 1920x1200
915resolution 5c 1920 1200
  • This should add the option for that resolution to the "System>Preferences>Screen Resolution" tool.
  • If it works correctly then you can make the change permanent:
sudo gedit /etc/rc.local
  • Simply add the command you typed in above before:
exit 0

How to show nvidia GPU temperature (nvidia-settings)

At a terminal, type

nvidia-settings

How to detect CPU temperature, fan speeds and voltages (lm-sensors)

sudo apt-get install lm-sensors

Create file called mkdev.sh, and paste in the following

#!/bin/bash

# Here you can set several defaults.

# The number of devices to create (max: 256)
NUMBER=32

# The owner and group of the devices
OUSER=root
OGROUP=root
# The mode of the devices
MODE=600

# This script doesn't need to be run if devfs is used
if [ -r /proc/mounts ] ; then
if grep -q "/dev devfs" /proc/mounts ; then
echo "You do not need to run this script as your system uses devfs."
exit;
fi
fi

i=0;

while [ $i -lt $NUMBER ] ; do
echo /dev/i2c-$i
mknod -m $MODE /dev/i2c-$i c 89 $i || exit
chown "$OUSER:$OGROUP" /dev/i2c-$i || exit
i=$[$i + 1]
done
#end of file

Make this file executable, then run it

sudo chmod +x mkdev.sh
sudo ./mkdev.sh

Now detect sensors, and answer "y" to all questions.

sudo sensors-detect

To load the manual modules, type

sudo /etc/init.d/module-init-tools

Load the modules into kernel with

sudo sensors -s

And check the output

sudo sensors

How to control fan speed (lm-sensors)

Install and config lm-sensors first, see section above. Then run pwmconfig to test your fans

pwmconfig

If you can control fan speeds, great. Now creat a file called /etc/init.d/fancontrol, and paste in the following

#!/bin/sh
#
# Fancontrol start script.
#

set -e

# Defaults
DAEMON=/usr/sbin/fancontrol
PIDFILE=/var/run/fancontrol-pid
PATH=/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin

test -f $DAEMON || exit 0

. /lib/lsb/init-functions


case "$1" in
       start)
               log_begin_msg "Starting fancontrol daemon..."
               start-stop-daemon --start -o -q -m -b -p $PIDFILE -x $DAEMON
               log_end_msg $?
               ;;
       stop)
               log_begin_msg "Stopping fancontrol daemon..."
               start-stop-daemon --stop -o -q -p $PIDFILE
               log_end_msg $?
               ;;
       force-reload|restart)
               sh $0 stop
               sh $0 start
               ;;
       *)
               log_success_msg "Usage: /etc/init.d/fancontrol {start|stop|restart|force-reload}"
               log_success_msg "  start - starts system-wide fancontrol service"
               log_success_msg "  stop  - stops system-wide fancontrol service"
               log_success_msg "  restart, force-reload - starts a new system-wide fancontrol service"
               exit 1
               ;;
esac

exit 0

Make it excutable

sudo chmod +x /etc/init.d/fancontrol

Test it

/etc/init.d/fancontrol start

and

/etc/init.d/fancontrol stop

If it works fine, autoload it when you reboot. Insert the following line into /etc/rc.local, before "exit 0"

/etc/init.d/fancontrol start

How to monitor CPU, GPU temperatures, fan speeds and voltages (GKrellM)

  • Install hddtemp first to monitor hard drive temperatures
sudo apt-get install hddtemp

GKrellM is a hardware monitor that can display CPU and GPU temperatures, fan speeds, voltages, CPU load, network load, disk activity, disk temperature, memory usage, and swap usage. The installation is very easy, and configuration is just a few mouse-clicks. You can set alerts to warn you if the CPU is too hot or there is a fan failure. The hddtemp utility works with GKrellM to allow it to sense the disk temperature, as keeping your disks cool (e.g. less than around 40C) will allow them to last longer than if they run continually at higher temperatures (e.g. above 50C).

sudo apt-get install gkrellm

To run the program

Click Applications -> System Tools -> GKrellM

To configure the settings,

Right click on GKrellM -> Configuration

I was struggling with lm_sensors before, but it doesn't detect all of the sensors on my computer. Later I found "GKrellM". It displays the GPU temperature on my nVidia 6600 GT out of the box. GKrellM also has plugins that show weather info, set reminders, etc.

Add an audio alert (optional Step): Here is how to play an audio message when the CPU is too hot or a fan fails. First you need to find or record your own audio alert files. (I use Audacity to record my own.) Then go to:

Configuration -> Builtins folder (Left side)-> Sensors -> Temperatures folder (Right side)-> CPU -> Alerts Button

Paste ONE of the following lines into a Terminal window first to test the sound. If you have two sound cards, you can use "-ao oss:/dev/dsp1" option to route the sound to the second sound card. Modify the file path and name so it points to the correct file. If you can hear the sound, then copy that line to a command line text field on the GKrellM's Alerts window.

mplayer /home/myfolder/alert_messages/heat_alert.mp3
mplayer -ao oss:/dev/dsp1 /home/myfolder/alert_messages/heat_alert.mp3

Модемы / Сеть

Как определить чипсет модема

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/scanModem.gz
gunzip -c scanModem.gz > scanModem
chmod +x scanModem
sudo cp scanModem /usr/bin/
  • To identify Modem chipset
sudo scanModem
gedit Modem/ModemData.txt

How to install Windows Wireless Drivers (Ndiswrapper)

  • Find out if you have acx module loaded. Because acx module interferes with windows driver, we need to remove it if it is found.
lsmod | grep acx
  • Remove the acx module if found. It could also be acx_pci or similar. Please Note: New kernel updates will auto load the acx module again. So repeat the following two commands every time the kernel is updated.
sudo rmmod acx
sudo nano /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist
  • Add a new list at the end of the file like this:
# drivers wireless ACX
blacklist acx
  • Install ndiswrapper and drivers (due to a bug in Edgy, you need to specify ndiswrapper-utils-1.8)
sudo apt-get install ndiswrapper-utils-1.8
sudo ndiswrapper -i /location_of_your_wireless_driver/your_driver.inf
sudo ndiswrapper -l
sudo modprobe ndiswrapper
  • Set ndiswrapper to load on startup
sudo ndiswrapper -m
gksudo gedit /etc/modules
  • Add the following module to the list
ndiswrapper
  • Now you can configure your wireless card with ifconfig and iwconfig.
e.g. Supposing wlan0 is your wireless device.
sudo iwconfig wlan0 essid "AP" key ababababababababab mode Managed
iwconfig
  • You sould now be able to see the MAC address of the access point and signal rate.

Ndiswrapper for Broadcom 43xx wireless chipset

  • The Broadcom 43xx (bcm43xx) wireless chipset is one of the most common chipsets, so special scripts have been written for it.
  • Only follow this if you have a bcm43xx device. To check in the Terminal type:
lspci | grep Broadcom\ Corporation

If it displays a line similar to this,

0000:02:02.0 Network controller: Broadcom Corporation BCM4306 802.11b/g Wireless LAN Controller (rev 03)

you have a Broadcom wireless chipset. Please proceed with the instructions.

  • Put the Ubuntu CD that you installed Ubuntu with in the CD drive.
  • Download this to the desktop (the Firefox default, so if you haven't changed it, that's where it went/will go).
  • In a terminal type
cd ~/Desktop (or wherever you downloaded the file)
tar -xf bcm4318*.tar.gz
sudo ./ndiswrapper_setup

Your wireless chipset should now work. Try rebooting if you have problems. Please see this thread if you have problems: http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=197102&highlight=install+ndiswrapper

How to enable WPA with Ndiswrapper driver

  • First, make sure the Ndiswrapper driver works by itself without encryption.
  • Create a file called /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf, and paste in the following. Modify the ssid and psk values.
ctrl_interface=/var/run/wpa_supplicant
 network={
   ssid="YourWiFiSSID"
   psk="YourWiFiPassword"
   key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
   proto=WPA
   pairwise=TKIP
 }
  • Test it. Make sure your router is broadcasting its SSID.
sudo wpa_supplicant -Dwext -iwlan0 -c/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf -dd
  • If your WPA works. Load it automatically when you reboot.
gksudo gedit /etc/network/interfaces
  • Change your wlan0 section to the following.

If you are using static IP:

auto wlan0
iface wlan0 inet static
address 192.168.1.20
netmask 255.255.255.0
gateway 192.168.1.1
pre-up wpa_supplicant -Bw -Dwext -iwlan0 -c/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
post-down killall -q wpa_supplicant

or this, if you are using dhcp.

auto wlan0
iface wlan0 inet dhcp
pre-up wpa_supplicant -Bw -Dwext -iwlan0 -c/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
post-down killall -q wpa_supplicant


  • Reboot

How to install Modem Driver (SmartLink)

uname -r (must be 2.6.10-5-386)
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/sl-modem-modules-2.6.10-5-386_2.9.9a-1ubuntu2+2.6.10-34_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i sl-modem-modules-*.deb
sudo apt-get install sl-modem-daemon

Palm

How to configure PalmOS Devices

gksudo gedit /etc/udev/rules.d/10-custom.rules
  • Insert the following line into the new file
BUS="usb", SYSFS{product}="Palm Handheld*", KERNEL="ttyUSB*", NAME{ignore_remove}="pilot", MODE="666"
  • Save the edited file
  • Add the pilot-applet to the Taskbar by Right-Clicking on an empty spot
  • Follow the instructions on screen

Жёсткий диск

How to list partition tables

sudo fdisk -l
  • You can also use System -> Administration -> Disks

How to list filesystem disk space usage

df -Th
  • You can also use System -> Administration -> Disks

How to list mounted devices

mount

How to remount /etc/fstab without rebooting

sudo mount -a

USB

How to list USB devices

lsusb

Оптические приводы

How to speed up CD/DVD-ROM

e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo hdparm -d1 /dev/cdrom
sudo cp /etc/hdparm.conf /etc/hdparm.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/hdparm.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
/dev/cdrom {
    dma = on
}
  • Save the edited file

How to mount/unmount CD/DVD-ROM manually, and show all hidden and associated files/folders

e.g. Assumed that /media/cdrom0/ is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
  • To mount CD/DVD-ROM
sudo mount /media/cdrom0/ -o unhide
  • To unmount CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /media/cdrom0/

How to forcefully unmount CD/DVD-ROM manually

e.g. Assumed that /media/cdrom0/ is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /media/cdrom0/ -l


Мониторы / Дисплеи

How to enable Large Widescreen Support

  • 24/23" widescreen monitors sometimes have issues running 1920x1200.
  • Examples include: Dell 2405, HP 2335 or an Apple Cinema Display.
sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Add the following line to the appropriate "Monitor" section
Modeline	"1920x1200" 154 1920 1968 2000 2080 1200 1203 1209 1235
  • For example the HP2335 should now look like:
Section "Monitor"
	Identifier	"hp L2335"
	Option		"DPMS"
	Modeline	"1920x1200" 154 1920 1968 2000 2080 1200 1203 1209 1235
EndSection

How to enable CRT output (external monitor/projector) for notebooks (Intel)

Note: Valid for Intel® graphics controller-based products only

sudo apt-get install i810switch

Turn on CRT output

i810switch crt on

Turn off CRT output

i810switch crt off

Звук

How to setup the surround speakers (5.1 and others) with ALSA

  • Edit the ~/.asoundrc file, create it if it doesn't exist:
gedit ~/.asoundrc
  • Enter the following section:
pcm.!default {
    type plug
    slave.pcm "surround51"
    slave.channels 6
    route_policy duplicate
}
  • This will allow to play the surround output and duplicate the stereo output to all 6 channels (not only front ones).


How to change default soundcard

  • View available soundcards
sudo asoundconf list
  • You should get something like this
Names of available sound cards:
  Live
  V8237
  • Switch soundcard with 'example' being the name of the preferred soundcard
sudo asoundconf set-default-card example

Разное

How to list PCI devices

lspci


How to install a Wacom tablet

For a detailed guide with screenshots about how to configure the "Extended input devices" in your graphic applications, please follow the official Dapper guide at https://wiki.ubuntu.com//Wacom

With the version of the Linux Wacom driver (0.7.2) in Ubuntu 6.06 Dapper Drake, if you unplug you tablet, it won't function when you plug it back in and you will have to restart X. For this reason, it is best to leave the tablet plugged in. This limitation will be removed when the 0.7.4 version of the driver is included in Ubuntu.

  • 1. Using Synaptic package manager, check if the packages xserver-xorg-input-wacom and wacom-tools are already installed - if not, install them. If you prefer using the command line, you can also execute :
     sudo apt-get install xserver-xorg-input-wacom wacom-tools
  • 2. Save a copy of your /etc/X11/xorg.conf :
      sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.backup
  • then edit it with the command line :
      gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • and change all /dev/wacom occurences into /dev/input/wacom (created by wacom-tools udev scripts), then save the file.
  • You should be ready to go after you have restarted X. Remember to configure the "Extended input devices" in your graphic applications (Gimp, Inkscape), however you can already check if it's working by moving your stylus on the tablet : the mouse cursor should go through the whole screen.

Запись CD/DVD

Как очистить CD-RW/DVD-RW

e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /dev/cdrom
cdrecord dev=/dev/cdrom blank=fast

Как записать файлы/папки на CD/DVD

nautilus burn:///
  • File Browser: CD/DVD Creator
  • Drag files/folders into window
File Menu -> Write to Disc... -> Write

Как записать файлы образов (ISO) на CD/DVD

Правой кнопкой мыши нажмите на файле образа (ISO) -> Записать на диск... -> Запись

Как делать копии CD/DVD

Как создать файлы образов (ISO) из CD/DVD

e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /dev/cdrom
dd if=/dev/cdrom of=file.iso bs=1024

Как создать файлы образов (ISO) из папок

mkisofs -r -o file.iso /location_of_folder/

How to generate MD5 checksum files

md5sum file.iso > file.iso.md5

How to check MD5 checksum of files

e.g. Assumed that file.iso and file.iso.md5 are in the same folder
md5sum -c file.iso.md5

How to mount/unmount Image (ISO) files without burning

sudo mkdir /media/iso
sudo modprobe loop
sudo mount file.iso /media/iso/ -t iso9660 -o loop
  • To unmount Image (ISO) file
sudo umount /media/iso/

How to set/change the burn speed for CD/DVD Burner

/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> default_speed (set/change the burn speed)

How to enable burnproof for CD/DVD Burner

/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> burnproof (Checked)

How to enable overburn for CD/DVD Burner

/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> overburn (Checked)

Networking

How to configure Google Talk

How to activate/deactivate network connections

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Networking
  • Network settings
Connections Tab -> Select "Ethernet connection" -> Activate/Deactivate

How to configure network connections

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Networking
  • Network settings
Connections Tab -> Select "Ethernet connection" -> Properties
Connection -> Enable this connection (Checked)
Connection Settings -> Configuration: Select "DHCP/Static IP address"
DNS Tab -> DNS Servers -> Add/Delete

How to configure dialup connections

sudo pppconfig
  • To connect dialup
sudo pon provider_name
  • To disconnect dialup
sudo poff

How to configure broadband connections

sudo pppoeconf

How to change computer name

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Networking
  • Network settings
General Tab -> Host Settings -> Hostname: Specify the computer name 
  • Save and close all opened applications, Reboot computer

How to change computer descriptions

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
  server string = %h server (Samba, Ubuntu)
...
  • Replace with the following line
  server string = new_computer_descriptions
  • Save the edited file
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to change computer Domain/Workgroup

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
  workgroup = MSHOME
...
  • Replace with the following line
  workgroup = new_domain_or_workgroup
  • Save the edited file
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to assign Hostname to local machine with dynamic IP using free DynDNS service

sudo apt-get install ipcheck
gksudo gedit /etc/ppp/ip-up.d/dyndns_update.sh
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
 #!/bin/sh

 USERNAME=myusername
 PASSWORD=mypassword
 HOSTNAME=myhostname.dyndns.org

 cd /root/
 if [ -f /root/ipcheck.dat ]; then
  ipcheck -r checkip.dyndns.org:8245 $USERNAME $PASSWORD $HOSTNAME
 else
  ipcheck --makedat -r checkip.dyndns.org:8245 $USERNAME $PASSWORD $HOSTNAME
 fi
  • Save the edited file
sudo chmod 700 /etc/ppp/ip-up.d/dyndns_update.sh
sudo sh /etc/ppp/ip-up.d/dyndns_update.sh

How to share folders the easy way

Right click on folder -> Share folder
Shared folder -> Share with: Select "SMB"
Share properties -> Name: Specify the share name

How to browse network computers

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
If computers or network folders could not be found, try access them directly
Read #How to access network folders without mounting
  • Places -> Network Servers

How to access network folders without mounting

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Shared folder's name: linux
  • Press 'Alt+F2' (Run Application...) and enter:
smb://192.168.0.1/linux

How to mount/unmount network folders manually, and allow all users to read

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
  • To mount network folder
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
sudo mount //192.168.0.1/linux /media/sharename/ -o username=myusername,password=mypassword
  • To unmount network folder
sudo umount /media/sharename/

How to mount/unmount network folders manually, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
  • To mount network folder
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
sudo mount //192.168.0.1/linux /media/sharename/ -o username=myusername,password=mypassword,dmask=777,fmask=777
  • To unmount network folder
sudo umount /media/sharename/

How to mount network folders on boot-up, and allow all users to read

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
gksudo gedit /root/.smbcredentials
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
username=myusername
password=mypassword 
  • Save the edited file
sudo chmod 700 /root/.smbcredentials
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file
//192.168.0.1/linux    /media/sharename smbfs  credentials=/root/.smbcredentials    0    0

How to mount network folders on boot-up, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
gksudo gedit /root/.smbcredentials
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
username=myusername
password=mypassword
  • Save the edited file
sudo chmod 700 /root/.smbcredentials
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file
//192.168.0.1/linux    /media/sharename smbfs  credentials=/root/.smbcredentials,dmask=777,fmask=777  0    0

How to get ipw2200 and wpa to work

How to get ipw3945 and wep/wpa to work

See the daemon source and the Intel ipw3945 project page.

OR

  • Install the daemon using apt (recommended for new users):
sudo apt-get install linux-restricted-modules-generic
reboot your system and you should have wireless internet/network.

How to Configure and start PPTP tunnels (VPN)

OR
  • Install manually
wget -c http://linux.edu.lv/uploads/content/pptp.tar.gz
tar zxvf pptp.tar.gz
cd ./pptp/
sudo sh ./pptp/install
cd ..
  • To configure PPTP Client
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/pptpconfig.desktop
  • Replace content of this file with the following lines
[Desktop Entry]
Name=PPTP Client
Comment=Configure and start PPTP tunnels (VPN)
Categories=Application;Network
Encoding=UTF-8
Exec=gksudo pptpconfig
Icon=gnome-remote-desktop.png
StartupNotify=true
Terminal=false
Type=Application
  • The above lines change the default file in three ways: the application is placed in the Application/Internet category, gksudo will make the application run as superuser and we put a nice icon that appears in the menu.
  • Start the client with Applications -> Internet -> PPTP Client


EDIT You can use a different Method if you use NetworkManager

  • Configure VPN with Network Manager
sudo apt-get install network-manager-pptp

You have to restart after install.

To setup a VPN Click the NetworkManager Icon in the tray VPN Connections->Configure VPN Use the defaults and be sure to check the box: Refuse EAP under the Authentication tab. To get my connection to work I also had to check Require MPPE Encryption under Compression & Encryption

How to Configure Ubuntu/Kubuntu with WPA using Network-Manager

Ubuntu Dapper in typical cases can configure WPA to work out of the box with minimal hassle. You'll need to install network-manager.


For Ubuntu:

sudo apt-get install network-manager-gnome

For Kubuntu (will install knetworkmanager):

sudo apt-get install network-manager-kde

Logout/Reboot.

Ubuntu users should now see the NetworkManager Applet in the Gnome notification area. Kubuntu users will probably have to run knetworkmanager before they see NetworkManager in the systray.

If instead, you get a "The NetworkManager applet could not find some required resources. It cannot continue." message, then:

sudo gtk-update-icon-cache -f /usr/share/icons/hicolor

Once Network-Manager is installed, click on the NM icon in the notification area (default is at the top right of Ubuntu/Gnome). Choose your network, then enter your passphrase. Type a password for the keyring, and you're set.

If you don't see your network, click "Create New Wireless Network...", type your essid/networkname, then choose "WPA Personal" for wireless security.

  • Note: If you installed Kubuntu then installed ubuntu-desktop & network-manager-gnome, you may not be able to use network-manager in Gnome, if at all. In this case, you may have to use WPA Supplicant and do some manual editing of conf files to get WPA up and running.
  • Note: When you first log into Gnome/KDE, the keyring application will ask for a password. Future revisions of Network-Manager should resolve this.

Remote Access

Remote Login via XDMCP

What is XDMCP?

GNOME windows can support several different users simultaniously. Unlike vncviewer that just duplicates the current screen on a remote system, XDMCP allows several different users to login and run different GNOME sessions at the same time. So if you have a fast computer runing Ubuntu, several users can use their slow machines to login and run heavy applications only available on the fast machine.

How to turn on the XDMCP feature

To turn on the XDMCP feature on the fast computer, click the menu

System -> Administration -> Login Window 

In the Login Window Preferences dialog window, select

Remote Tab -> Style: Same as Local ->  Close the dialog window -> Restart the PC
How to login from another PC running Ubuntu
1. Reboot the slow PC and stop at the login screen
2. Click Options at the lower left corner of the login screen
3. Select "Remote Login via XDMCP"
4. On the dialog window, type in the host name or ip of the fast computer you want to login to


Remote Desktop Sharing/Duplication via VNC

How to configure remote desktop (not secure)
Warning! Remote Desktop will only work if there's a GNOME login session
Leaving computer with an unattended GNOME login session is not secure
Use (System -> Lock Screen) and switch off the monitor when computer is left unattended
  • System -> Preferences -> Remote Desktop
  • Remote Desktop Preferences
Sharing ->
Allow other users to view your desktop (Checked)
Allow other users to control your desktop (Checked)
Security ->
Ask you for confirmation (Un-Checked)
Require the user to enter this password: (Checked)
Password: Specify the password
How to connect into remote Ubuntu desktop
e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have configured Remote Desktop
Read #How to configure remote desktop (not secure)
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
vncviewer -fullscreen 192.168.0.1:0
  • To quit vncviewer
Press 'F8' -> Quit viewer
How to connect into remote Ubuntu desktop via Windows machine
e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have configured Remote Desktop
Read #How to configure remote desktop (not secure)
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
  • If you have a router remember to open the appropiate port. The default one is 5900
This process is called port forwarding port forwarding
  • Download DotNetVNC: Here or RealVNC Here
this is a free DotNet version that require the DotNet framework available from microsoft here
The RealVNC website was created and maintained by the original developers of VNC during their time at AT&T. RealVNC comes in Free, Personal, and Enterprise editions - the latter two costing money.
  • Open the VNC client you have chosen, and insert the connection string formatted like this <LINUX BOX IP><:DESKTOP NUMBER>|<::PORT>
In example use: 192.168.1.2:0 or 192.168.1.2::5900 to connect to desktop 0, to connect to desktop 1 use 192.168.1.2:1 or 192.168.1.2::5901 and so on
How to connect into remote Ubuntu desktop via OSX
e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have configured Remote Desktop
Read #How to configure remote desktop (not secure)
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
  • If you have a router remember to open the appropiate port the default one is 5900
This process is called port forwarding port forwarding
  • Download ChickenOfTheVNC: Here
  • Open ChickenOfTheVNC, and insert the host (IP address of remote machine), the display number (0 is default and is port 5900) and the password.
In example use: Host: 192.168.0.1, Display 0, Password: password

Windows

Как вручную смонтировать/размонтировать разделы Windows (NTFS) и разрешить всем пользователям доступ на чтение


Предполагается, что NTFS-раздел Windows расположен на /dev/hda1
Локальная точка монтирования: /media/windows
  • Чтобы смонтировать раздел Windows
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo mount /dev/hda1 /media/windows/ -t ntfs -o nls=utf8,umask=0222
  • Чтобы размонтировать раздел Windows
sudo umount /media/windows/

Как вручную смонтировать/размонтировать разделы Windows (FAT) и разрешить всем пользователям доступ на чтение/запись

Предполагается, что FAT-раздел Windows расположен на /dev/hda1
Локальная точка монтирования: /media/windows
  • Чтобы смонтировать раздел Windows
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo mount /dev/hda1 /media/windows/ -t vfat -o iocharset=utf8,umask=000
  • Чтобы размонтировать раздел Windows
sudo umount /media/windows/

Как при загрузке автоматически смонтировать разделы Windows (NTFS) и разрешить всем пользователям доступ на чтение

Предполагается, что NTFS-раздел Windows расположен на /dev/hda1
Локальная точка монтирования: /media/windows
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • В конец файла добавьте следующую строку
/dev/hda1    /media/windows ntfs  nls=utf8,umask=0222 0    0

Как при загрузке автоматически смонтировать разделы Windows (FAT) и разрешить всем пользователям доступ на чтение/запись

Предполагается, что FAT-раздел Windows расположен на /dev/hda1
Локальная точка монтирования: /media/windows
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • В конец файла добавьте следующую строку
/dev/hda1    /media/windows vfat  iocharset=utf8,umask=000  0    0

Как при загрузке автоматически смонтировать разделы (NTFS) и разрешить всем пользователям доступ на чтение и запись

Warning: The software you will use is still in Beta. You should not enable it on production machines

sudo apt-get install ntfs-3g
  • Create the local mount folder and edit the fstab file to mount the disks to this folder.
Предполагается, что NTFS-раздел Windows расположен на /dev/hda1
Локальная точка монтирования: /media/windows
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab.bak
gksudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • В конец файла добавьте следующую строку.
/dev/hda1    /media/windows    ntfs-3g    defaults,locale=en_US.utf8    0    0
  • You can adjust your locale. Execute 'locale -a' in a terminal to know which one are supported by your system.
  • Сохраните отредактированный файл.
  • If you reboot now, the disk will be writable to every users. If you want the changes to take effect immediately without rebooting, execute the following command, ignoring the errors about "/" and others not being unmounted.
sudo umount -a && sudo mount -a

Безопасность

Основные моменты безопасности Ubuntu, о которых я должен знать

  • Read #General Notes
  • Убедитесь в том, что жесткий диск с установленной Ubuntu следует первым в загрузочной последовательности в BIOS
    • Чтобы защитить свой компьютер от злоумышленника, использующего установочный CD-диск Linux, который предоставляет ему доступ с правами суперпользователя
    • Чтобы защитить свой компьютер от злоумышленника, использующего Linux Live CD (например, UBUNTU/KNOPPIX/MEPIS), что позволит ему уничтожить/просмотреть/опубликовать содержимое вашего жесткого диска
    • Чтобы защитить свой компьютер от злоумышленника, который может установить другую операционную систему
  • Убедитесь в том, что на вашем компьютере установлен пароль для BIOS
    • Чтобы защитить свой компьютер от злоумышленника, который может изменить загрузочную последовательность в BIOS
  • Убедитесь, что компьютер находится в недоступном и безопасном месте
    • Чтобы защитить свой компьютер от злоумышленника, который может физически изъять жесткий диск из вашего компьютера, что позволит ему уничтожить/просмотреть/опубликовать содержимое вашего жесткого диска с другого компьютера
    • Чтобы защитить свой компьютер от злоумышленника, который может физически изъять батарею с материнской платы, что обнулит установленный для BIOS пароль
  • Убедитесь, что пароли, установленные в вашей системе, нелегко подобрать или угадать
    • Чтобы защитить свой компьютер от злоумышленника, который может взломать ваш файл с паролями используя брутфорс-атаки (например, Иван Разрезатель)
    • Создавайте пароли длиной не менее 8 символов
    • Создавайте пароли, содержащие как буквы разного регистра, так и цифры, символы
    • Не создавайте пароли, содержащие только одно или несколько типичных слов из одного языка (английский, немецкий, французский, испанский...)
  • Убедитесь в том, что интерактивная правка меню загрузчика GRUB отключена
    • Чтобы защитить свой компьютер от злоумышленника, который может изменить аргументы при загрузке ядра, что может дать ему доступ с правами суперпользователя
    • Прочтите #How to disable all interactive editing control for GRUB menu
  • Убедитесь, что в консольном режиме не ведется журнал команд
    • Чтобы защитить свой компьютер от злоумышленника, который может просмотреть введенные ранее команды
    • Прочтите #How to disable history listing in Console mode
  • Убедитесь, что комбинация Ctrl+Alt+Del отключена в консольном режиме
  • Ensure interactive option is set for remove, copy and move of files/folders in Console mode
  • For day to day usage, login as a normal user
  • Disable root user account, use "sudo" instead
    • To reduce the amount of time spent with root privileges, and thus the risk of inadvertently executing a command as root
    • "sudo" provides a more useful audit trail (/var/log/auth.log)
    • Read #How to disable root user account
  • Install a Firewall
  • Perform vulnerability test

How to disable all interactive editing control for GRUB menu

  • Run This:
grub-md5-crypt 
Password: 
Retype password: 
$1$tumnZ1$xB/shuXs7MlawZXkLiBDV/
  • Backup your current configuration file
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this section
...
## password ['--md5'] passwd
# If used in the first section of a menu file, disable all interactive editing
# control (menu entry editor and command-line) and entries protected by the
# command 'lock'
# e.g. password topsecret
#   password --md5 $1$tumnZ1$xB/shuXs7MlawZXkLiBDV/
# password topsecret
...
  • Add the following line below it
password --md5 $1$tumnZ1$xB/shuXs7MlawZXkLiBDV/ (encrypted password above)
  • Find the section(s) that look like this (note the 'recovery mode' and the word 'single'):
...
title		Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (recovery mode)
root		(hd0,1)
kernel		/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro single
initrd		/boot/initrd.img-2.6.10-5-386
savedefault
boot
...
  • Add lock between the title and root lines:
...
title		Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (recovery mode)
lock
root		(hd0,1)
...
  • Save the edited file

This will make it so your grub console will require a password to edit the lines, and the recovery modes won't work unless the password is typed. To access the other grub options at the menu, follow the instructions at the bottom of the screen. It will be something like pressing p and typing your password.

How to disable history listing in Console mode

rm -f .bash_history
gedit ~/.bash_profile
  • Add the following:
export HISTFILESIZE=4
unset HISTFILE=5

# Change this to a reasonable number of lines to save, I like to save only 100.
export HISTSIZE=1

# Ignores duplicate lines next to each other
export HISTCONTROL=ignoredups

This will disable Bash history for the user, retaining keystroke history and recall to use while limiting recall history to 100 lines. This will also not record duplicate lines next to each other.

Как отключить перезагрузку машины по Ctrl+Alt+Del в консольном режиме

sudo cp /etc/inittab /etc/inittab_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/inittab
  • Найдите эту строку:
...
ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -r now
...
  • Замените на следующую строку:
#ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -r now
  • Сохраните результат:
sudo telinit q

How to enable prompt before removal/overwritten of files/folders in Console mode

sudo cp /etc/bash.bashrc /etc/bash.bashrc_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/bash.bashrc
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
alias rm='rm -i'
alias cp='cp -i'
alias mv='mv -i'
  • Save the edited file

How to setup a LoJack system for your laptop


What: Quote from Wikipedia: "LoJack is an aftermarket vehicle tracking system that allows cars to be tracked by police after being stolen. The manufacturer claims a 90% recovery rate. The name "LoJack" is a play on the word "hijack," meaning the theft of a vehicle through force."

Why: If your laptop is ever stolen and connected to the Internet. You will be able to find out from what IP it connects to the Internet from and contact the authorities.

How:

  • Get a free dynamic IP account from one of the many providers. Here we will use DynDNS.
sudo apt-get install ddclient 
  • Edit the configuration file /etc/ddclient.conf using you fevorite text editor (emacs, gedit, kedit or even vi)
sudo emacs /etc/ddclient.conf
  • Make it look like this:
# Configuration file for ddclient generated by debconf
#
# /etc/ddclient.conf
pid=/var/run/ddclient.pid
protocol=dyndns2
use=web
server=members.dyndns.org
login=YourNameHere
password='YourPasswordHere'
YourHostNameHere.gotmyip.com
NOTE:
* Make sure that you use the web IP detection method.
* Specify your own user id instead of the place holder YourNameHere.
* Specify your own password instead of the place holder YourPasswordHere, make sure to surround it with single quotes.
* The last line should specify the hostname you registered with the dynamic IP service.
  • You can now start the ddclient daemon, or wait until your next reboot.
sudo /etc/init.d/ddclient start
  • The hostname you registered with your dynamic IP service should be updated. You can test it with the ping command:
ping YourHostNameHere.gotmyip.com
Even if your laptop has a firewall that prevents pings the hostname should resolve to the IP of the network gateway that your laptop is connected to.
Now all that is left is for someone to steal your laptop.....

References:

Boot Menu

How to gain root user access without login

  • Read #General Notes
  • Easiest method (will not work if GRUB menu password is set)
    • Boot-up computer
    • If GRUB menu is hidden, press 'Esc' to enter the GRUB menu
    • Select
Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (recovery mode)

How to modify kernel boot-up arguments, to gain root user access

  • Read #General Notes
  • Boot-up computer
  • If GRUB menu is hidden, press 'Esc' to enter the GRUB menu
  • If GRUB password is set, press 'p' to unlock the GRUB menu
  • Select
Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386
  • Press 'e' to edit the commands before booting
  • Select
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro quiet splash
  • Press 'e' to edit the selected command in the boot sequence
  • Add "rw init=/bin/bash" to the end of the arguments
grub edit> kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro quiet splash rw init=/bin/bash
  • Press 'b' to boot

How to use Ubuntu Installation CD, to gain root user access

  • Read #General Notes
  • Boot-up computer into Ubuntu Installation CD
  • At "boot:" prompt, add "rescue" to the argument
boot: rescue
  • Follow the instructions on screen

How to change root user/main user password if forgotten

# passwd root
  • To change main user password
# passwd system_main_username

How to change GRUB menu password if forgotten

grub
grub> md5crypt
Password: ****** (ubuntu)
Encrypted: $1$ZWnke0$1fzDBVjUcT1Mpdd4u/T961 (encrypted password)
grub> quit
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this line
...
password --md5 $1$gLhU0/$aW78kHK1QfV3P2b2znUoe/
...
  • Replace with the following line
password --md5 $1$ZWnke0$1fzDBVjUcT1Mpdd4u/T961 (encrypted password above)
  • Save the edited file

How to restore GRUB menu after Windows installation

Super Grub Disk
Grub

If you have booted your linux distro with Super Grub Disk, or a live CD and want to restore your grub, follow the below instructions:

  • As root (or with sudo), trype grub
  • When at the grub prompt, type find /boot/grub/stage2
  • This will return something like (hd0,2)
  • To setup the boot partition boot type root (hd0,2). This is the harddrive and the partition your linux is installed on...
  • And then to configure grub type setup (hd0)
  • Now you're done, so exit with quit

How to identify the name of the boot drive (hd0, hd1, hd2, etc)

Press "c" on boot menu. If you don't see a boot menu, press ESC key first when booting to show the boot menu.

Type:

root (hd0,0)

Most likely you will get "(hd0,0) ext2fs", which should be your current Linux drive. Now change hd0 to hd1 to see what is there.

root (hd1,0)

If you get "(hd1,0) filesystem type unknown, partition type 0x7", then hd1 is a Windows drive.

Now change hd1 to hd2, keep going until you reach hd7.

How to add Windows entry into GRUB menu

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
title		Microsoft Windows
root		(hd0,0)
savedefault
makeactive
chainloader	+1
  • Save the edited file


How to boot into Windows installed on a seperate SATA drive

This configuration applies to people who have Linux installed on a IDE drive, and Windows installed on a seperate SATA. The IDE drive boots first, so we need to add an entry to the boot menu on the Linux disk. Here we assume the name of your Windows drive is hd1. If you are not sure, click the link above to find out.

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Append the following lines at the end of file.
title           Windows XP on SATA drive
map (hd0) (hd1)
map (hd1) (hd0)
chainloader (hd1,0)+1
  • Save the edited file

How to read Linux partitions (ext2, ext3) in Windows machine

OR

Tips And Tricks

How to enable lame for FFMPEG (needed to encode FLV with sound)

KINO FLVs silent? You need to recompile FFMPEG with LAME enabled. FFMPEG can be installed via apt-get as a package, but is not able encode MP3, which is the audio stream in FLV video (like Google & YouTube).

sudo apt-get install lame gcc
  • Download and extract FFMPEG source to current working directory
sudo apt-get source ffmpeg
sudo tar fvxz ffmpeg_[complete with actual filename]
  • Compile FFMPEG from source
cd ffmpeg-[complete with actual directory name]
sudo ./configure --enable-mp3lame
sudo make
sudo make install

If an application you are using employs FFMPEG to encode FLV, it should now work properly. You can also call FFMPEG directly from the command line. The extension/suffix of the outfile tells FFMPEG which audio or video format to encode to.

ffmpeg [-i infile] [outfile]

How to enable smooth fonts

gedit ~/.fonts.conf
  • Paste in this text:
<?xml version=”1.0” ?>
<!DOCTYPE fontconfig SYSTEM “fonts.dtd”>
<fontconfig>
<match target=”font”>
<edit name=”autohint” mode=”assign”>
<bool>true</bool>
</edit>
</match>
</fontconfig>
  • You’ll have to log out and back in to see the difference.

Как перезапустить GNOME без перезагрузки компьютера

  • Прочтите #Общие замечания
  • Сохраните редактируемые файлы и закройте все приложения
Нажмите сочетание клавиш 'Ctrl + Alt + Backspace'

или
sudo /etc/init.d/gdm restart

How to turn on Num Lock on GNOME startup

sudo apt-get install numlockx
sudo cp /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default
  • Find this line
...
exit 0
  • Add the following lines above it
if [ -x /usr/bin/numlockx ]; then
 /usr/bin/numlockx on
fi

How to remap the Caps Lock key as another Control key

gksudo gedit /etc/console-tools/remap
In the Console
  • Change
#s/keycode  58 = Caps_Lock/keycode  58 = Control/;

to

s/keycode  58 = Caps_Lock/keycode  58 = Control/;
  • Save your work
sudo /etc/init.d/console-screen.sh
  • Try using it
In X Windows
gksudo gedit ~/.Xmodmap
  • Add this:
keycode 66 = Control_L
clear Lock
add Control = Control_L

  • Now, apply the changes.
xmodmap ~/.Xmodmap
  • To apply them on startup
    • If ~/.xinitrc does not exist,
cp /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc ~/.xinitrc
  • In all cases
gedit ~/.xinitrc
  • Make the first line this:
xmodmap ~/.Xmodmap
  • Restart X (Ctrl - Alt - Backspace)
  • Log In, a dialog should pop up, add .Xmodmap to the left side with the add button, and Save.

How to run programs on startup when login into GNOME

Startup Programs Tab -> Add/Edit/Delete

How to speed-up your Ubuntu box

How to switch to Console mode in GNOME

Press 'Ctrl + Alt + F1' (F2 - F6)
  • To switch between consoles in Console mode
Press 'Alt + F1' (F2 - F6)
  • To switch back to GNOME mode
Press 'Alt + F7'

How to disable Ctrl+Alt+Backspace from restarting X in GNOME

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
Section "ServerFlags"
	Option		"DontZap"		"yes"
EndSection

How to enable Ctrl+Alt+Del to open System Monitor in GNOME

gconftool-2 -t str --set /apps/metacity/global_keybindings/run_command_9 "<Control><Alt>Delete"
gconftool-2 -t str --set /apps/metacity/keybinding_commands/command_9 "gnome-system-monitor"

How to refresh GNOME desktop

killall nautilus

How to refresh GNOME panel

killall gnome-panel


How to enable autosave in Gedit and disable creation of some_file~ files

  • Read #General Notes
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> gedit-2 -> preferences -> editor -> save -> create_backup_copy (Unchecked)
/ -> apps -> gedit-2 -> preferences -> editor -> save -> auto_save (Checked)

How to show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus

  • Read #General Notes
  • Places -> Home Folder
  • To temporary show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus
Press 'Ctrl + H'
  • To permanently show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus
Edit Menu -> Preferences
Views Tab -> Default View -> Show hidden and backup files (Checked)

How to browse files/folders as root user in Nautilus

gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/Nautilus-root.desktop
    • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=File Browser (Root)
Comment=Browse the filesystem with the file manager
Exec=gksudo "nautilus --browser %U"
Icon=file-manager
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;System;
  • To browse files/folders as root user in Nautilus
    • Applications -> System Tools -> File Browser (Root)

How to install a "View in Terminal" Menu for Nautilus

sudo apt-get install nautilus-open-terminal
  • Nautilus -> Right-click on folder or background -> Open in Terminal

How to change default file type "Open with" program

Right click on file -> Properties
Open With Tab -> Add
Select "Open with" program
Select "Open with" program (Checked)

How to change preferred email client to Mozilla Thunderbird

Mail Reader Tab -> Default Mail Reader -> Command: mozilla-thunderbird %s

How to open files as root user via right click

gedit $HOME/.gnome2/nautilus-scripts/Open\ as\ root
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
for uri in $NAUTILUS_SCRIPT_SELECTED_URIS; do
	gksudo "gnome-open $uri" &
done
  • Save the edited file
chmod +x $HOME/.gnome2/nautilus-scripts/Open\ as\ root

Right click on file -> Scripts -> Open as root

How to disable beep sound in Terminal mode

Not for Dapper---- firingstone

Edit Menu -> Current Profile...
General Tab -> General -> Terminal bell (Un-Checked)

How to handle mss protocol in Mozilla Firefox


  • Open your firefox.
  • Type as url: about:config

Now just right click somewhere into the main window. A little box with options to choose will appear. Choose "new", then "string". Then copy the following line into the appearing text field:

network.protocol-handler.app.mms

Into the next text field copy this:

/usr/bin/X11/vlc

Now you do the same thing again, but this time you do not choose "string" but "boolean", and the line to copy is:

network.protocol-handler.external.mms

Then set

true

How to handle rtsp (realmedia) protocol in Mozilla Firefox


  • Open your firefox.
  • Type as url: about:config

Now just right click somewhere into the main window. A little box with options to choose will appear. Choose "new", then "string". Then copy the following line into the appearing text field:

network.protocol-handler.app.rtsp

Into the next text field copy this:

/usr/bin/X11/realplay

Now you do the same thing again, but this time you do not choose "string" but "boolean", and the line to copy is:

network.protocol-handler.external.rtsp

Then set

true

How to load Web site faster in Mozilla Firefox

  • Applications -> Internet -> Firefox Web Browser
  • Mozilla Firefox
Address Bar -> about:config
Filter: ->
network.dns.disableIPv6 -> true
network.http.pipelining -> true
network.http.pipelining.maxrequests -> 8
network.http.proxy.pipelining -> true
  • Restart Mozilla Firefox

How to disable beep sound for link find function in Mozilla Firefox

  • Read #General Notes
  • Applications -> Internet -> Firefox Web Browser
  • Mozilla Firefox
Address Bar -> about:config
Filter: -> accessibility.typeaheadfind.enablesound -> false
  • Restart Mozilla Firefox


How to apt-get the easy way (Synaptic)

  • Read #General Notes
  • Step By Step Synaptic Package Manager Tutorials with Screenshots
  • System -> Administration -> Synaptic Package Manager
  • To enable the extra Universe and Multiverse repositories
    1. Settings -> Repositories
    2. In the Installation Media tab, click Add. There are three separate repositories; Dapper Drake, Security Updates and Updates. Select each repository and check Officially supported, Restricted copyright, Community maintained (Universe) and Non-free (Multiverse). Ensure you click OK between each repository to save your changes
    3. You should now see those three repositories under Channels. Make sure Officially supported, Restricted copyright, Community maintained (Universe) and Non-free (Multiverse) appears under each repository
  • To add backports and PLF (new versions of many applications. Unsupported. May contain illegal packages. Use at own risk.)
    1. Settings -> Repositories
    2. Click on Add and then Custom
    3. Paste the following four lines into the box and click Add Repository, one line at a time:
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/ edgy free
deb http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/ edgy non-free
deb-src http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/ edgy free
deb-src http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/ edgy non-free
  • To refresh the list of known packages (equivalent to apt-get update)
Edit Menu -> Reload Package Information
  • To install all possible upgrades (equivalent to aptitude upgrade)
Edit Menu -> Mark All Upgrades... -> Default Upgrade
Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes
  • To search for a package (equivalent to aptitude search package_name)
Edit Menu -> Search... Specify the package name
  • To install the selected package (equivalent to aptitude install package_name)
Select "package_name"
Package Menu -> Mark for Installation
Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes
  • To remove installed package (equivalent to aptitude remove package_name)
Select "package_name"
Package Menu -> Mark for Removal
Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes

What packages do the extra repositories provide

  • The PLF repository provides
    1. DVD playback support (libdvdcss2)
    2. Skype
    3. Sun Java SDK (Software Development Kit) and JRE (Java Runtime Environment)
    4. Opera Web browser
    5. RealPlayer 10
    6. Win32 binary multimedia codecs

How to install/uninstall .deb files

sudo dpkg -i package_file.deb
  • To uninstall .deb file
sudo dpkg -r package_name

How to find out which version of a package I have installed

dpkg -l packagename

How to convert .rpm files to .deb files

sudo alien package_file.rpm

How to compile .deb files from source

  • Read #General Notes
  • Read #How to add extra repositories
  • There are various programs available to help automate the process of create .deb files from source. For more information, see the links at the end of this section. A basic well tested method is described here.
  • Install the necessary software to build the source (build-essential may be all that is necessary, though there may be other dependencies) and checkinstall (which creates deb files).
sudo apt-get install checkinstall build-essential
  • In the directory where you have extracted the source, after you have run ./configure and make you can create a .deb file and install it with either of the following commands. The second -D option creates a .deb file in the directory that you can share with others or install without needing the source.
sudo checkinstall

or

sudo checkinstall -D

How to rename all files in directory at once

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/mvb_1.6.tgz
sudo tar zxvf mvb_1.6.tgz -C /usr/share/
sudo chown -R root:root /usr/share/mvb_1.6/
sudo ln -fs /usr/share/mvb_1.6/mvb /usr/bin/mvb

  • To rename all files in directory at once
mvb NEW_NAME

How to manipulate all image files in directory at once

sudo apt-get install imagemagick
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/bbips.0.3.2.sh
sudo cp bbips.0.3.2.sh /usr/bin/bbips
sudo chmod 755 /usr/bin/bbips
  • To manipulate all image files in directory at once
bbips

How to set System-wide Environment Variables

sudo cp -p /etc/profile /etc/profile_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/profile
  • Append the System-wide Environment Variables at the end of file
  • Save the edited file

How to save "man" outputs into files

man command | col -b > file.txt

How to hide GRUB menu on boot-up

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst

  • Find this line
...
#hiddenmenu
...
  • Replace with the following line
hiddenmenu
  • Save the edited file

How to change the timeout seconds for GRUB menu on boot-up

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this line
...
timeout     3
...
  • Replace with the following line
timeout     X_seconds
  • Save the edited file

How to change default Operating System boot-up for GRUB menu

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this line
...
default     0
...
  • Replace with the following line
default     X_sequence
  • Save the edited file

How to display Splash Image for GRUB menu on boot-up

e.g. Assumed that hd0,1 is the location of Ubuntu boot partition
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/ubuntu.xpm.gz
chmod 644 ubuntu.xpm.gz
sudo mkdir /boot/grub/images
sudo cp ubuntu.xpm.gz /boot/grub/images/
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this section
# menu.lst - See: grub(8), info grub, update-grub(8)
#      grub-install(8), grub-floppy(8),
#      grub-md5-crypt, /usr/share/doc/grub
#      and /usr/share/doc/grub-doc/.
...
  • Add the following line below it
splashimage (hd0,1)/boot/grub/images/ubuntu.xpm.gz
NOTE: If you have seperate boot partition use this line: splashimage (hd0,1)/grub/images/ubuntu.xpm.gz
  • Save the edited file

How to convert Wallpaper to Splash Image for GRUB menu

e.g. Assumed that wallpaper.png is the Wallpaper to be converted to Splash Image
splashimage.xpm.gz is the Splash Image for GRUB menu
ImageMagick is installed
convert -resize 640x480 -colors 14 wallpaper.png splashimage.xpm && gzip splashimage.xpm

How to display only one kernel on GRUB menu

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup-`date +%F`
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this line
...
# howmany=all
...
  • Replace with the following line
# howmany=1

Where 1 means to keep the last kernel, 2 to keep the last 2 kernels, etc. Do not delete the # symbol. The menu will be updated once a new kernel will be updated by the system, not before.

  • Save the edited file

How to force GDM to system beep when login screen ready

  • Read #General Notes
  • This is useful on computers where headphones are usually plugged in, allowing them to utilize the speakers for this attention-getting task.
echo foo >> ~/foo.wav
  • System -> Administration -> Login Window -> Accessibility

Now make sure the "Login Screen Ready" check mark is checked. Click on the folder icon and navigate to your home folder and select "foo.wav".

rm foo.wav

The drop down menu should now say "(None)"

How to temporary skip boot-up services

Press 'Ctrl + C'

Clean up Ubuntu GNU/Linux System

How to permanently disable/enable boot-up services

How to clean /tmp/ folder contents on shutdown

sudo cp /etc/init.d/sysklogd /etc/init.d/sysklogd_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/init.d/sysklogd
  • Find this section
...
 stop)
  log_begin_msg "Stopping system log daemon..."
  start-stop-daemon --stop --quiet --oknodo --exec $binpath --pidfile $pidfile
  log_end_msg $?
...
  • Add the following line below it
  rm -fr /tmp/* /tmp/.??*
  • Save the edited file

How to scroll up and down to view previous outputs in Console mode

Press 'Shift + Page Up'
  • To scroll down to view previously outputs
Press 'Shift + Page Down'

How to find out which version of Ubuntu I am using

cat /etc/issue


How to set up (automatic) background/wallpaper-changer application for GNOME

  • Read #General Notes
  • To install the script into a different location than your home directory, replace "~" with your path
cd ~
wget http://members.chello.at/horst.jens/files/wallpaperchanger.py
chmod +x wallpaperchanger.py
~/wallpaperchanger.py
gedit ~/.wallpaperchanger/wallpaperchangerconfig.py
  • Edit all the lines not beginning with an "#" according to your needs. Save the file and close gedit.
  • To create an menu entry for wallpaperchanger:
Click the menuitems: Applications -> Accessoires -> Alacarte Menu Editor -> File -> New Entry:
Name: wallpaperchanger
command: ~/wallpaperchanger.py

  • To change desktop background every time you reboot your computer:
Click the menuitems: System -> Preferences -> Session -> Startup Programs -> Add:
~/wallpaperchanger.py

How to set up automatic background change (KDE)

  • Go to K-menu -> System Settings -> Desktop -> Background
  • Choose Slide Show
  • Press Setup...
  • Press Add... to add pictures you wish to see as desktop background
  • Set 'Change picture after' to desired picture rotation interval.
  • Press 'OK'

How to add keyboard layouts for other languages

  • Go to System -> Preferences -> Keyboard
  • Choose Layouts
  • Press Add... to add the secondary keyboard layout. It is simpler to have two layouts; the maximum is currently four for Xorg.
  • Choose Layout Options
  • Expand option Group Shift/Lock behaviour
  • Choose the key combination that enables you to switch between keyboard layouts. The default is by pressing both Alt keys at the same time. A common alternative is to use Alt+Shift.
  • Press Close.

See #How to add the Keyboard (Layout) Indicator applet to add the Keyboard Indicator applet.

How to add keyboard layouts toggle for other languages (Xfce)

  • use *.lst files on /etc/X11/xkb/rules to select 2nd_laguage_code
setxkbmap -option grp:switch,grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp_led:scroll us,2nd_laguage_code
  • you can add it to a startup file, which will be set to be executed on startup, with the following lines (remember to 'chmod +x' the file):
#!/bin/tcsh
setxkbmap -option grp:switch,grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp_led:scroll us,il

How to add the Keyboard (Layout) Indicator applet

  • Right-click on empty space on the top panel so that you see the pop-up menu.
  • Click Add to Panel...
  • Choose Keyboard Indicator (it is under the Utilities section, at the end)

The Keyboard Indicator applet appears on the panel. The default language should be USA for U.S. English. You can either right-click on this applet for more options or see above on how to configure.

How to type extended characters

  • Add the keyboard layout US English International (with dead keys)
  • Make US English International (with dead keys) the default keyboard layout.

The key marked ['"] is now a dead key. When you press it, nothing happens. However if you press a consonant immediately afterwards, the consonant appears with an accent.

  • ' + a = á
  • ' + e = é
  • and so on for i-í, o-ó, y-ý, c-ć, z-ź, n-ń, l-ĺ, u-ú, r-ŕ
  • " + a = ä
  • " + e = ë
  • and so on for y-ÿ, u-ü, i-ï, o-ö

Similarly, ` and a consonant generates à, è, ù, ì, ò. Similarly, ~ and a consonant generates ã, ũ, ĩ, õ, ñ.

To type ' and ", press RightAlt+' and RightAlt+" respectively. To type ' and ", you may also press '+<space> and "+<space> respectively.

There are more characters available by keeping RightAlt pressed and typing a character. Therefore,

  • RightAlt+q = ä
  • RightAlt+w = å
  • RightAlt+e = é
  • RightAlt+r = ®
  • RightAlt+t = þ
  • RightAlt+y = ü
  • RightAlt+u = ú
  • RightAlt+i = í
  • RightAlt+o = ó
  • RightAlt+p = ö
  • RightAlt+[ and ] for « and » respectively.
  • RightAlt+a = á
  • RightAlt+s = ß
  • RightAlt+d = ð
  • RightAlt+l = ø
  • RightAlt+; = ¶
  • RightAlt+: = °
  • RightAlt+z = æ
  • RightAlt+c = ©
  • RightAlt+n = ñ
  • RightAlt+m = µ
  • RightAlt+, = ç
  • RightAlt+/ = ¿
  • RightAlt+1 = ¡
  • RightAlt+2 = ²
  • RightAlt+3 = ³
  • RightAlt+4 = ¤
  • RightAlt+5 = €
  • RightAlt+6 = ¼
  • RightAlt+7 = ½
  • RightAlt+8 = ¾
  • RightAlt+9 = ‘
  • RightAlt+0 = ’
  • RightAlt+- = ¥
  • RightAlt+= = ×
  • RightAlt+! = ¹
  • RightAlt+@, then o = ő (and Ő).
  • RightAlt+#, then a = ā (and Ā). Similarly for ēĒ, ūŪ, īĪ, ōŌ.
  • RightAlt+$ = £
  • RightAlt+% =
  • RightAlt+^ =
  • RightAlt+& =
  • RightAlt+*, then a = ą (and Ą). Similarly for ęĘ, įĮ.
  • RightAlt+(, then a = ă (and Ă)
  • RightAlt+(, then g = ğ (and Ğ)
  • RightAlt+), then a = å (and Å)
  • RightAlt+_ =
  • RightAlt++ = ÷

How to set the Compose key to type special characters

  • Click System, Preferences, Keyboard.
  • Under Layout Options, expand on Compose key position.
  • Choose Right-Win key is compose, click Close.

Now you can type extended characters using the RightWin key (next to AltGr), according to this keyboard settings file. Specifically, the lines that start with GDK_Multi_key are those that we can use here. The Compose key is actually GDK_Multi_key.

Some examples,

  • RightWin + C + = produces €
  • RightWin + = + C produces €
  • RightWin + C + O produces ©
  • RightWin + O + C produces ©
  • RightWin + a + ' produces á
  • RightWin + a + " produces ä
  • RightWin + a + ` produces à
  • RightWin + a + ~ produces ã
  • RightWin + a + * produces å
  • RightWin + a + ^ produces â
  • RightWin + a + > produces â
  • RightWin + a + , produces ą
  • RightWin + e + - produces ē
  • RightWin + S + 1 produces ¹
  • RightWin + S + 2 produces ²
  • RightWin + S + 3 produces ³

How to install ubuntu-title font used in Ubuntu logo

sudo apt-get install ttf-ubuntu-title

Now you can use this font in your favorite applications

How to associate Adobe Reader with files in Nautilus

Now when you double-click on a .pdf file, it will be opened with Adobe Reader.

How to print from Adobe Reader

/usr/bin/lp -d FS-1010

How to pull apart and combine pdf files

sudo apt-get install pdftk
cd
mkdir bin
cd bin
gedit pdftk_burst
  • add the following text to pdftk_burst:
#!/bin/bash
cd ${1%/*}
/usr/bin/pdftk "$1" burst
rm doc_data.txt
  • save and close pdftk_burst
gedit pdftk_cat
  • add the following text to pdftk_cat:
#!/bin/bash
cd ${1%/*}
outfile="00out.pdf"
if [ -f $outfile ] ; then
    rm -f $outfile
fi
/usr/bin/pdftk *.pdf cat output $outfile
  • save and close pdftk_cat
chmod u+x pdftk_burst pdftk_cat
  • open Nautilus (Places -> Desktop) and browse to a .pdf file
  • right-click the .pdf file, select Properties, go to the Open With tab, click Add, click Use a Custom Command, click Browse, browse to pdftk_burst. Do the same with pdftk_cat.

Now, when you right-click on a .pdf file, you'll get two extra options:

  • Open With -> pdftk_burst which will convert a 30 page pdf file to 30 x 1 page pdf files
  • Open With -> pdftk_cat which will join together all the pdf files in the same directory, and create a file called 00out.pdf

Note: this won't work with pdfs with any type of protection - read man pdftk for more command line options.

How to remove jedit when Synaptic package manager fails after install

sudo dpkg --remove --force-depends --force-remove-reinstreq jedit

Now, you can use your Synaptic package manager again.

How to compile a kernel the Ubuntu Way

http://www.howtoforge.com/kernel_compilation_ubuntu


How to add locales to Ubuntu the command line way

  • Open up a terminal
  • Generate a /var/lib/locales/supported.d/local from /usr/share/i18n/SUPPORTED:
cat /usr/share/i18n/SUPPORTED | grep "en\|ru" > /var/lib/locales/supported.d/local

This example shows all Russian (ru) and English (en) locales being chosen. Look through /usr/share/i18n/SUPPORTED to find the ones for you, then put them in a list, replacing en\|ru and separating each language with a \| (backslash, bar). If you only want one language, just put it in quotes.

  • Then regenerate all of the locales:
dpkg-reconfigure locales
  • Then set your locale:
update-locale LANG=en_US.UTF-8

In this step, make sure to choose the language and country that you would like your computer to think it is in. Here, I choose en_US, the United States version of English. Once again, look at your /var/lib/locales/supported.d/local or /usr/share/i18n/SUPPORTED for the one right for you. You may also want to research locales, using the Internet.

That was easy, now the command
lxterm
will open up the Unicode version of xterm or your translated software will display things properly, like vim.

Servers

Ubuntu Edgy LAMP Server

AntiVirus Server

How to install ClamAV AntiVirus Server

sudo clamscan -r /location_of_files_or_folders

How to automatically scan files/folders for viruses

e.g. Automatically scan files/folders for viruses at midnight everyday
* * * * * means minute hour date month year
 export EDITOR=gedit &&  sudo crontab -e
*Append the following line at the end of file
00 00 * * *  sudo clamscan -r /location_of_files_or_folders
  • Save the edited file

Monitoring Server

If you want to monitor your Ubuntu servers and clients like memory usage,CPU usage,Load average,Disk usage,Mysql monitoring, Network Monitoring,Processes Monitoring this is for you

Monitor your Ubuntu Servers and Clients using Munin

Print Server (cupsd)

How to install cupsd

Cupsd should be automatically installed during standard instaltion. Checkout if there is a file "/etc/init.d/cupsys". If you want to manually install it, do
 sudo apt-get install cupsys*

How to add a printer

  • Go to System -> Administration -> Printing.
  • Choose "Add printer".
  • "Add printer wizard" should start and tell you what to do.

How to print on remote Ubuntu machine from another Ubuntu machine

  • Make sure your local printer is well configured.
  • Enable local printer sharing - System -> Administration -> Printing -> Global Settings menu -> Share printers
  • Server ip address: 192.168.0.1
  • Client ip address: 192.168.0.23
    • Server configuration
 sudo cp /etc/cups/cupsd.conf /etc/cups/cupsd.conf.backup
 gksudo gedit /etc/cups/cupsd.conf
find the block
<Location />
  ...
  Allow localhost
  ...
</Location>
and add the following line into it.
 Allow 192.168.0.23
Restart cups.
 sudo /etc/init.d/cupsys restart
    • Client configuration
 sudo cp /etc/cups/client.conf /etc/cups/client.conf.backup
 gksudo gedit /etc/cups/client.conf
And add the following line into it.
 ServerName 192.168.0.1
Restart cups.
 sudo /etc/init.d/cupsys restart
Now try "lpq" and you should see something like
 vitek@lightfox:~$ lpq
 HPLJ6P is ready
 no entries

How to print on remote Ubuntu machine from a Windows machine


1.19.4.5

How to set up 4 port printer server

Setting up COMPUSA print server on Ubuntu

(1) go to System, Administration, Printing.

(2) Then Add a printer

(3) Network Printer and choose HP JetDirect

(4) Where it says Host you put in the IP Address of the Print server. You can find it with Smb4k

(5) Where it says Port you put 9100 for USB port 1. 9101 for USB port 2. 9102 for USB port 3. and 9103 for USB port 4.

(6) Then click on forward and install your printer

Samba Server

How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service

sudo apt-get install samba smbfs

How to add/edit/delete network users

sudo smbpasswd -a system_username
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smbusers
    • Insert the following line into the new file
system_username = "network username"
    • Save the edited file
  • To edit network user
sudo smbpasswd -a system_username
  • To delete network user
sudo smbpasswd -x system_username

How to share home folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share home folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Find this section
...
# By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change next
# parameter to 'yes' if you want to be able to write to them.
  writable = no
...
  • Replace with the following lines
# By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change next
# parameter to 'yes' if you want to be able to write to them.
  writable = yes
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share group folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)

sudo mkdir /home/group
sudo chmod 777 /home/group/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
 security = user
 username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[Group]
  comment = Group Folder
  path = /home/group
  public = yes
  writable = no
  valid users = system_username1 system_username2
  create mask = 0700
  directory mask = 0700
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup

sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share group folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)


sudo mkdir /home/group
sudo chmod 777 /home/group/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[Group]
  comment = Group Folder
  path = /home/group
  public = yes
  writable = yes
  valid users = system_username1 system_username2
  create mask = 0700
  directory mask = 0700
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)


sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user 
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = no
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)

sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = yes
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody 
  force group = nogroup
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read only permission (Authentication=No)

sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following line
  security = share
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = no
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup
  • Save the edited file
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=No)

sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following line
  security = share
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = yes
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup

  • Save the edited file
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to print on remote Ubuntu machine via samba

 sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf.backup
 gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
Find the following lines
 ...
 # printing = cups
 # printcap name = cups
 ...
and uncomment them.
 printing = cups
 printcap name = cups
Restart cups server
 sudo /etc/init.d/cupsys restart
Now printers working on your Ubuntu machine should be acessible via samba.

Samba Web Administration Tool (SWAT)

How to install INETD Superserver

 sudo apt-get install netkit-inetd

How to install SWAT for Samba daemon

 sudo apt-get install swat
  • Open inetd daemon configuration
 sudo gksu gedit /etc/inetd.conf
  • If string is:
 <#off#> swat            stream  tcp     nowait.400      root    /usr/sbin/tcpd  /usr/sbin/swat
  • Change to:
 swat            stream  tcp     nowait.400      root    /usr/sbin/tcpd  /usr/sbin/swat
  • Restart daemon
 sudo /etc/init.d/inetd restart

SSH Server

How to install SSH Server for remote administration service

sudo apt-get install ssh

How to SSH into remote Ubuntu machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
ssh username@192.168.0.1

How to copy files/folders from remote Ubuntu machine into local machine (scp)

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote files/folders location: /home/username/remotefile.txt
Local machine save location: . (current directory)
scp -r username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/remotefile.txt .

How to copy files/folders from local machine into remote Ubuntu machine (scp)

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Local files/folders location: localfile.txt
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote Ubuntu machine save location: /home/username/
scp -r localfile.txt username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/

How to copy files/folders from remote Ubuntu machine into local machine (rsync)

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote files/folders location: /home/username/remotefile.txt
Local machine save location: . (current directory)
rsync -v -u -a --delete --rsh=ssh --stats username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/remotefile.txt .

How to copy files/folders from local machine into remote Ubuntu machine (rsync)

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Local files/folders location: localfile.txt
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote Ubuntu machine save location: /home/username/
rsync -v -u -a --delete --rsh=ssh --stats localfile.txt username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/

How to mount remote folders into local Ubuntu machine (sshfs)

e.g. Assumed that remote machine has installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Remote machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote machine folder location: /media/music
  • Install sshfs
sudo apt-get install sshfs
  • Load kernel driver for sshfs
sudo modprobe fuse
  • Join the 'fuse' user group
sudo adduser your_user_name fuse
  • Logout and login for this to take effect.
  • fix group on /dev/fuse
 sudo chgrp fuse /dev/fuse
  • Create local mountpoint in your home directory
mkdir ~/remote_music
  • Mount the remote folder into ~/remote_music
sshfs 192.168.0.1:/media/music ~/remote_music

How to SSH into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
  • Download PuTTY: Here


How to copy files/folders from/into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
  • Download FileZilla: Here

How to limit the user accounts that can connect through ssh remotely

e.g. If you enable the SSH server, then any user with a valid account can connect remotely
This can lead to security risks, as there exist remote password cracking tools that
try common username/password pairs.
  • Keep a backup of the ssh server configuration file with

sudo cp /etc/ssh/sshd_config /etc/ssh/sshd_config.ORIGINAL

  • Edit the configuration file

gksudo gedit /etc/ssh/sshd_config

  • Change the parameter PermitRootLogin from yes to no. The superuser must not be able to connect directly from remote.
  • Add the parameter AllowUsers and specify the usernames (space separated) that can connect remotely.
  • You can also use DenyUsers for fine-grained selection of users.
  • If you enable the openssh server and you have no intention for now to enable remote connections, you may add AllowUsers nosuchuserhere to disable anyone connecting.

Using SSH to Port Forward

e.g. Assumed that remote machine has installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service

If is possible to create secure SSH tunnels between multiple sites. Imagine two sites (home and office). If you have an SSH server available in the office available via the Internet, you can tunnel across to this server and communicate with any local PC in the office from home.

  • Example: Make Port 80 (Web Server) on 10.0.2.10 in the office available locally on Port 81

From home:

ssh -L 81:10.0.2.10:80 user@office.net

Once logged in, you can now browse to http://localhost:81 which is really a secure tunnel to the web server in your office. You can setup multiple port forwardings.

ssh -L 81:10.0.2.10:80 -L 82:10.0.2.20:80 -L 83:10.0.2.30:80 user@office.net

Now, port 81 locally forwards to port 80 on 10.0.2.10, port 82 forwards to port 80 on 10.0.2.20 and port 83 forwards to port 80 on 10.0.2.30

For example, http://localhost:81 connects you to port 80 on 10.0.2.10 (computer at remote location)

Specify port with -p?? if SSH Server on office.net does not run on default port 22.

Explanation:

ssh -L <local port>:<remote computer>:<remote port> <user>@<remote ip>

DHCP Server

How to install DHCP Server for automatic IP addresses assignment

e.g. Assumed that "eth0" is the interface for network card
IP Address Range: 192.168.0.100 to 192.168.0.200
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
DNS Servers: 202.188.0.133, 202.188.1.5
Domains: tm.net.my
Gateway Address: 192.168.0.1
sudo apt-get install dhcp3-server
sudo cp /etc/default/dhcp3-server /etc/default/dhcp3-server_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/default/dhcp3-server
  • Find this line
...
INTERFACES=""
  • Replace with the following line
INTERFACES="eth0"
  • Save the edited file
sudo cp /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf
  • Find this section
...
# option definitions common to all supported networks...
option domain-name "example.org";
option domain-name-servers ns1.example.org, ns2.example.org;
default-lease-time 600;
max-lease-time 7200;
...
  • Replace with the following lines
# option definitions common to all supported networks...
#option domain-name "example.org";
#option domain-name-servers ns1.example.org, ns2.example.org;
#default-lease-time 600;
#max-lease-time 7200;
  • Find this section
...
# A slightly different configuration for an internal subnet.
#subnet 10.5.5.0 netmask 255.255.255.224 {
# range 10.5.5.26 10.5.5.30;
# option domain-name-servers ns1.internal.example.org;
# option domain-name "internal.example.org";
# option routers 10.5.5.1;
# option broadcast-address 10.5.5.31;
# default-lease-time 600;
# max-lease-time 7200;
#}
...
  • Replace with the following lines
# A slightly different configuration for an internal subnet.
subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
 range 192.168.0.100 192.168.0.200;
 option domain-name-servers 202.188.0.133, 202.188.1.5;
 option domain-name "tm.net.my";
 option routers 192.168.0.1;
 option broadcast-address 192.168.0.255;
 default-lease-time 600;
 max-lease-time 7200;
}
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/dhcp3-server restart


Database Server

How to install MYSQL Database Server

sudo apt-get install mysql-server
  • MySQL initially only allows connections from the localhost (127.0.0.1). We'll need to remove that restriction if you wish to make it accessible to everyone on the internet. Open the file /etc/mysql/my.cnf
gksudo gedit /etc/mysql/my.cnf
  • Find the line bind-address = 127.0.0.1 and comment it out
...
#bind-address           = 127.0.0.1
...
  • MySQL comes with no root password as default. This is a huge security risk. You'll need to set one. So that the local computer gets root access as well, you'll need to set a password for that too. The local-machine-name is the name of the computer you're working on. For more information see here
mysqladmin -u root password your-new-password
mysqladmin -h root@local-machine-name -u root -p password your-new-password
sudo /etc/init.d/mysql restart

MySQL Database backup using AutoMySQLBackup

  • AutoMySQLBackup is a script to take daily, weekly and monthly backups of your MySQL databases using mysqldump.
  • AutoMySQLBackup Script Features
    • Backup mutiple MySQL databases with one script. (Now able to backup ALL databases on a server easily. no longer need to specify each database seperately)
    • Backup all databases to a single backup file or to a seperate directory and file for each database.
    • Automatically compress the backup files to save disk space using either gzip or bzip2 compression.
    • Can backup remote MySQL servers to a central server.
    • Runs automatically using cron or can be run manually.
    • Can e-mail the backup log to any specified e-mail address instead of “root”. (Great for hosted websites and databases).
    • Can email the compressed database backup files to the specified email address.
    • Can specify maximun size backup to email.
    • Can be set to run PRE and POST backup commands.
    • Choose which day of the week to run weekly backups.
  • AutoMySQLBackup Requirements

The AutoMySQLBackup script only requires mysqldump (A standard utility provided with the mysql client) and gzip or bzip2 for compression of the backup files. If you would like to have the log emailed to you then you will need to have permission to execute the “mail” program. If you want the compressed backup files mailed to you then Mutt must be available on the server. Finally you will need a bash shell and the standard system tools and utilities (all these requirements should be the default on most linux system.)

  • What AutoMySQLBackup does

Every day AutoMySQLBackup will run (if setup in /etc/cron.daily) and using mysqldump and gzip will dump your specified databases to the /backups/daily directory, it will rotate daily backups weekly so you should never have more than 7 backups in there..

Every Saturday AutoMySQLBackup will again backup the databases you have chosen but they will be placed into /backups/weekly, these will be rotated every 5 weeks so there should never be more than 5 backups in there..

Every 1st of the month AutoMySQLBackup will create a backup of all databases and place them into /backups/monthly. These will never be rotated so it will be up to you to do your own house keeping. I would suggest taking a copy of this offline every month or two so that if you have a hard drive failure you will be able to restore your database

  • AutoMySQLBackup Installation

The install is as simple as editing a few variables in the AutoMySQLBackup file. The full setup is documented in the AutoMySQLBackup script file below the variables section.

  • Download automysqlbackup.sh and place it into your /etc/cron.daily directory or your home directory.
  • Edit (at least) the following lines :
...
USERNAME=dbuser 
PASSWORD=password DBNAMES=”DB1 DB2 DB3″
...
  • Note:The user must have at least select privileges to the databases and make sure to keep the quotes ” ” otherwise it won’t work
  • Make the file executable :
sudo chmod u+rwx
  • Create the following directory
./backups
  • That’s it...Now you can run it using the command line “./automysqlbackup.sh” or if it is in /etc/cron.daily it will run each day when cron

How to install MYSQL Administrator

sudo apt-get install mysql-admin

How to install MySQL Query Browser (SQL Client)

sudo apt-get install mysql-query-browser

How to install Oracle Database XE

  • Add the following repository to your /etc/apt/sources.list:
deb http://oss.oracle.com/debian unstable main non-free
  • Install the software using apt-get
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install oracle-xe
  • Add your login to the 'dba' group (where your login name is username)
sudo usermod -G dba -a username

Apache HTTP Server

How to install Apache HTTP Server for HTTP (Web) Server service

sudo apt-get install apache2

How to install PHP for Apache HTTP Server

How to install PHP4
sudo apt-get install php4
sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-php4
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
  • To test if php4 installed correctly
gksudo gedit /var/www/testphp.php
  • Insert the following line into the new file
<?php phpinfo(); ?>
sudo rm /var/www/testphp.php
How to install PHP5
sudo apt-get install php5
sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-php5
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
  • To test if php5 installed correctly
gksudo gedit /var/www/testphp.php
  • (Optional) Insert the following line into the new file
<?php phpinfo(); ?>
sudo rm /var/www/testphp.php 
  • (Optional) Install recommended PHP5 modules
sudo apt-get install php5-xsl
sudo apt-get install php5-gd
sudo apt-get install php-pear
  • Restart Apache
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

Many PHP applications use XSLT technology as well as server-side graphic manipulation (via GD). Also, PEAR provides access to PHP's module repository.

pear help

How to install MYSQL for Apache HTTP Server

sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-auth-mysql
  • Select either php4-mysql or php5-mysql depending on which version of PHP you installed
sudo apt-get install php<version-number>-mysql
sudo apt-get install phpmyadmin
  • To get PHP to work with MySQL, open the file (where <version> is either 4 or 5 depending on which PHP you installed)
gksudo gedit /etc/php<version>/apache2/php.ini
  • You'll need to uncomment the ";extension=mysql.so" line so that it looks like this
...
extension=mysql.so
...
  • Save the file then exit
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

How to install Python for Apache 2

sudo aptitude install python
sudo aptitude install libapache2-mod-python
sudo gedit /etc/apache2/mods-available/mod_python.conf

add the following lines

AddType application/x-httpd-python .py
AddHandler mod_python .py
PythonHandler mod_python.publisher
PythonDebug On

save

cd /etc/apache2/mods-enabled
sudo ln -s ../mods-available/mod_python.conf mod_python.conf
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

How to map URLs to folders outside /var/www/

gksudo gedit /etc/apache2/conf.d/alias
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
Alias /URL-path /location_of_folder/
<Directory /location_of_folder/>
  Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
  AllowOverride All
  Order allow,deny
  Allow from all
</Directory>
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
  • When you get "403 - Permission denied", you might try:
chmod o+x /location_of_folder/
  • If that doens't work, the following might help:
chmod o+r,o+x /location_of_folder/

How to change the default port number for Apache HTTP Server

e.g. Assumed that new port number is 78
sudo cp /etc/apache2/ports.conf /etc/apache2/ports.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/apache2/ports.conf
  • Find this line
Listen 80
  • Replace with the following line
Listen 78
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

How to parse RSS into PHP for Apache HTTP Server

e.g. Assumed that RSS is DistroWatch.com - News
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/magpierss-0.71.1.tar.gz
sudo mkdir /var/www/feeds
sudo tar zxvf magpierss-0.71.1.tar.gz -C /var/www/feeds/
sudo mv /var/www/feeds/magpierss-0.71.1/* /var/www/feeds/
sudo rm -fr /var/www/feeds/magpierss-0.71.1/
sudo chown -R www-data:root /var/www/feeds/
gksudo gedit /var/www/feeds/index.php
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
 <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
 
 <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" lang="en" xml:lang="en">
 
 <head>
 
 <title>DistroWatch.com - News</title>
 
 <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1"/>
 
 <style type="text/css">
 /*<![CDATA[*/
 /* 
 DEFAULT TAG STYLES
 */
 
 body {
  background: #ffffff;
  margin-left: 20px;
  font-family: bitstream vera sans,sans-serif;
  font-size: 9pt;
 }
 
 h1 {
  font-family: luxi sans,sans-serif;
  font-size: 15pt;
 }
 
 /*]]>*/
 </style>
 
 </head>
  
 <body>
 
 <?php

 require_once 'rss_fetch.inc';
 error_reporting(E_ERROR);
 
 $url = 'http://distrowatch.com/news/dw.xml';
 $rss = fetch_rss($url);
 
 if ($rss) {
 
  echo "<h1>";
  echo "<a href=$url>", $rss->channel[title], "</a><br/>";
  echo "</h1>";
 
  foreach ($rss->items as $item ) {
   $url = $item[link];
   $title = $item[title];
   $description = $item[description];
   echo "<li>";
   echo "<b>Topic:</b> <a href=$url><b><u>$title</u></b></a><br/><br/>";
   echo "$description<br/><br/>";
   echo "</li>";
  }
 
 }
 else {
  echo "<a href=$url>", $url, "</a> - Server Down!<br/>";
 }
 
 ?>
 
 </body>
 
 </html>
 

FTP Server

How to install FTP Server for File Transfer service

sudo apt-get install proftpd

How to configure FTP user to be "jailed" (chrooted) into their home directory

sudo cp /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf
  • Find this section
...
DenyFilter           \*.*/
...
  • Add the following line below it
DefaultRoot           ~

  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to configure FTP Server to allow anonymous FTP user to read only

sudo cp /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
<Anonymous ~ftp>
 User            ftp
 Group            nogroup
 UserAlias          anonymous ftp
 DirFakeUser on ftp
 DirFakeGroup on ftp
 RequireValidShell      off
 MaxClients         10
 DisplayLogin        welcome.msg
 DisplayFirstChdir      .message
 <Directory *>
  <Limit WRITE>
   DenyAll
  </Limit>
 </Directory>
</Anonymous>
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to configure FTP Server to allow anonymous FTP user to read/write

sudo cp /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
<Anonymous ~ftp>
 User            ftp
 Group            nogroup
 UserAlias          anonymous ftp
 DirFakeUser on ftp
 DirFakeGroup on ftp
 RequireValidShell      off
 MaxClients         10
 DisplayLogin        welcome.msg
 DisplayFirstChdir      .message
</Anonymous>
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to map anonymous FTP user to folders outside /home/ftp/

sudo cp /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
<Anonymous /location_of_folder/>
 User            ftp
 Group            nogroup
 UserAlias          anonymous ftp
 DirFakeUser on ftp
 DirFakeGroup on ftp
 RequireValidShell      off
 MaxClients         10
 DisplayLogin        welcome.msg
 DisplayFirstChdir      .message
 <Directory *>
  <Limit WRITE>
   DenyAll
  </Limit>
 </Directory>
</Anonymous>
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to change the default port number for FTP Server

e.g. Assumed that new port number is 77
sudo cp /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf
  • Find this line
Port              21
  • Replace with the following line
Port              77
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to ftp into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed FTP Server service
Read #How to install FTP Server for File Transfer service
  • Download FileZilla: Here

Personal Apt Repository

Setting Up Repository

Note: This type of repository is known as a Trivial Repository.

This type of repository does not fully comply with Debian standards, so should not be used commercially. However, it is ideal for home or personal use.

  • Install Package Tools
sudo apt-get install dpkg-dev
  • Create Repos on Filesystem
mkdir /somewhere/apt
mkdir /somewhere/apt/archives
mkdir /somewhere/apt/archives/binary
  • (Optional) Copy existing local APT cache to your Repos
cp -v /var/cache/apt/archives/*.deb /somewhere/apt/archives/binary/
  • Create Package Lists for Repos
cd /somewhere/apt/archives
dpkg-scanpackages binary /dev/null | gzip -9c > binary/Packages.gz
  • Publish Repos with Apache
cd /var/www
sudo ln -s /somewhere/apt/archives apt
  • Add Repos to Sources (on all PCs) to /etc/apt/sources.list

Open /etc/apt/sources.list

sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list

Add the following to the bottom of the file:

# My Repos
deb http://localhost/apt binary/
  • Update APT Database
sudo apt-get update

Updating Repository

Simply copy or download ".deb" files to /somewhere/apt/archives/binary/ and then update the Packages list:

cd /somewhere/apt/archives
dpkg-scanpackages binary /dev/null | gzip -9c > binary/Packages.gz

Streaming Media Server

How to install GNUMP3d for Streaming Media Server service

e.g. /var/music/ is the directory containing multimedia files
sudo apt-get install gnump3d

How to change the default directory containing multimedia files for GNUMP3d

e.g. Assumed that new directory containing multimedia files is /home/music/
sudo cp /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf
  • Find this line
root = /var/music
  • Replace with the following line
root = /home/music
  • Find this line
user = gnump3d
  • Replace with the following line
user = root
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/gnump3d restart

How to change the default port number for GNUMP3d

e.g. Assumed that new port number is 7878
sudo cp /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf
  • Find this line
port = 8888
  • Replace with the following line
port = 7878
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/gnump3d restart


Image Gallery Server

  • For a comparison between Gallery1 and Gallery2 see here

Gallery1

How to install Gallery1 for Image Gallery Server service
sudo apt-get install gallery (when prompted to restart Apache, choose No or Cancel)
sudo apt-get install imagemagick
sudo apt-get install jhead
sudo apt-get install libjpeg-progs
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
sudo sh /usr/share/gallery/configure.sh
Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 1
Next Step ->
Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 2
General settings Tab ->
Admin password: Specify the password

Locations and URLs Tab ->
Album directory: /var/www/albums/
Temporary directory: /tmp/
Gallery URL: http://localhost/gallery
Albums URL: http://localhost/albums
Next Step -->
Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 3
Next Step -->
Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 4
Save Config ->
How to configure Gallery1 to be accessible via Internet (Hostname or fix IP) or LAN (fix IP)
e.g. Assumed that network and internet connections have been configured properly
Internet (Hostname or fix IP) or LAN (fix IP): http://www.url.com
sudo cp /etc/gallery/config.php /etc/gallery/config.php_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/gallery/config.php
  • Find this section
...
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "http://localhost/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "http://localhost/albums";
...
  • Replace with the following lines
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "http://www.url.com/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "http://www.url.com/albums";
How to configure Gallery1 to be accessible via LAN (dynamic IP)
e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
LAN (dynamic IP): 192.168.0.1
sudo cp /etc/gallery/config.php /etc/gallery/config.php_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/gallery/config.php
  • Find this section
...
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "http://localhost/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "http://localhost/albums";
...
  • Replace with the following lines
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "/albums";
How to backup/restore Gallery1 data
sudo tar zcvf gallery.tgz /var/www/albums/ /etc/gallery/
  • To restore Gallery data
sudo tar zxvf gallery.tgz -C /

Gallery2

How to install Gallery2
How to configure Gallery2

How to install Subversion version control server (svnserve)

  • Install Subversion and Internet services daemon
sudo apt-get install subversion xinetd
  • Create user that will own the repositories
sudo adduser --system --no-create-home --home /var/svn --group --disabled-login svn
  • Create directory that will hold the repositories
sudo mkdir /var/svn
sudo chown svn:svn /var/svn
  • Create file /etc/xinetd.d/svnserve with the following content
service svn
{
       port = 3690
       socket_type = stream
       protocol = tcp
       wait = no
       user = svn
       server = /usr/bin/svnserve
       server_args = -i -r /var/svn
}
  • Restart xinetd
sudo /etc/init.d/xinetd restart
  • Create the first repository
sudo -u svn svnadmin create /var/svn/testrepo
  • It should be possible to check out the repository and work on it
svn co svn://localhost/testrepo

Troubleshooting

How to disable system time/date from being reset to UTC (GMT)

sudo cp /etc/default/rcS /etc/default/rcS_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/default/rcS
  • Find this line
...
UTC=yes
...
  • Replace with the following line
UTC=no
  • Save the edited file
  • System -> Administration -> Time and Date

Set the correct time/date

sudo /etc/init.d/hwclock.sh restart

How to configure sound to work properly in GNOME

sudo killall esd
sudo cp /etc/esound/esd.conf /etc/esound/esd.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/esound/esd.conf
  • Find this section
...
auto_spawn=0
spawn_options=-terminate -nobeeps -as 5
...
  • Replace with the following lines
auto_spawn=1
spawn_options=-terminate -nobeeps -as 2 -d default
  • Save the edited file
sudo apt-get install libesd-alsa0
gksudo gedit /etc/asound.conf
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
pcm.card0 {
type hw
card 0
}

pcm.!default {
type plug
slave.pcm "dmixer"
}

pcm.dmixer {
type dmix
ipc_key 1025
slave {
pcm "hw:0,0"
period_time 0
period_size 2048
buffer_size 32768
rate 48000
}
bindings {
0 0
1 1
}
}
  • Save the edited file
sudo ln -fs /usr/lib/libesd.so.0 /usr/lib/libesd.so.1
System -> Preferences -> Sound
Sound preferences
General Tab -> Sounds for events (Un-Checked)
  • Save and close all opened applications, Reboot computer

How to forcefully empty Trash in GNOME

sudo rm -fr $HOME/.Trash/

How to remove duplicate menu/menu items in GNOME

rm -f $HOME/.config/menus/applications.menu

How to refresh Places menu in GNOME (if mounts to /media/ in /etc/fstab does not show up)

sudo /etc/init.d/dbus restart

How to consume static (not dhcp) wireless LAN (WLAN) connection (KDE)

  • I assume you have successfully consumed WLAN connection in Windows
  • To enable the network device please follow the following steps
  • Go to K-menu -> System Settings -> Network Settings
  • Enable Administrator mode
  • Select Network Interfaces tab and the wireless interface (usually ath0) to configure
  • Click Configure Interface...
  • Choose Manual or Automatic. Choose Manual
  • Fill the preferred IP address to identify your computer and the netmask. Choose to activate when computer starts
  • Click Advanced Settings to for more properties
  • Select Routes tab and fill the gateway IP address
  • Make sure you choose the correct device in the right dropdown (e.g. ath0)
  • Click apply to commit all changes
  • To choose wireless connection please follow the following steps
  • Go to K-menu -> Internet -> Wireless Assistant
  • Right click on preferred connection ssid
  • Choose and complete fields for Manual connection
  • Click Ok
  • Create connection configuration
gksudo gedit /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
network={
ssid="YOUR_PREFERRED_CONNECTION_SSID"
scan_ssid=1
proto=WPA
key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
psk="STRING_TO_GENERATE_PASSWORD"
#psk=123456789 #you have option to use connection key instead of connection password
}
  • Save the edited file
  • Create script to easily activate connection
gksudo gedit /etc/init.d/wifi_wpa.sh
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
#! /bin/sh
# wifi: wpa_supplicant init
echo " * [Wifi]: Enabling WPA supplicant..."
if [ -x /sbin/wpa_supplicant ]; then
/sbin/wpa_supplicant -B -i ath0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf -D madwifi -w
fi
exit 0
  • Save the edited file
  • Make sure both file readable and executable
sudo chmod +r /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
sudo chmod +x /etc/init.d/wifi_wpa.sh
  • make wireless connection automaticaly starts when computer starts
sudo ln -s /etc/init.d/wifi_wpa.sh /etc/rcS.d/S40netwifiwpa
  • Close all opened applications, Reboot computer

How to get 1400x1050 resolution working

Смена версии Ubuntu

Как обновиться с Hoary Hedgehog -> Breezy Badger -> Dapper Drake

Метод A (Официальный)

  • First update the update manager:
sudo aptitude update && sudo aptitude upgrade
  • Once it has been updated you can upgrade to a newer version of Ubuntu:
gksudo "update-manager -c -d"


NOTE: Try to upgrade from immediately previous versions, e.g. Dapper to Edgy not Breezy to Edgy. If you are running Hoary for instance, upgrade Hoary->Breezy->Dapper->Edgy.

Метод B (Альтернативный)

  • First, make sure you're fully upgraded:
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
  • If you don't have a CD available make SURE you comment/remove the line pertaining to your CD media
gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • To upgrade from Dapper to Edgy, just replace (ctrl+h) all instances of 'dapper' with 'edgy' within the /etc/apt/sources.list. (See how to add extra repositories).
  • Validate updates and upgrade.
sudo aptitude update 
sudo aptitude dist-upgrade

(Note the use of aptitude rather than apt-get. Please use aptitude as it handles dependencies better and is more likely to succeed in upgrading your system.)

  • Save your session, reboot, and enjoy.


NOTE: Try to upgrade from immediately previous versions, e.g. Dapper to Edgy not Breezy to Edgy. If you are running Hoary for instance, upgrade Hoary->Breezy->Dapper->Edgy.

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