Template:K Precise/Repositories

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Add Extra Repositories

Software packages and programs are freely available for download at multiple online sites with standardized structures, called repositories. There are repositories officially sanctioned and monitored by the Kubuntu/Ubuntu developer community, while other repositories are independently provided, without official sanction or supervision (and should be used with caution). Additional information is available from the Kubuntu Repository Guide.

Types of Repositories

  • There are four major package repository types in Kubuntu:
  • main - Supported and supervised by Canonical. This is the major part of the distribution.
  • restricted - Software not licensed under the GPL (or similar software license), but supported and supervised by Canonical.
  • universe - Software licensed under the GPL (or similar license) and supported by users.
  • multiverse - Software not licensed under the GPL (or similar license), but supported by users.
  • There are also these additional types of repositories:
  • Precise-updates - Updates to official packages.
  • Precise-backports - Current version software from Quantal Quetzal (Precise+1) that has been backported to Precise Pangolin.
  • Precise-proposed - Proposed updates & changes (bleeding edge stuff).

Third party repositories

Software developers often maintain their own repositories, from which software packages can be downloaded and installed directly to your computer (if you add the repository to your list). Many of these third party repositories and software packages have never been reviewed by the (K)Ubuntu/Debian community and can present a security risk to your computer. Trojans, backdoors, and other malicious software can be present at any unregulated repository. When using repositories not endorsed by the (K)ubuntu/Debian community, make sure you have utter confidence in that site before enabling the repository and installing a software package from it.

PPA repositories

A Personal Package Archive (PPA) is a special software repository used for experimental source packages still under development. Such software has not been approved by the Debian or Ubuntu developers (but may eventually become an accepted package). Use this software at your own risk just like any other third party repository software.

Documentation about how to install software from this type of repository can be found at the PPA Installing Software Guide.

In brief, to add a repository:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:user/ppa-name

Note: If add-apt-repository is not available on your system, then install it with the package:

sudo apt-get install python-software-properties

Add Repositories using the Package Manager

This is the preferred method.

  • K menu -> System -> Muon Package Manager -> Settings -> Configure Software Sources
  • Here you can enable the repositories for Kubuntu Software and Other Software.
  • For Other Software select Add -> enter the repository's address. It will have a format similar to:
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ precise main restricted
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ precise main restricted
  • Example: To add the Medibuntu repository, Add:
deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ precise free non-free
  • Update the package list found in the new repository:
-> Close -> Reload
  • Download the repository key to a folder.
  • Example: The Medibuntu key can be downloaded from
http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg
  • Then add the key from:
  • K menu -> System -> Muon Package Manager -> Settings -> Configure Software Sources -> Authentication -> Import Key File...
  • (Alternatively, you can manually add the key from the Konsole command line terminal. See Add Repository keys.)

Manually add repositories

  • Adding a repository (such as a Launchpad ppa repository) can be accomplished from the command-line interface:
sudo apt-add-repository ppa:user/repository

where ppa:user/repository is an example of the repository you wish to add.

  • When the repository name has a format similar to the following, enclose the repository name in quotation marks:
sudo apt-add-repository "deb http://repository.example.org precise stable"
  • To remove a repository:
sudo apt-add-repository -r ppa:user/repository
  • Refresh the packages list from the new repositories:
sudo apt-get update

Note: If add-apt-repository is not available on your system, then install it with the package:

sudo apt-get install python-software-properties

Edit the repository sources list

  • This is an optional, labor intensive method. Do this at your own risk. Modify the default Kubuntu sources.list only if you understand what you're doing. Mixing repositories can break your system. For more information see the Ubuntu Command-line Repository guide.
  • Create a backup of your current list of sources.
sudo cp -p /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list_backup

Note: sudo - runs the command with root privileges. cp = copy. -p = prompt to overwrite if a file already exists.

  • Edit the list of sources:
sudo nano /etc/apt/sources.list
or using a graphical editor:
kdesudo kate /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Note: To use your local mirror you can add "xx." before archive.ubuntu.com, where xx = your country code.
Example: deb http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu lucid main restricted universe multiverse indicates a repository for Great Britain (gb).
  • Here is a sample sources.list. At the end have been added repositories for Medibuntu and Google:
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ precise main restricted
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ precise main restricted

## Major bug fix updates produced after the final release of the
## distribution.
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ precise-updates main restricted
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ precise-updates main restricted

## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu
## team. Also, please note that software in universe WILL NOT receive any
## review or updates from the Ubuntu security team.
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ precise universe
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ precise universe
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ precise-updates universe
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ precise-updates universe

## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu 
## team, and may not be under a free licence. Please satisfy yourself as to 
## your rights to use the software. Also, please note that software in 
## multiverse WILL NOT receive any review or updates from the Ubuntu
## security team.
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ precise multiverse
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ precise multiverse
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ precise-updates multiverse
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ precise-updates multiverse

## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from the 'backports'
## repository.
## N.B. software from this repository may not have been tested as
## extensively as that contained in the main release, although it includes
## newer versions of some applications which may provide useful features.
## Also, please note that software in backports WILL NOT receive any review
## or updates from the Ubuntu security team.
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ Precise-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ Precise-backports main restricted universe multiverse

## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from Canonical's
## 'partner' repository. This software is not part of Ubuntu, but is
## offered by Canonical and the respective vendors as a service to Ubuntu
## users.
deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu precise partner
deb-src http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu precise partner

deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu precise-security main restricted
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu precise-security main restricted
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu precise-security universe
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu precise-security universe
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu precise-security multiverse
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu precise-security multiverse

## Medibuntu - Ubuntu 11.10 "Precise Ocelot"
## Please report any bug on https://bugs.launchpad.net/medibuntu/
deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ precise free non-free
deb-src http://packages.medibuntu.org/ precise free non-free

# Google software repository
deb http://dl.google.com/linux/deb/ stable non-free
  • Refresh the packages list from the new repositories:
sudo apt-get update

Add repository keys

  • Download the gpg keys for the repositories and automatically add them to your repository keyring:
  • Example: To obtain and add the Medibuntu repository key:
wget --quiet http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O - | sudo apt-key add -
  • Example: To obtain and add the Google repository key:
wget --quiet https://dl-ssl.google.com/linux/linux_signing_key.pub -O - | sudo apt-key add -

Note: wget - retrieves a file from a network location. --quiet = no output. -O - = Output downloaded item to the screen. The | (pipe symbol) is used to capture the output from the previous command and use it as an input for the piped command (i.e. apt-key, which adds it to the keyring).

  • Alternatively (and perhaps more easily), you can use apt-key directly:
sudo apt-key adv --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv-keys KEY
where KEY is the missing key code printed in apt-get output, e.g. EF4186FE247510BE.
Note: Key servers often use port 11371. Make sure your firewall allows port 11371 to be open.
  • A repository key can also be downloaded then added ("imported") using your package manager or update-manager. For example, to use the Muon Update Manager:
K menu -> System -> Muon Update Manager -> Settings -> Configure Software Sources -> Authentication -> Import Key File...
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