Ubuntu dapper nl

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Image:Ubuntuguide_logo.png

Niet-officiële Ubuntu 6.06 (Dapper Drake) Starters Gids

Deze gids http://ubuntuguide.org/ werd opgericht door Chua Wen Kiat (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia). Momenteel wordt deze onderhouden door het Linux Center van de Universiteit van Letland en iedereen die wenst mee te werken. De Nederlandse vertaling is gestart door Peter Dedecker.

Medewerkers: Orvils, Quash, Manicka, Jiyuu0, Cargo, Byte, krampo, Simos, Stubby, eljaco, shai, Peter Dedecker, EBait, PingunZ...

Deze gids kan bediscussieerd worden op het officiële UbuntuGuide.org Forum op ubuntuforums.org. Kom gerust even langs om deel te nemen aan de discussie.

Jammergenoeg, omwille van wiki-vandalisme, kunnen enkel geregistreerde gebruikers wijzigingen aanbrengen aan deze wiki, en kunnen enkel geregistreerde gebruikers een account aanmaken. Wil je meewerken, laat dan iets weten via e-mail op Peter.Dedecker _at_ UGent _punt_ be. Vergeet niet te vermelden welke gebruikersnaam je zou willen.

Oudere versies: Ubuntu 5.10 (Breezy Badger)):


Contents


Algemeen

  1. Dit is een niet-officiële Ubuntu 6.06 (Dapper Drake) Starters Gids. Deze gids is niet verbonden aan Ubuntu of Canonical Ltd.
  2. Deze gids kan bediscussieerd worden op het officiële UbuntuGuide.org Forum op ubuntuforums.org. Kom gerust even langs en neem deel aan het debat.
  3. Deze gids is getest op een volledige installatie vanaf de Ubuntu 6.06 x86 Install CD (Dapper Drake)
  4. Indien je een blauw streepjeskader ziet, dan wil dat zeggen dat je de commando's daarin moet uitvoeren in een terminal (Toepassingen -> Systeem -> Terminal) of gebruik de inhoud van dat kader zoals bedoeld in sommige andere instructies.
  5. Om tikfouten te vermijden kan je de commando's best kopiëren en plakken in de terminal. Hiervoor klik je met de rechtermuisknop op de commando's en kies je voor "kopiëren" of "plakken". Je kan ook Ctrl+C gebruiken om te kopiëren en Shift+Insert om te plakken.
  6. "sudo" betekent "superuser do" of "voer uit als supergebruiker/systeembeheerder". "sudo" vraagt naar een wachtwoord. Het gevraagde wachtwoord is je gewone gebruikerswachtwoord.
  7. Indien je meer informatie wil over eender welk commando, kijk dan even in de manual pagina (handleiding) met behulp van het commando "man". Bijvoorbeeld "man sudo" zal je de manual pagina voor het "sudo" commando geven.
  8. Indien je het beu bent om telkens "apt-get" te tikken, lees dan #How to apt-get the easy way (Synaptic)
  9. "apt-get" en "wget" vereisen een werkende internetverbinding om de gewenste programma's te installeren/updaten/downloaden.
  10. Om een bestand te downloaden, klik met de rechtermuisknop op de link en kies "Koppelingslocatie opslaan als..." Zorg dat de bestandsnaam en de extentie van het opgeslagen bestand correct zijn.
  11. Indien je wil meehelpen om Ubuntu te vertalen in je moedertaal of Ubuntu op een andere manier wenst te helpen, bezoek dan https://launchpad.net/
  12. Moge de geest van "menselijkheid voor anderen" altijd met jou zijn...
Indien je Kubuntu gebruikt en Gedit wil installeren:
sudo apt-get install gedit
Of vervang 'gedit' door 'kwrite', bijvoorbeeld, in plaats van
 sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
kan je dit gebruiken:
 sudo kwrite /etc/apt/sources.list
Indien je de 64-bit versie gebruikt, vervang dan "i386" door "amd64"

De eerste stappen

Wat is Ubuntu

Wat is er nieuw in Ubuntu 6.06 Dapper Drake

Waar vind ik Ubuntu screenshots

Videos

Waar vind ik een lijst van alle programma's/bibliotheken die meegeleverd worden met Ubuntu

Waar kan ik Ubuntu downloaden

Waar kan ik Ubuntu CDs helemaal GRATIS bestellen

Waar vind ik hulp over Ubuntu

Waar vind ik nieuwe programma's

Waar vind ik stijlelementen voor mijn desktop

Pakketbronnen

Hoe voeg ik extra pakketbronnen toe

sudo cp /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list_backup
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Vervang alles door de volgende regels:
## Add comments (##) in front of any line to remove it from being checked.   
## Use the following sources.list at your own risk.  

deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper main restricted universe multiverse

## MAJOR BUG FIX UPDATES produced after the final release
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-updates main restricted universe multiverse

## UBUNTU SECURITY UPDATES
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-security main restricted universe multiverse

## BACKPORTS REPOSITORY (Unsupported.  May contain illegal packages.  Use at own risk.)
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-backports main restricted universe multiverse

## PLF REPOSITORY (Unsupported.  May contain illegal packages.  Use at own risk.)
deb http://packages.freecontrib.org/ubuntu/plf dapper free non-free
deb-src http://packages.freecontrib.org/ubuntu/plf dapper free non-free 
  • Sla het bewerkte bestand op
sudo apt-get update
Gebruik je eigen sources.list bestand enkel indien je begrijpt waar je mee bezig bent

Ubuntu Vernieuwingen

Hoe kan ik Ubuntu handmatig updaten

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade

Programma's installeren

Hoe gebruik ik Easy Ubuntu

  • Lees #Algemeen
  • Easy Ubuntu is een klein recht-vooruit tooltje dat nieuwe gebruikers toelaat op eenvoudige manier een brede waaier aan content voor Ubuntu zoals media codecs, lettertypes, Macromedia Flash en Sun Java te installeren.
wget http://robotgeek.org/eu/easyubuntu-3.0.tar.gz
tar -zxf easyubuntu-3.0.tar.gz
cd easyubuntu
sudo python easyubuntu.py
  • In het Easy Ubuntu venster kan je de checkboxes van toepassing aanduiden om de software te downloaden en te installeren in Ubuntu.

Hoe installeer ik de Klembord Daemon voor GNOME

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/gnome-clipboard-daemon-1.0.bin.tar.bz2
sudo tar jxvf gnome-clipboard-daemon-1.0.bin.tar.bz2 -C /usr/bin/
sudo chown root:root /usr/bin/gnome-clipboard-daemon
sudo chmod 755 /usr/bin/gnome-clipboard-daemon
sudo gnome-clipboard-daemon &
export EDITOR=gedit && crontab -e
  • Voeg volgende lijn toe onderaan het bestand:
@reboot gnome-clipboard-daemon
  • Sla het bewerkte bestand op.

Hoe installeer ik J2SE Runtime Environment (JRE) met de Plug-in voor Mozilla Firefox

sudo apt-get install sun-java5-jre sun-java5-plugin
  • Ga akkoord met de licentie-overeenkomst wanneer je hiernaar gevraagd wordt.
  • Om J2SE als de standaard JVM te configureren (nodig voor programma's zoals Frostwire, RSSOwl en als plugin voor Mozilla Firefox):
sudo update-alternatives --config java

Kies vervolgens de optie overeenkomend met J2SE.

Hoe installeer ik Flash Player (Macromedia Flash) Plug-in voor Mozilla Firefox

sudo apt-get install flashplugin-nonfree
sudo update-flashplugin
  • Herstart Mozilla Firefox

Hoe installeer ik PDF Reader (Adobe Reader) met de Plug-in voor Mozilla Firefox

sudo apt-get install acroread
sudo apt-get install mozilla-acroread
sudo apt-get install acroread-plugins

Hoe installeer ik Download Manager (Downloader voor X)

sudo apt-get install d4x

Hoe installeer ik FTP Client (gFTP)

sudo apt-get install gftp

Hoe installeer ik File sharing tool (DC++)

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/linuxdcpp.tar.gz 
sudo tar zxvf linuxdcpp.tar.gz -C /opt
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/dcpp.desktop
  • Plaats volgende regels in het nieuwe bestand:
[Desktop Entry]
Encoding=UTF-8
Name=DC++
Exec=/opt/linuxdcpp/ldcpp
Terminal=false
Type=Application
StartupNotify=true
Icon=/opt/linuxdcpp/pixmaps/linuxdcpp.svg
Categories=Application;Network;
  • Sla het bewerkte bestand op
  • Toepassingen -> Internet -> DC++

Hoe installeer ik P2P BitTorrent Client (Azureus)

wget -c http://kent.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/azureus/Azureus_2.4.0.2_linux.tar.bz2
sudo tar jxvf Azureus_2.4.0.2_linux.tar.bz2 -C /opt
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/azureus.desktop 
  • Plaats volgende regels in het nieuwe bestand:
[Desktop Entry] 
Name=Azureus
Comment=A Bittorrent client
Exec=/opt/azureus/azureus
Icon=/opt/azureus/Azureus.png
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;
  • Sla het bewerkte bestand op
  • Toepassingen -> Internet -> Azureus

Hoe installeer ik P2P eMule Client (aMule)

sudo apt-get install amule

Hoe installeer ik P2P Gnutella Client (FrostWire)

wget -c http://www.users.on.net/~stubby/FrostWire-4.10.9-2.i586.deb
sudo dpkg -i FrostWire-4.10.9-2.i586.deb
  • Toepassingen -> Internet -> FrostWire

Hoe installeer ik Skype

sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Voeg volgende regels toe onderaan het bestand:
## Repository for Skype
deb http://download.skype.com/linux/repos/debian/ stable non-free
  • Sla het bewerkte bestand op
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install skype
  • Toepassingen -> Internet -> Skype

Hoe installeer ik WinPopup (LinPopUp)

sudo apt-get install linpopup
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/linpopup.desktop
  • Plaats volgende regels in het nieuwe bestand:
[Desktop Entry]
Name=LinPopUp
Comment=LinPopUp
Exec=linpopup
Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/linpopup.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Utility;

Hoe installeer ik Multimedia Codecs

Alle gekende codecs behalve die voor wmv worden hiermee geïnstalleerd.

sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.10-ffmpeg
sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.10-gl
sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.10-plugins-base
sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.10-plugins-good
sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.10-plugins-bad
sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.10-plugins-bad-multiverse
sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.10-plugins-ugly
sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.10-plugins-ugly-multiverse

Hoe installeer ik DVD afspeel mogelijkheden

De gstreamer dvd plugin is beschikbaar als onderdeel van plugins-bad (of ugly?) en werkt niet betrouwbaar. Echter, Totem werkt met de Xine backend om DVD's af te spelen. Je kan dit gebruiken totdat gstreamer DVD afspeelmogelijkheden krijgt. Merk op dat je xine-ui of mplayer niet dient te installeren zoals voorgesteld in

sudo apt-get install libdvdread3 
sudo /usr/share/doc/libdvdread3/examples/install-css.sh
sudo apt-get install totem-xine

gstreamer dvd plugin is nog niet beschikbaar voor Ubuntu Dapper. Volgende instructies zullen niet helemaal werken.

sudo apt-get install libdvdcss2

Hoe installeer ik Multimedia Player (xine-ui)

sudo apt-get install xine-ui
  • Associeer xine-ui om multimedia files mee af te spelen
gconftool-2 --type string --set /desktop/gnome/volume_manager/autoplay_dvd_command "xine dvd://"
sudo rm -f /usr/share/applnk/Multimedia/xine.desktop
sudo ln -fs /usr/share/xine/desktop/xine.desktop /usr/share/applications/
sudo cp /usr/share/applications/defaults.list /usr/share/applications/defaults.list_backup
sudo sed -e 's/totem.desktop/xine.desktop/g' /usr/share/applications/defaults.list_backup > /tmp/defaults.list
sudo mv /tmp/defaults.list /usr/share/applications/defaults.list

Hoe installeer ik VLC Multimedia player

sudo apt-get install vlc vlc-plugin-*
Toepassingen -> Beeld en geluid -> VLC Media Player

Hoe installeer ik Multimedia Player (Totem) met de Plug-in voor Mozilla Firefox

sudo apt-get install totem-gstreamer-firefox-plugin
  • Herstart Mozilla Firefox

Hoe installeer ik Multimedia Player (XMMS)

sudo apt-get install xmms
sudo apt-get install xmms-skins
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/xmms-wma_1.0.4-2_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i xmms-wma_1.0.4-2_i386.deb
  • Associeer XMMS om MP3/M3U/WAV bestanden mee af te spelen
sudo cp /usr/share/applications/defaults.list /usr/share/applications/defaults.list_backup
sudo cp /usr/share/applications/defaults.list /tmp/defaults.list_tmp
sudo sed -e 's/audio\/mpeg=.*/audio\/mpeg=XMMS.desktop/g' /tmp/defaults.list_tmp > /tmp/defaults.mp3
sudo sed -e 's/audio\/x-mpegurl=.*/audio\/x-mpegurl=XMMS.desktop/g' /tmp/defaults.mp3 > /tmp/defaults.m3u
sudo sed -e 's/audio\/x-wav=.*/audio\/x-wav=XMMS.desktop/g' /tmp/defaults.m3u > /tmp/defaults.list
sudo mv /tmp/defaults.list /usr/share/applications/defaults.list
sudo rm -f /tmp/defaults.*

Hoe installeer ik Multimedia Player (amaroK)

sudo apt-get install amarok
  • Toepassingen -> Sound & Video -> amaroK

Hoe installeer ik Multimedia Player (RealPlayer 10)

sudo apt-get install realplay
Note: 'realplay' installs RealPlayer 10 from PLF repository, which you should be enabled if you followed this guide. 'realplayer' installs RealPlayer 8 from multiverse.
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> RealPlayer 10
  • It will also install all the necessary plugins automagically for it to view embedded real videos in Firefox
  • To avoid issues of flickering or screen going blank when switching windows, goto
  • RealPlayer 10 -> Tools -> Preferences -> Hardware -> Uncheck XVideo

Hoe installeer ik Stream Directory Browser (streamtuner)

sudo apt-get install streamtuner
sudo apt-get install streamripper

Hoe installeer ik Music Organizer (Cowbell)

sudo apt-get install cowbell
  • Toepassingen -> Audio & Video -> Cowbell Music Organizer

Hoe installeer ik ID3 Tag Editor (EasyTAG)

sudo apt-get install easytag

Hoe installeer ik Video Editor (Kino)

sudo apt-get install kino
sudo apt-get install kinoplus
sudo apt-get install kino-timfx
sudo apt-get install kino-dvtitler

Hoe installeer ik Audio Editor (Audacity)

sudo apt-get install audacity

Hoe installeer ik DVD Ripper (dvd::rip)

sudo apt-get install dvdrip
sudo apt-get install vcdimager
sudo apt-get install cdrdao
sudo apt-get install subtitleripper
sudo ln -fs /usr/bin/rar /usr/bin/rar-2.80
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/dvdrip.desktop
  • Plaats volgende regels in het nieuwe bestand:
[Desktop Entry]
Name=dvd::rip 
Comment=dvd::rip
Exec=dvdrip
Icon=/usr/share/perl5/Video/DVDRip/icon.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;AudioVideo;

Hoe installeer ik CD Ripper (Goobox)

sudo apt-get install goobox
sudo rm -f /usr/share/applications/goobox.desktop
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/goobox.desktop
  • Plaats de volgende regels in het nieuwe bestand:
[Desktop Entry]
Name=CD Player & Ripper
Comment=Play and extract CDs
Exec=goobox
Icon=goobox.png
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;AudioVideo;

Hoe installeer ik Image Viewer (digiKam)

sudo apt-get install digikam
  • Applications -> Graphics -> digikam

Hoe installeer ik Picasa image organizer

sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Voeg de volgende regels toe aan het eind van het bestand
# Google Picasa for Linux repository
deb http://dl.google.com/linux/deb/ stable non-free
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install picasa
  • Applications -> Graphics -> Picasa

Hoe installeer ik Opera web browser

sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Voeg de volgende regels toe aan het eind van het bestand
# The Opera web browser repopsitory
deb http://deb.opera.com/opera etch non-free
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install opera
  • Applications -> Internet -> Opera

Hoe installeer ik Email Client (Mozilla Thunderbird)

sudo apt-get install mozilla-thunderbird

Hoe installeer ik Newsreader (Pan)

wget -c http://www.users.on.net/~stubby/pan_0.100_i386.deb
sudo apt-get install libgmime2.1
sudo dpkg -i pan_0.100_i386.deb

Hoe installeer ik RSS/RDF/Atom Newsreader (RSSOwl)

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin.tar.gz -C /opt/
sudo chown -R root:root /opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin/
sudo gedit /usr/bin/runRSSOwl.sh
  • Plaats volgende regels in het nieuwe bestand:
export MOZILLA_FIVE_HOME=/usr/lib/mozilla-firefox
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:${MOZILLA_FIVE_HOME}:${LD_LIBRARY_PATH}
cd /opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin/
./run.sh
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand
sudo chmod +x /usr/bin/runRSSOwl.sh
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/RSSOwl.desktop
  • Plaats volgende regels in het nieuwe bestand:
[Desktop Entry]
Name=RSSOwl
Comment=RSSOwl
Exec=runRSSOwl.sh
Icon=/opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin/rssowl.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand
  • Applications -> Internet -> RSSOwl

Hoe installeer ik Web Authoring System (Nvu)

sudo apt-get install nvu
sudo rm -f /usr/share/applications/nvu.desktop
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/nvu.desktop
  • Plaats volgende regels in het nieuwe bestand:
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Nvu
Comment=Web Development Editor
Exec=nvu
Icon=nvu.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;

Hoe installeer ik Web Development Environment (quanta plus)

sudo apt-get install quanta
  • Applications -> Programming -> Quanta Plus

Hoe installeer ik Project Management Application (Planner)

sudo apt-get install planner

Hoe installeer ik Accounting Application (GnuCash)

sudo apt-get install gnucash
sudo rm -fr /usr/share/gnome/apps/Applications/
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/GnuCash.desktop
  • Plaats volgende regels in het nieuwe bestand:
[Desktop Entry]
Name=GnuCash
Comment=GnuCash Personal Finance
Exec=gnucash
Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/gnucash/gnucash-icon.png
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Office;

Hoe installeer ik Desktop Publishing Application (Scribus)

sudo apt-get install scribus

Hoe installeer ik Diagram Editor (Dia)

sudo apt-get install dia-gnome

Hoe installeer ik Compiled HTML Help (CHM) Viewer (xCHM)

sudo apt-get install xchm

Hoe installeer ik CD/DVD Burning Application (GnomeBaker)

sudo apt-get install gnomebaker

Hoe installeer ik CD/DVD Burning Application (K3b)

sudo apt-get install k3b k3b-mp3
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> K3b

Hoe installeer ik Dialup PPP Client (GNOME PPP)

sudo apt-get install gnome-ppp

Hoe installeer ik Broadband ADSL/PPPoE Client (RP-PPPoE)

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/rp-pppoe-3.6.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf rp-pppoe-3.6.tar.gz -C /opt/
sudo chown -R root:root /opt/rp-pppoe-3.6/
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/RP-PPPoE.desktop
  • Plaats volgende regels in het nieuwe bestand:
[Desktop Entry]
Name=RP-PPPoE
Comment=RP-PPPoE
Exec=gksudo /opt/rp-pppoe-3.6/go-gui
Icon=
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;

Hoe installeer ik Boot-Up Manager (BUM)

sudo apt-get install bum

Hoe installeer ik Partition Editor (GParted)

sudo apt-get install gparted

Hoe installeer ik Firewall (Firestarter)

sudo apt-get install firestarter

Hoe installeer ik network traffic analyzer (Ethereal)

sudo apt-get install ethereal
  • Applications -> Internet -> Ethereal

Hoe installeer ik Vulnerability Scanner (Nessus)

sudo apt-get install nessus
sudo apt-get install nessusd
sudo nessus-adduser
sudo ln -fs /etc/init.d/nessusd /etc/rc2.d/S20nessusd
sudo /etc/init.d/nessusd start
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/Nessus.desktop
  • Plaats volgende regels in het nieuwe bestand:
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Nessus
Comment=Nessus
Exec=nessus
Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/nessus.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;System;

Hoe installeer ik RAR Archiver (rar)

sudo apt-get install rar
sudo ln -fs /usr/bin/rar /usr/bin/unrar
  • Applications -> Accessories -> Archive Manager

Hoe installeer ik Extra Fonts

sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-arabic
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-asian
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-chinese
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-chinese-big
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-european
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-japanese
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-japanese-big
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-phonetic
sudo apt-get install gsfonts-x11
sudo apt-get install msttcorefonts
sudo fc-cache -f -v
N.B.: Ubuntu Dapper heeft standaard DejaVu fonts (afgeleid van Bitstream Vera) en heeft addequate ondersteuning voor Latijnse, Griekse, en Cyrillische talen.

Hoe installeer ik Chinese Input Method (SCIM)

De volgende adviezen zijn oud en het kan moeilijk zijn om ze weer terug te zetten. Kijkt u alstublieft in de official Ubuntu 6.06 Dapper Drake te vinden op: https://wiki.ubuntu.com/InputMethods/SCIM/CJK_Chinese_Japanese_Korean_Input_Method_configuration_using_SCIM_in_Ubuntu_6%2e06_Dapper_Drake

Scim is automatisch meegeleverd met Dapper, en het instaleren van Chinese, Japanse of Koreaanse talen kan gedaan worden met System>Administration>Language Support. De wiki verteld deze methode uitgebreider.

sudo apt-get install scim
sudo apt-get install scim-chinese
sudo apt-get install scim-config-socket
sudo apt-get install scim-gtk2-immodule
sudo apt-get install scim-tables-zh
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/fireflysung-1.3.0.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf fireflysung-1.3.0.tar.gz -C /usr/share/fonts/truetype/
sudo chown -R root:root /usr/share/fonts/truetype/fireflysung-1.3.0/ 
sudo fc-cache -f -v
  • System -> Preferences -> SCIM Input Method Setup
  • Om SCIM te activeren
Druk 'Ctrl + Space'

Hoe installeer ik Desktop Applets (gDesklets)

sudo apt-get install gdesklets
sudo apt-get install gdesklets-data

Hoe installeer ik Basic Compilers (build-essential)

sudo apt-get install build-essential

Hoe installeer ik Integrated Development Environment (Anjuta)

sudo apt-get install anjuta
  • Applications -> Programming -> Anjuta IDE

Hoe installeer ik 3D modeling tool (Blender 3d)

sudo apt-get install blender
  • Applications -> Graphics -> Blender 3D modeller

Hoe installeer ik het spel Tuxracer

sudo apt-get install planetpenguin-racer planetpenguin-racer-data planetpenguin-racer-extras
  • Applications -> Games -> planetpenguin-racer

Hoe installeer ik het spel Frozen-Bubble

sudo apt-get install frozen-bubble
  • Applications -> Games -> Frozen-Bubble

Hoe installeer ik het spel Scorched3D

sudo apt-get install scorched3d
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/scorched3d.desktop
  • Plaats volgende regels in het nieuwe bestand:
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Scorched 3D
Comment=A 3D Remake Of Scorched Earth
Exec=scorched3d
Icon=
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Game;ArcadeGame;

Hoe installeer ik virtual planetarium (Stellarium)

sudo apt-get install stellarium
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/stellarium.desktop
  • Plaats volgende regels in het nieuwe bestand:
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Stellarium
Comment=Virtual planetarium
Exec=stellarium
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Education;
  • Applications -> Education -> Stellarium

Hoe installeer ik Google Earth

wget -c http://dl.google.com/earth/GE4/GoogleEarthLinux.bin
sudo sh GoogleEarthLinux.bin
  • Laat/usr/local/google-earth als het instalatiepad
sudo cp /usr/local/google-earth/googleearth.desktop /usr/share/applications/
  • Applications -> Internet -> Google Earth

Hoe installeer ik KDE Edutainment applications

sudo apt-get install kdeedu
  • Applications -> Education -> ...

Hoe installeer ik een windows emulator (Wine)

sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Voeg de volgende regels toe aan het eind van dit bestand
# Repository for wine
deb http://wine.budgetdedicated.com/apt dapper main
deb-src http://wine.budgetdedicated.com/apt dapper main
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install wine
    • Voor meer informatie zie: [1]

Andere Desktop Omgevingen

Hoe installeer ik KDE

sudo apt-get install kubuntu-desktop
N.B.: Deze instalatie vergt ~400MB hardeschijfruimte
  • Systeem -> Afsluiten -> Afmelden
  • Om in te loggen in KDE klik op Sessie en kies KDE

Hoe installeer ik XFCE

sudo apt-get install xubuntu-desktop
  • Systeem -> Afsluiten -> Afmelden
  • Om in XFCE in te loggen kies Sessie en kies XFCE

Eye Candy

Hoe installeer ik Xgl/Compiz (Nvidia)

  • Voor complete informatie over hoe je XGL moet opzetten op verschillende kaarten en andere tweaks:

http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=148351



sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Zoek deze sectie
Section "Module"
	Load	"i2c"
	Load	"bitmap"
	...
	Load	"type1"
	Load	"vbe"
EndSection
  • Zet commentaartekens voor dri and GLcore (als die er zijn)
#	Load	"dri"
#	Load	"GLcore"
  • Wees er zeker van dat GLX loopt
	Load	"glx"
  • Zoek deze sectie (De inhoud kan anders zijn)
Section "Device"
	Identifier	"NVIDIA Corporation NV34M [GeForce FX Go5200]"
	Driver		"nv"
	BusID		"PCI:1:0:0"
EndSection
  • Vervang de volgende regels, maar laat de Identifier en BusID zoals ze waren
Section "Device"
	...
	Driver		"nvidia"
	...
	Option		"RenderAccel"		"true"
	Option		"AllowGLXWithComposite" "true"
EndSection
  • Zoek deze sectie
Section "Screen"
	Identifier	"Default Screen"
	Device		"NVIDIA Corporation NV34M [GeForce FX Go5200]"
	Monitor		"Generic Monitor"
	DefaultDepth	16
  • Wees er zeker van dat de DefaultDepth 24 is , als dat nog niet gebeurd is
	DefaultDepth	24
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand
  • Instaleer Xgl/Compiz
sudo apt-get install compiz xserver-xgl libgl1-mesa xserver-xorg libglitz-glx1 compiz-gnome
sudo cp /etc/gdm/gdm.conf-custom /etc/gdm/gdm.conf-custom-backup
sudo gedit /etc/gdm/gdm.conf-custom
  • Vervang alles met de volgende regels:
# GDM Configuration Customization file.
#
# This file is the appropriate place for specifying your customizations to the
# GDM configuration.   If you run gdmsetup, it will automatically edit this
# file for you and will cause the daemon and any running GDM GUI programs to
# automatically update with the new configuration.  Not all configuration
# options are supported by gdmsetup, so to modify some values it may be
# necessary to modify this file directly by hand.
# 
# To hand-edit this file, simply add or modify the key=value combination in
# the appropriate section in the template below.  Refer to the comments in the
# gdm.conf file for information about each option.  Also refer to the reference
# documentation.
# 
# If you hand edit a GDM configuration file, you should run the following
# command to get the GDM daemon to notice the change.  Any running GDM GUI
# programs will also be notified to update with the new configuration.
#
# gdmflexiserver --command="UPDATE_CONFIG <configuration key>"
#
# For example, the "Enable" key in the "[debug]" section would be specified by
# "debug/Enable".
#
# You can also run gdm-restart or gdm-safe-restart to cause GDM to restart and
# re-read the new configuration settings.  You can also restart GDM by sending
# a HUP or USR1 signal to the daemon.  HUP behaves like gdm-restart and causes
# any user session started by GDM to exit immediately while USR1 behaves like
# gdm-safe-restart and will wait until all users log out before restarting GDM.
# 
# For full reference documentation see the gnome help browser under
# GNOME|System category.  You can also find the docs in HTML form on
# http://www.gnome.org/projects/gdm/
# 
# NOTE: Lines that begin with "#" are considered comments.
# 
# Have fun!

[daemon]

[security]

[xdmcp]

[gui]

[greeter]

[chooser]

[debug]

[servers]# Override display 1 to use Xgl
0=Xgl 

[server-Xgl] 
name=Xgl server 
command=/usr/bin/Xgl :0 -fullscreen -ac -accel glx:pbuffer -accel xv:fbo 
flexible=true
  • Maak een script dat Xgl/Compiz bij het opstarten opstart
sudo gedit /usr/bin/thefuture
  • Insert the following lines into the new file. Replace .us with appropriate keyboard binding for your region. Eg .gb for United Kingdom. For a full list of keyboard bindings, type ls /usr/share/xmodmap in a terminal. If unsure, leave as .us (United States)
#!/bin/bash
gnome-window-decorator &  compiz --replace gconf decoration wobbly fade minimize cube rotate zoom scale move resize place switcher &
xmodmap /usr/share/xmodmap/xmodmap.us
  • Bewaar het bestand
sudo chmod 755 /usr/bin/thefuture
  • To run compiz for this session
thefuture
  • To have compiz load on startup
    • System -> Preferences -> Sessions
    • Startup Programs -> Add
/usr/bin/thefuture
  • Extra Hulp
    • Als Xgl/Compiz het niet lijkt te doen, of je fouten krijgt, herstart de machine dan na "thefuture" bij Startup toegevoegd te hebben.
    • Als het bewegen van vensters het systeem langzaam maakt, start gconf-editor vanuit de terminal. vind apps/compiz/general/screen0/options. Zet detect_refresh_rate uit en de refresh rate op 60. Alles zou nu moeten werken...
    • Als je een niet standaard toetsenbord gebruikt (andere taal), zou je het mischien terug moeten zetten als je toetsenbord raar doet, dit kan met System/Settings/Keyboard.
    • Je kan ook de Super-toets hechten aan de windows knop.
  • Tips
    • Verwissel schermen = Alt + Tab
    • Zet alle schermen op een rij en bekijk ze = F12 zet het aan of uit; op een scherm klikken zal het naar voren halen
    • Werkbladen verwisselen op de kubus = Ctrl + Alt + Linker/Rechter Pijltoets
    • Werkbladen verwisselen op de kubus - het actieve venster meenemend = Ctrl + Shift + Alt + Linker/Rechter Pijltoets
    • De kubus handmatig draaien = Ctrl + Alt + linkerklik
    • Venster transparant maken = op dit moment alleen maar mogelijk met het "transset" utility
    • Een keer inzoomen = Super-toets rechterklik
    • Handmatig inzoomen = Super-toets + scrolwiel omhoog
    • Handmatig uitzoomen = Super-toets + scrolwiel omlaag
    • Venster bewegen = Alt + linkerklik
    • Venster makkelijk verplaatsen (blijft aan de randen kleven) = Ctrl + Alt + linkerklik
    • Grote van het venster instellen = Alt + rechterklik

Hoe installeer ik alternate boot splash screen

  • Lees #Algemeen
  • Dit instaleert een minimaal splash screen dat je ziet als Ubuntu opstart en afsluit. Het is een vervanger voor textberichten.
wget -c http://www.users.on.net/~stubby/usplash-minimalistic_0.1.deb
sudo dpkg -i usplash-minimalistic_0.1.deb
sudo update-alternatives --config usplash-artwork.so
  • Selecteer het minimalistische alternatief (/usr/local/lib/usplash/minimalastic.so) door het nummer in te typen. Als je ooit terug wilt naar de originele splash screen, selecteer default (/usr/lib/usplash/usplash-default.so)
  • Herstart de computer om de effecten te bekijken

Commerciele software

Hoe installeer ik Windows 9X/ME/2000/XP (Win4Lin)

Hoe installeer ik Windows Software (CrossOver Office)

Hoe installeer ik Windows Games (Cedega)

Gebruikers beheer

Hoe maak ik een nieuw/verander ik het root-gebruiker wachtwoord

sudo passwd root

Hoe deactiveer ik het root-gebruikersaccount

sudo passwd -l root

Hoe laat ik de root gebruiker toe om in GNOME in te loggen

Security Tab -> Security -> Allow root to login with GDM (Aanvinken)

Hoe verander ik naar root in console

sudo -s -H
Password: <geef het root-wachtwoord>

Hoe voeg/verwijder ik gebruikers aan het systeem toe

  • Lees #Algemeen
  • System -> Administration -> Users and Groups
  • Users and Groups
Users Tab -> Add User.../Properties/Delete
or
sudo useradd jim
sudo userdel jim
  • Voor meer informatie lees:
man usermod

Hoe kan ik systeem groepen toevoegen/bewerken/verwijderen?

  • Lees #Algemeen
  • Systeem -> Beheer -> Gebruikers en groepen
  • Gebruikers en groepen
Tabblad -> Groep toevoegen.../Eigenschappen/Verwijderen

Hoe automatisch inloggen in GNOME (niet veilig)

  • Lees #Algemeen
  • Systeem -> Beheer -> Aanmeldvenster
Beveiligings Tab -> Automatische gebruiken login (Checked)
Kies nu een gebruiker uit het drop-down menu.

Hoe meer 'sudoers' toe te staan

export EDITOR=gedit && sudo visudo
  • Voeg volgende regel toe onderaan het bestand:
system_username	ALL=(ALL) ALL
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand

Hoe sudo te gebruiken zonder een wachtwoord te hoeven invoeren

export EDITOR=gedit && sudo visudo
  • Zoek deze regel
...
system_username	ALL=(ALL) ALL
...
  • Vervang de volgende regel
system_username	ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand

Hoe een "sudo" sessie stoppen

sudo -K

Hoe de bestanden/mappen rechten veranderen

Rechts klikken op bestanden/mappen -> Eigenschappen
Rechten Tab -> Lezen/Schrijven/Uitvoeren (Controleer de rechten voor Eigenaar/Groep/Anderen)

Hoe het eingenaarschap veranderen van bestanden/mappen

sudo chown system_username /locatie_van-bestanden_of_mappen

Hoe de groep eigenaarschap van bestanden/mappen veranderen

sudo chgrp system_groupname /locatie_van_bestanden_of_mappen

Hardware

Hoe installeer ik Graphics Driver (NVIDIA)

sudo apt-get install nvidia-glx nvidia-kernel-common
sudo nvidia-glx-config enable

Hoe het NVIDIA graphics logo tonen bij GNOME opstart

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Zoek deze sectie
...
Section "Device"
	Identifier	"NVIDIA Corporation NV11 [GeForce2 MX/MX 400]"
	Driver		"nvidia"
	BusID		"PCI:1:0:0"
...
  • Voeg de volgende regel hieronder toe
   Option		"NoLogo"

Hoe installeer ik Graphics Driver (ATI)

Hoe de Modem chipset identificeren

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/scanModem.gz
gunzip -c scanModem.gz > scanModem
chmod +x scanModem
sudo cp scanModem /usr/bin/
  • Modem chipset identificeren
sudo scanModem
gedit Modem/ModemData.txt

Hoe installeer ik Modem Driver (SmartLink)

uname -r (must be 2.6.10-5-386)
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/sl-modem-modules-2.6.10-5-386_2.9.9a-1ubuntu2+2.6.10-34_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i sl-modem-modules-*.deb
sudo apt-get install sl-modem-daemon

Hoe PalmOS apparatuur configureren

sudo gedit /etc/udev/rules.d/10-custom.rules
  • Voeg volgende lijn aan het nieuwe bestand
BUS="usb", SYSFS{product}="Palm Handheld*", KERNEL="ttyUSB*", NAME{ignore_remove}="pilot", MODE="666"
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand
  • Systeem -> Voorkeuren -> PalmOS Devices
  • Volg de instructie op het scherm

Hoe een lijst krijgen met partitie tabellen

sudo fdisk -l
  • Je kan ook gebruik maken van Systeem -> Beheer > Schijven

Hoe een lijst krijgen met harde schijf ruimte

df -T -h
  • Je kan ook gebruik maken van Systeem -> Beheer > Schijven

How to list mounted devices

mount

How to list PCI devices

lspci

How to list USB devices

lsusb

How to speed up CD/DVD-ROM

e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo hdparm -d1 /dev/cdrom
sudo cp /etc/hdparm.conf /etc/hdparm.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/hdparm.conf
    • Voeg de volgende regels toe aan het eind van het bestand
/dev/cdrom {
    dma = on
}
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand

How to mount/unmount CD/DVD-ROM manually, and show all hidden and associated files/folders

e.g. Assumed that /media/cdrom0/ is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
  • To mount CD/DVD-ROM
sudo mount /media/cdrom0/ -o unhide
  • To unmount CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /media/cdrom0/

How to forcefully unmount CD/DVD-ROM manually

e.g. Assumed that /media/cdrom0/ is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /media/cdrom0/ -l

How to remount /etc/fstab without rebooting

sudo mount -a


Hoe installeer ik een Wacom tablet

For a detailed guide with screenshots about how to configure the "Extended input devices" in your graphic applications, please follow the official Dapper guide at https://wiki.ubuntu.com//Wacom

With the version of the Linux Wacom driver (0.7.2) in Ubuntu 6.06 Dapper Drake, if you unplug you tablet, it won't function when you plug it back in and you will have to restart X. For this reason, it is best to leave the tablet plugged in. This limitation will be removed when the 0.7.4 version of the driver is included in Ubuntu.

  • 1. Using Synaptic package manager1, check if the packages xserver-xorg-input-wacom and wacom-tools are already installed - if not, install them. If you prefer using the command line, you can also execute :
     sudo apt-get install xserver-xorg-input-wacom wacom-tools
  • 2. Save a copy of your /etc/X11/xorg.conf :
      sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.backup
  • then edit it with the command line :
      sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • and change all /dev/wacom occurences into /dev/input/wacom (created by wacom-tools udev scripts), then save the file.
  • You should be ready to go after you have restarted X. Remember to configure the "Extended input devices" in your graphic applications (Gimp, Inkscape), however you can already check if it's working by moving your stylus on the tablet : the mouse cursor should go through the whole screen.

CD/DVD Burning

How to blank CD-RW/DVD-RW

e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /dev/cdrom
cdrecord dev=/dev/cdrom blank=fast

How to burn files/folders into CD/DVD

nautilus burn:///
  • File Browser: CD/DVD Creator
  • Drag files/folders into window
File Menu -> Write to Disc... -> Write

How to burn Image (ISO) files into CD/DVD

Right click on Image (ISO) file -> Write to Disc... -> Write

How to duplicate CD/DVD

How to create Image (ISO) files from CD/DVD

e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /dev/cdrom
dd if=/dev/cdrom of=file.iso bs=1024

How to create Image (ISO) files from folders

mkisofs -o file.iso /location_of_folder/

How to generate MD5 checksum files

md5sum file.iso > file.iso.md5

How to check MD5 checksum of files

e.g. Assumed that file.iso and file.iso.md5 are in the same folder
md5sum -c file.iso.md5

How to mount/unmount Image (ISO) files without burning

sudo mkdir /media/iso
sudo modprobe loop
sudo mount file.iso /media/iso/ -t iso9660 -o loop
  • To unmount Image (ISO) file
sudo umount /media/iso/

How to set/change the burn speed for CD/DVD Burner

  • Lees #Algemeen
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> default_speed (set/change the burn speed)

How to enable burnproof for CD/DVD Burner

  • Lees #Algemeen
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> burnproof (Checked)

How to enable overburn for CD/DVD Burner

  • Lees #Algemeen
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> overburn (Checked)

Netwerken

Hoe stel ik Google Talk in

Hoe kan ik netwerkverbindingen activeren/deactiveren

  • Lees #Algemeen
  • System -> Administration -> Networking
  • Netwerk instellingen
Connections Tab -> Select "Ethernet connection" -> Activate/Deactivate

Hoe stel ik netwerkverbindingen in

  • Lees #Algemeen
  • System -> Administration -> Networking
  • Network settings
Connections Tab -> Select "Ethernet connection" -> Properties
Connection -> Enable this connection (Checked)
Connection Settings -> Configuration: Select "DHCP/Static IP address"
DNS Tab -> DNS Servers -> Add/Delete

Hoe kan ik inbelverbindingen instellen

sudo pppconfig
  • Inbelverbinding verbinden
sudo pon provider_name
  • Inbelverbinding verbreken
sudo poff

Hoe kan ik breedbandverbindingen instellen

sudo pppoeconf

Hoe kan ik de computernaam aanpassen

  • Lees #Algemeen
  • System -> Administration -> Networking
  • Netwerk instellingen
General Tab -> Host Settings -> Hostname: Specify the computer name 
  • Alle geopende programma's afsluiten en de computer herstarten

How to change computer descriptions

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Zoek deze regel
...
  server string = %h server (Samba, Ubuntu)
...
  • Vervang de volgende regel
  server string = new_computer_descriptions
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

Hoe kan ik het computerdomein/werkgroep aanpassen

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Zoek deze regel
...
  workgroup = MSHOME
...
  • Vervang de volgende regel
  workgroup = new_domain_or_workgroup
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to assign Hostname to local machine with dynamic IP using free DynDNS service

sudo apt-get install ipcheck
sudo gedit /etc/ppp/ip-up.d/dyndns_update.sh
  • Voeg de volgende regels in in een nieuw bestand
 #!/bin/sh

 USERNAME=myusername
 PASSWORD=mypassword
 HOSTNAME=myhostname.dyndns.org

 cd /root/
 if [ -f /root/ipcheck.dat ]; then
  ipcheck -r checkip.dyndns.org:8245 $USERNAME $PASSWORD $HOSTNAME
 else
  ipcheck --makedat -r checkip.dyndns.org:8245 $USERNAME $PASSWORD $HOSTNAME
 fi
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand
sudo chmod 700 /etc/ppp/ip-up.d/dyndns_update.sh
sudo sh /etc/ppp/ip-up.d/dyndns_update.sh

Hoe kan ik mappen delen op een eenvoudige manier

Right click on folder -> Share folder
Shared folder -> Share with: Select "SMB"
Share properties -> Name: Specify the share name

Hoe kan ik door netwerkcomputers bladeren

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
If computers or network folders could not be found, try access them directly
Read #How to access network folders without mounting
  • Places -> Network Servers

How to access network folders without mounting

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Shared folder's name: linux
  • Press 'Alt+F2' (Run Application...) and enter:
smb://192.168.0.1/linux

How to mount/unmount network folders manually, and allow all users to read

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
  • To mount network folder
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
sudo mount //192.168.0.1/linux /media/sharename/ -o username=myusername,password=mypassword
  • To unmount network folder
sudo umount /media/sharename/

How to mount/unmount network folders manually, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
  • To mount network folder
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
sudo mount //192.168.0.1/linux /media/sharename/ -o username=myusername,password=mypassword,dmask=777,fmask=777
  • To unmount network folder
sudo umount /media/sharename/

How to mount network folders on boot-up, and allow all users to read

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
sudo gedit /root/.smbcredentials
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
username=myusername
password=mypassword 
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand
sudo chmod 700 /root/.smbcredentials
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
sudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Voeg volgende regel toe onderaan het bestand:
//192.168.0.1/linux    /media/sharename smbfs  credentials=/root/.smbcredentials    0    0

How to mount network folders on boot-up, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
sudo gedit /root/.smbcredentials
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
username=myusername
password=mypassword
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand
sudo chmod 700 /root/.smbcredentials
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
sudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Voeg volgende regel toe onderaan het bestand:
//192.168.0.1/linux    /media/sharename smbfs  credentials=/root/.smbcredentials,dmask=777,fmask=777  0    0

How to get ipw2200 and wpa to work

How to Configure and start PPTP tunnels (VPN)

OR
  • Install manually
wget -c http://linux.edu.lv/uploads/content/pptp.tar.gz
tar zxvf pptp.tar.gz
sudo sh ./pptp/install
  • To configure PPTP Client
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/pptpconfig.desktop
  • Replace content of this file with the following lines
[Desktop Entry]
Name=PPTP Client
Comment=Configure and start PPTP tunnels (VPN)
Categories=Application;Network
Encoding=UTF-8
Exec=gksudo pptpconfig
Icon=gnome-remote-desktop.png
StartupNotify=true
Terminal=false
Type=Application
  • The above lines change the default file in three ways: the application is placed in the Application/Internet category, gksudo will make the application run as superuser and we put a nice icon that appears in the menu.
  • Start the client with Applications -> Internet -> PPTP Client

How to configure Network-manager with WPA 1 and 2 support

Remote Desktop

How to configure remote desktop (not secure)

Warning! Remote Desktop will only work if there's a GNOME login session
Leaving computer with an unattended GNOME login session is not secure
Use (System -> Lock Screen) and switch off the monitor when computer is left unattended
  • System -> Preferences -> Remote Desktop
  • Remote Desktop Preferences
Sharing ->
Allow other users to view your desktop (Checked)
Allow other users to control your desktop (Checked)
Security ->
Ask you for confirmation (Uitvinken)
Require the user to enter this password: (Checked)
Password: Specify the password

How to connect into remote Ubuntu desktop

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have configured Remote Desktop
Read #How to configure remote desktop (not secure)
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
vncviewer -fullscreen 192.168.0.1:0
  • To quit vncviewer
Press 'F8' -> Quit viewer

How to connect into remote Ubuntu desktop via Windows machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have configured Remote Desktop
Read #How to configure remote desktop (not secure)
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
  • Download VNC Viewer: Here

Windows

How to mount/unmount Windows partitions (NTFS) manually, and allow all users to read only


e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (NTFS)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
  • To mount Windows partition
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo mount /dev/hda1 /media/windows/ -t ntfs -o nls=utf8,umask=0222
  • To unmount Windows partition
sudo umount /media/windows/

How to mount/unmount Windows partitions (FAT) manually, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (FAT)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
  • To mount Windows partition
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo mount /dev/hda1 /media/windows/ -t vfat -o iocharset=utf8,umask=000
  • To unmount Windows partition
sudo umount /media/windows/

How to mount Windows partitions (NTFS) on boot-up, and allow all users to read only

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (NTFS)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
sudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Voeg volgende regel toe onderaan het bestand:
/dev/hda1    /media/windows ntfs  nls=utf8,umask=0222 0    0

How to mount Windows partitions (FAT) on boot-up, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (FAT)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
sudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Voeg volgende regel toe onderaan het bestand:
/dev/hda1    /media/windows vfat  iocharset=utf8,umask=000  0    0


Security

What are the basic things I need to know about securing my Ubuntu

  • Lees #Algemeen
  • Ensure hard drive is first in BIOS boot-up sequence
    • To prevent trespassers from using Linux Installation CD which allows them to gain root user access
    • To prevent trespassers from using Linux Live CD (e.g. UBUNTU/KNOPPIX/MEPIS) which allows them to destroy/browse/share the entire hard drive
    • To prevent trespassers from installing another Operating System
  • Ensure a password is set for BIOS
    • To prevent trespassers from changing the BIOS boot-up sequence
  • Ensure computer is located at a secured place
    • To prevent trespassers from removing computer's hard drive which allows them to destroy/browse/share the entire hard drive from a different computer
    • To prevent trespassers from removing computer's on-board battery which resets the BIOS password
  • Ensure passwords used on the system cannot be easily guessed
    • To prevent trespassers from cracking password file using brute force attacks (e.g. John the Ripper)
    • Create password with minimum length of 8 characters
    • Create password with mixture of characters/numbers, and upper/lower case
  • Ensure interactive editing control for GRUB menu is disabled
  • Ensure history listing is disabled in Console mode
  • Ensure Ctrl+Alt+Del is disabled in Console mode
  • Ensure interactive option is set for remove, copy and move of files/folders in Console mode
  • For day to day usage, login as a normal user
  • Disable root user account, use "sudo" instead
    • To reduce the amount of time spent with root privileges, and thus the risk of inadvertently executing a command as root
    • "sudo" provides a more useful audit trail (/var/log/auth.log)
    • Lees #How to disable root user account
  • Install a Firewall
  • Perform vulnerability test

How to disable all interactive editing control for GRUB menu

grub
grub> md5crypt
Password: ****** (ubuntu)
Encrypted: $1$ZWnke0$1fzDBVjUcT1Mpdd4u/T961 (encrypted password)
grub> quit
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Zoek deze sectie
...
## password ['--md5'] passwd
# If used in the first section of a menu file, disable all interactive editing
# control (menu entry editor and command-line) and entries protected by the
# command 'lock'
# e.g. password topsecret
#   password --md5 $1$gLhU0/$aW78kHK1QfV3P2b2znUoe/
# password topsecret
...
  • Voeg de volgende regel hieronder toe
password --md5 $1$ZWnke0$1fzDBVjUcT1Mpdd4u/T961 (encrypted password above)
  • Zoek deze sectie
...
title		Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (recovery mode)
root		(hd0,1)
kernel		/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro single
initrd		/boot/initrd.img-2.6.10-5-386
savedefault
boot
...
  • Vervang de volgende regels
#title		Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (recovery mode)
#root		(hd0,1)
#kernel		/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro single
#initrd		/boot/initrd.img-2.6.10-5-386
#savedefault
#boot
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand

How to disable history listing in Console mode

rm -f $HOME/.bash_history
touch $HOME/.bash_history
chmod 000 $HOME/.bash_history

How to disable Ctrl+Alt+Del from restarting computer in Console mode

sudo cp /etc/inittab /etc/inittab_backup
sudo gedit /etc/inittab
  • Zoek deze regel
...
ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -r now
...
  • Vervang de volgende regel
#ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -r now
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand
sudo telinit q

How to enable prompt before removal/overwritten of files/folders in Console mode

sudo cp /etc/bash.bashrc /etc/bash.bashrc_backup
sudo gedit /etc/bash.bashrc
    • Voeg de volgende regels toe aan het eind van het bestand
alias rm='rm -i'
alias cp='cp -i'
alias mv='mv -i'
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand


Rescue Mode

How to gain root user access without login

  • Lees #Algemeen
  • Easiest method (will not work if GRUB menu password is set)
    • Boot-up computer
    • If GRUB menu is hidden, press 'Esc' to enter the GRUB menu
    • Select
Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (recovery mode)

How to modify kernel boot-up arguments, to gain root user access

  • Lees #Algemeen
  • Boot-up computer
  • If GRUB menu is hidden, press 'Esc' to enter the GRUB menu
  • If GRUB password is set, press 'p' to unlock the GRUB menu
  • Select
Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386
  • Press 'e' to edit the commands before booting
  • Select
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro quiet splash
  • Press 'e' to edit the selected command in the boot sequence
  • Add "rw init=/bin/bash" to the end of the arguments
grub edit> kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro quiet splash rw init=/bin/bash
  • Press 'b' to boot

How to use Ubuntu Installation CD, to gain root user access

  • Lees #Algemeen
  • Boot-up computer into Ubuntu Installation CD
  • At "boot:" prompt, add "rescue" to the argument
boot: rescue
  • Follow the instructions on screen

How to change root user/main user password if forgotten

# passwd root
  • To change main user password
# passwd system_main_username

How to change GRUB menu password if forgotten

grub
grub> md5crypt
Password: ****** (ubuntu)
Encrypted: $1$ZWnke0$1fzDBVjUcT1Mpdd4u/T961 (encrypted password)
grub> quit
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Zoek deze regel
...
password --md5 $1$gLhU0/$aW78kHK1QfV3P2b2znUoe/
...
  • Vervang de volgende regel
password --md5 $1$ZWnke0$1fzDBVjUcT1Mpdd4u/T961 (encrypted password above)
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand

How to restore GRUB menu after Windows installation

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda is the location of /boot partition
# grub-install /dev/hda

How to add Windows entry into GRUB menu

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
    • Voeg de volgende regels toe aan het eind van het bestand
title		Microsoft Windows
root		(hd0,0)
savedefault
makeactive
chainloader	+1
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand

How to read Linux partitions (ext2, ext3) in Windows machine

OR

Tips & Truuks

Hoe kan ik GNOME herstarten zonder de computer te rebooten

  • Lees #Algemeen
  • Sluit alle geopende programma's
Druk: 'Ctrl + Alt + Backspace'

of
sudo /etc/init.d/gdm restart

Hoe zet ik Num Lock aan bij het opstarten van GNOME

sudo apt-get install numlockx
sudo cp /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default_backup
sudo gedit /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default
  • Zoek deze regel
...
exit 0
  • Voeg hierboven de volgende regels toe
if [ -x /usr/bin/numlockx ]; then
 /usr/bin/numlockx on
fi

How to run programs on startup when login into GNOME

  • Lees #Algemeen
  • System -> Preferences -> Sessions
  • Sessions
Startup Programs Tab -> Add/Edit/Delete

How to speed-up your Ubuntu box

How to switch to Console mode in GNOME

Press 'Ctrl + Alt + F1' (F2 - F6)
  • To switch between consles in Console mode
Press 'Alt + F1' (F2 - F6)
  • To switch back to GNOME mode
Press 'Alt + F7'

How to disable Ctrl+Alt+Backspace from restarting X in GNOME

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
    • Voeg de volgende regels toe aan het eind van het bestand
Section "ServerFlags"
	Option		"DontZap"		"yes"
EndSection

How to enable Ctrl+Alt+Del to open System Monitor in GNOME

gconftool-2 -t str --set /apps/metacity/global_keybindings/run_command_9 "<Control><Alt>Delete"
gconftool-2 -t str --set /apps/metacity/keybinding_commands/command_9 "gnome-system-monitor"

How to refresh GNOME desktop

killall nautilus

Hoe ververs ik het GNOME panel

killall gnome-panel

How to enable autosave in Gedit and disable creation of some_file~ files

  • Lees #Algemeen
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> gedit-2 -> preferences -> editor -> save -> create_backup_copy (Unchecked)
/ -> apps -> gedit-2 -> preferences -> editor -> save -> auto_save (Checked)

How to show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus

  • Lees #Algemeen
  • Places -> Home Folder
  • To temporary show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus
Press 'Ctrl + H'
  • To permanently show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus
Edit Menu -> Preferences
Views Tab -> Default View -> Show hidden and backup files (Checked)

How to browse files/folders as root user in Nautilus

  • Lees #Algemeen
  • To install File Browser (Root)
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/Nautilus-root.desktop
    • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=File Browser (Root)
Comment=Browse the filesystem with the file manager
Exec=gksudo "nautilus --browser %U"
Icon=file-manager
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;System;
  • To browse files/folders as root user in Nautilus
    • Applications -> System Tools -> File Browser (Root)

How to change default file type "Open with" program

Right click on file -> Properties
Open With Tab -> Add
Select "Open with" program
Select "Open with" program (Checked)

How to change preferred email client to Mozilla Thunderbird

Mail Reader Tab -> Default Mail Reader -> Command: mozilla-thunderbird %s

How to open files as root user via right click

gedit $HOME/.gnome2/nautilus-scripts/Open\ as\ root
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
for uri in $NAUTILUS_SCRIPT_SELECTED_URIS; do
	gksudo "gnome-open $uri" &
done
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand
chmod +x $HOME/.gnome2/nautilus-scripts/Open\ as\ root

Right click on file -> Scripts -> Open as root

How to disable beep sound in Terminal mode

Not for Dapper---- firingstone

  • Lees #Algemeen
  • Applications -> Accessories -> Terminal
  • Terminal
Edit Menu -> Current Profile...
General Tab -> General -> Terminal bell (Uitvinken)

How to load Web site faster in Mozilla Firefox

  • Lees #Algemeen
  • Applications -> Internet -> Firefox Web Browser
  • Mozilla Firefox
Address Bar -> about:config
Filter: ->
network.dns.disableIPv6 -> true
network.http.pipelining -> true
network.http.pipelining.maxrequests -> 8
network.http.proxy.pipelining -> true
  • Restart Mozilla Firefox

How to disable beep sound for link find function in Mozilla Firefox

  • Lees #Algemeen
  • Applications -> Internet -> Firefox Web Browser
  • Mozilla Firefox
Address Bar -> about:config
Filter: -> accessibility.typeaheadfind.enablesound -> false
  • Restart Mozilla Firefox


How to apt-get the easy way (Synaptic)

  • Lees #Algemeen
  • System -> Administration -> Synaptic Package Manager
  • To enable the extra Universe and Multiverse repositories
    1. Settings -> Repositories
    2. In the Installation Media tab, click Add. There are three separate repositories; Dapper Drake, Security Updates and Updates. Select each repository and check Officially supported, Restricted copyright, Community maintained (Universe) and Non-free (Multiverse). Ensure you click OK between each repository to save your changes
    3. You should now see those three repositories under Channels. Make sure Officially supported, Restricted copyright, Community maintained (Universe) and Non-free (Multiverse) appears under each repository
  • To add backports and PLF (new versions of many applications. Unsupported. May contain illegal packages. Use at own risk.)
    1. Settings -> Repositories
    2. Click on Add and then Custom
    3. Paste the following four lines into the box and click Add Repository, one line at a time:
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu dapper-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://packages.freecontrib.org/ubuntu/plf dapper free non-free
deb-src http://packages.freecontrib.org/ubuntu/plf dapper free non-free 
  • To refresh the list of known packages (equivalent to apt-get update)
Edit Menu -> Reload Package Information
  • To install all possible upgrades (equivalent to apt-get upgrade)
Edit Menu -> Mark All Upgrades... -> Default Upgrade
Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes
  • To search for a package (equivalent to apt-cache search package_name)
Edit Menu -> Search... Specify the package name
  • To install the selected package (equivalent to apt-get install package_name)
Select "package_name"
Package Menu -> Mark for Installation
Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes
  • To remove installed package (equivalent to apt-get remove package_name)
Select "package_name"
Package Menu -> Mark for Removal
Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes

What packages do the extra repositories provide

  • The PLF repository provides
    1. DVD playback support (libdvdcss2)
    2. Skype
    3. Sun Java SDK (Software Development Kit) and JRE (Java Runtime Environment)
    4. Opera Web browser
    5. RealPlayer 10
    6. Win32 binary multimedia codecs

How to install/uninstall .deb files

sudo dpkg -i package_file.deb
  • To uninstall .deb file
sudo dpkg -r package_name

How to convert .rpm files to .deb files

sudo alien package_file.rpm

How to rename all files in directory at once

  • Lees #Algemeen
  • To install "mvb" file name renamer
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/mvb_1.6.tgz
sudo tar zxvf mvb_1.6.tgz -C /usr/share/
sudo chown -R root:root /usr/share/mvb_1.6/
sudo ln -fs /usr/share/mvb_1.6/mvb /usr/bin/mvb

  • To rename all files in directory at once
mvb NEW_NAME

How to manipulate all image files in directory at once

sudo apt-get install imagemagick
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/bbips.0.3.2.sh
sudo cp bbips.0.3.2.sh /usr/bin/bbips
sudo chmod 755 /usr/bin/bbips
  • To manipulate all image files in directory at once
bbips

How to set System-wide Environment Variables

sudo cp /etc/bash.bashrc /etc/bash.bashrc_backup
sudo gedit /etc/bash.bashrc
  • Append the System-wide Environment Variables at the end of file
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand

How to save "man" outputs into files

man command | col -b > file.txt

How to hide GRUB menu on boot-up

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst

  • Zoek deze regel
...
#hiddenmenu
...
  • Vervang de volgende regel
hiddenmenu
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand

How to change the timeout seconds for GRUB menu on boot-up

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Zoek deze regel
...
timeout     3
...
  • Vervang de volgende regel
timeout     X_seconds
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand

How to change default Operating System boot-up for GRUB menu

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Zoek deze regel
...
default     0
...
  • Vervang de volgende regel
default     X_sequence
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand

How to display Splash Image for GRUB menu on boot-up

e.g. Assumed that hd0,1 is the location of Ubuntu boot partition
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/ubuntu.xpm.gz
chmod 644 ubuntu.xpm.gz
sudo mkdir /boot/grub/images
sudo cp ubuntu.xpm.gz /boot/grub/images/
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Zoek deze sectie
# menu.lst - See: grub(8), info grub, update-grub(8)
#      grub-install(8), grub-floppy(8),
#      grub-md5-crypt, /usr/share/doc/grub
#      and /usr/share/doc/grub-doc/.
...
  • Voeg de volgende regel hieronder toe
splashimage (hd0,1)/boot/grub/images/ubuntu.xpm.gz
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand

How to convert Wallpaper to Splash Image for GRUB menu

e.g. Assumed that wallpaper.png is the Wallpaper to be converted to Splash Image
splashimage.xpm.gz is the Splash Image for GRUB menu
convert -resize 640x480 -colors 14 wallpaper.png splashimage.xpm && gzip splashimage.xpm

How to temporary skip boot-up services

Press 'Ctrl + C'

How to permanently disable/enable boot-up services

Hoe kan ik de /tmp/ map leegmaken bij het uitzetten van de computer

sudo cp /etc/init.d/sysklogd /etc/init.d/sysklogd_backup
sudo gedit /etc/init.d/sysklogd
  • Zoek deze sectie
...
 stop)
  log_begin_msg "Stopping system log daemon..."
  start-stop-daemon --stop --quiet --oknodo --exec $binpath --pidfile $pidfile
  log_end_msg $?
...
  • Voeg de volgende regel hieronder toe
  rm -fr /tmp/* /tmp/.??*
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand

How to scroll up and down to view previous outputs in Console mode

  • Lees #Algemeen
  • To scroll up to view previously outputs
Press 'Shift + Page Up'
  • To scroll down to view previously outputs
Press 'Shift + Page Down'

How to find out which version of Ubuntu I am using

cat /etc/issue

How to set up automatic background change (GNOME)

mkdir ~/.backgrounds
cd ~/.backgrounds
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/change_background.py
chmod +x change_background.py
  • To change desktop background every time you reboot your computer
export EDITOR=gedit && crontab -e
  • Add the following line at the end of file
@reboot ~/.backgrounds/change_background.py
For more information about periodic processes see
man 5 crontab

How to set up automatic background change (KDE)

  • Go to K-menu -> System Settings -> Desktop -> Background
  • Choose Slide Show
  • Press Setup...
  • Press Add... to add pictures you wish to see as desktop background
  • Set 'Change picture after' to desired picture rotation interval.
  • Press 'OK'

How to add keyboard layouts for other languages

  • Go to System -> Preferences -> Keyboard
  • Choose Layouts
  • Press Add... to add the secondary keyboard layout. It is simpler to have two layouts; the maximum is currently four for Xorg.
  • Choose Layout Options
  • Expand option Group Shift/Lock behaviour
  • Choose the key combination that enables you to switch between keyboard layouts. The default is by pressing both Alt keys at the same time. A common alternative is to use Alt+Shift.
  • Press Close.

See #How to add the Keyboard (Layout) Indicator applet to add the Keyboard Indicator applet.

How to add the Keyboard (Layout) Indicator applet

  • Right-click on empty space on the top panel so that you see the pop-up menu.
  • Click Add to Panel...
  • Choose Keyboard Indicator (it is under the Utilities section, at the end)

The Keyboard Indicator applet appears on the panel. The default language should be USA for U.S. English. You can either right-click on this applet for more options or see above on how to configure.

How to type extended characters

  • Add the keyboard layout US English International (with dead keys)
  • Make US English International (with dead keys) the default keyboard layout.

The key marked ['"] is now a dead key. When you press it, nothing happens. However if you press a consonant immediately afterwards, the consonant appears with an accent.

  • ' + a = á
  • ' + e = é
  • and so on for i-í, o-ó, y-ý, c-c, z-z, n-n, l-l, u-ú, r-r
  • " + a = ä
  • " + e = ë
  • and so on for y-ÿ, u-ü, i-ï, o-ö

Similarly, ` and a consonant generates à, è, ù, ì, ò. Similarly, ~ and a consonant generates ã, u, i, õ, ñ.

To type ' and ", press RightAlt+' and RightAlt+" respectively. To type ' and ", you may also press '+<space> and "+<space> respectively.

There are more characters available by keeping RightAlt pressed and typing a character. Therefore,

  • RightAlt+q = ä
  • RightAlt+w = å
  • RightAlt+e = é
  • RightAlt+r = ®
  • RightAlt+t = þ
  • RightAlt+y = ü
  • RightAlt+u = ú
  • RightAlt+i = í
  • RightAlt+o = ó
  • RightAlt+p = ö
  • RightAlt+[ and ] for « and » respectively.
  • RightAlt+a = á
  • RightAlt+s = ß
  • RightAlt+d = ð
  • RightAlt+l = ø
  • RightAlt+; = ¶
  • RightAlt+: = °
  • RightAlt+z = æ
  • RightAlt+c = ©
  • RightAlt+n = ñ
  • RightAlt+m = µ
  • RightAlt+, = ç
  • RightAlt+/ = ¿
  • RightAlt+1 = ¡
  • RightAlt+2 = ²
  • RightAlt+3 = ³
  • RightAlt+4 = ¤
  • RightAlt+5 = €
  • RightAlt+6 = ¼
  • RightAlt+7 = ½
  • RightAlt+8 = ¾
  • RightAlt+9 = ‘
  • RightAlt+0 = ’
  • RightAlt+- = ¥
  • RightAlt+= = ×
  • RightAlt+! = ¹
  • RightAlt+@, then o = o (and O).
  • RightAlt+#, then a = a (and A). Similarly for eE, uU, iI, oO.
  • RightAlt+$ = £
  • RightAlt+% =
  • RightAlt+^ =
  • RightAlt+& =
  • RightAlt+*, then a = a (and A). Similarly for eE, iI.
  • RightAlt+(, then a = a (and A)
  • RightAlt+(, then g = g (and G)
  • RightAlt+), then a = å (and Å)
  • RightAlt+_ =
  • RightAlt++ = ÷

How to set the Compose key to type special characters

  • Click System, Preferences, Keyboard.
  • Under Layout Options, expand on Compose key position.
  • Choose Right-Win key is compose, click Close.

Now you can type extended characters using the RightWin key (next to AltGr), according to this keyboard settings file. Specifically, the lines that start with GDK_Multi_key are those that we can use here. The Compose key is actually GDK_Multi_key.

Some examples,

  • RightWin + C + = produces €
  • RightWin + = + C produces €
  • RightWin + C + O produces ©
  • RightWin + O + C produces ©
  • RightWin + a + ' produces á
  • RightWin + a + " produces ä
  • RightWin + a + ` produces à
  • RightWin + a + ~ produces ã
  • RightWin + a + * produces å
  • RightWin + a + ^ produces â
  • RightWin + a + > produces â
  • RightWin + a + , produces a
  • RightWin + e + - produces e
  • RightWin + S + 1 produces ¹
  • RightWin + S + 2 produces ²
  • RightWin + S + 3 produces ³

Servers

AntiVirus Server

Hoe installeer ik ClamAV AntiVirus Server

sudo apt-get install clamav

How to manually update virus databases

sudo freshclam

How to manually scan files/folders for viruses

sudo clamscan -r /location_of_files_or_folders

How to automatically scan files/folders for viruses

e.g. Automatically scan files/folders for viruses at midnight everyday
* * * * * means minute hour date month year
export EDITOR=gedit &&  sudo crontab -e
  • Voeg volgende regel toe onderaan het bestand:
00 00 * * *  sudo clamscan -r /location_of_files_or_folders
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand

Print Server (cupsd)

Hoe installeer ik cupsd

Cupsd should be automatically installed during standard instaltion. Checkout if there is a file "/etc/init.d/cupsys". If you want to manually install it, do
 sudo apt-get install cupsys*

How to add a printer

In gnome click on "System/Administration/Printing. And choose "Add printer". A "add printer wizard" should start and tell you what to do.

Or try the cups-web interface at http://localhost:631/

How to print on remote Ubuntu machine from another Ubuntu machine

  • Make sure your local printer is well configured.
  • Server ip address: 192.168.0.1
  • Client ip address: 192.168.0.23
    • Server configuration
 sudo cp /etc/cups/cupsd.conf /etc/cups/cupsd.conf.backup
 sudo gedit /etc/cups/cupsd.conf
find the block
<Location />
  ...
  Allow localhost
  ...
</Location>
and add the following line into it.
 Allow 192.168.0.23
Restart cups.
 sudo /etc/init.d/cupsys restart
    • Client configuration
 sudo cp /etc/cups/client.conf /etc/cups/client.conf.backup
 sudo gedit /etc/cups/client.conf
And add the following line into it.
 ServerName 192.168.0.1
Restart cups.
 sudo /etc/init.d/cupsys restart
Now try "lpq" and you should see something like
 vitek@lightfox:~$ lpq
 HPLJ6P is ready
 no entries

How to print on remote Ubuntu machine from a Windows machine

Samba Server

Hoe installeer ik Samba Server for files/folders sharing service

sudo apt-get install samba
sudo apt-get install smbfs

How to add/edit/delete network users

sudo smbpasswd -a system_username
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smbusers
    • Insert the following line into the new file
system_username = "network username"
    • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand
  • To edit network user
sudo smbpasswd -a system_username
  • To delete network user
sudo smbpasswd -x system_username

How to share home folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Zoek deze regel
...
;  security = user
...
  • Vervang de volgende regels
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share home folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Zoek deze regel
...
;  security = user
...
  • Vervang de volgende regels
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Zoek deze sectie
...
# By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change next
# parameter to 'yes' if you want to be able to write to them.
  writable = no
...
  • Vervang de volgende regels
# By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change next
# parameter to 'yes' if you want to be able to write to them.
  writable = yes
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share group folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)

sudo mkdir /home/group
sudo chmod 777 /home/group/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Zoek deze regel
...
;  security = user
...
  • Vervang de volgende regels
 security = user
 username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
    • Voeg de volgende regels toe aan het eind van het bestand
[Group]
  comment = Group Folder
  path = /home/group
  public = yes
  writable = no
  valid users = system_username1 system_username2
  create mask = 0700
  directory mask = 0700
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup

sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share group folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)


sudo mkdir /home/group
sudo chmod 777 /home/group/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Zoek deze regel
...
;  security = user
...
  • Vervang de volgende regels
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
    • Voeg de volgende regels toe aan het eind van het bestand
[Group]
  comment = Group Folder
  path = /home/group
  public = yes
  writable = yes
  valid users = system_username1 system_username2
  create mask = 0700
  directory mask = 0700
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)


sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Zoek deze regel
...
;  security = user
...
  • Vervang de volgende regels
  security = user 
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
    • Voeg de volgende regels toe aan het eind van het bestand
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = no
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)

sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Zoek deze regel
...
;  security = user
...
  • Vervang de volgende regels
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
    • Voeg de volgende regels toe aan het eind van het bestand
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = yes
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody 
  force group = nogroup
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read only permission (Authentication=No)

sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Zoek deze regel
...
;  security = user
...
  • Vervang de volgende regel
  security = share
    • Voeg de volgende regels toe aan het eind van het bestand
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = no
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=No)

sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Zoek deze regel
...
;  security = user
...
  • Vervang de volgende regel
  security = share
    • Voeg de volgende regels toe aan het eind van het bestand
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = yes
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup

  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to print on remote Ubuntu machine via samba

 sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf.backup
 gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
Find the following lines
 ...
 # printing = cups
 # printcap name = cups
 ...
and uncomment them.
 printing = cups
 printcap name = cups
Restart cups server
 sudo /etc/init.d/cupsys restart
Now printers working on your Ubuntu machine should be acessible via samba.

SSH Server

Hoe installeer ik SSH Server for remote administration service

sudo apt-get install ssh

How to SSH into remote Ubuntu machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #Hoe installeer ik SSH Server for remote administration service
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
ssh username@192.168.0.1

How to copy files/folders from remote Ubuntu machine into local machine (scp)

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #Hoe installeer ik SSH Server for remote administration service
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote files/folders location: /home/username/remotefile.txt
Local machine save location: . (current directory)
scp -r username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/remotefile.txt .

How to copy files/folders from local machine into remote Ubuntu machine (scp)

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #Hoe installeer ik SSH Server for remote administration service
Local files/folders location: localfile.txt
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote Ubuntu machine save location: /home/username/
scp -r localfile.txt username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/

How to copy files/folders from remote Ubuntu machine into local machine (rsync)

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #Hoe installeer ik SSH Server for remote administration service
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote files/folders location: /home/username/remotefile.txt
Local machine save location: . (current directory)
rsync -v -u -a --delete --rsh=ssh --stats username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/remotefile.txt .

How to copy files/folders from local machine into remote Ubuntu machine (rsync)

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #Hoe installeer ik SSH Server for remote administration service
Local files/folders location: localfile.txt
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote Ubuntu machine save location: /home/username/
rsync -v -u -a --delete --rsh=ssh --stats localfile.txt username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/

How to mount remote folders into local Ubuntu machine (sshfs)

e.g. Assumed that remote machine has installed SSH Server service
Read #Hoe installeer ik SSH Server for remote administration service
Remote machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote machine folder location: /media/music
  • Install sshfs
sudo apt-get install sshfs
  • Load kernel driver for sshfs
sudo modprobe fuse
  • For permanent use add 'fuse' at the end of /etc/modules
sudo gedit /etc/modules
  • Join the 'fuse' user group
sudo adduser your_user_name fuse
  • Create local mountpoint in your home directory
mkdir ~/remote_music
  • Mount the remote folder into ~/remote_music
sshfs 192.168.0.1:/meida/music ~/remote_music

How to SSH into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #Hoe installeer ik SSH Server for remote administration service
  • Download PuTTY: Here


How to copy files/folders from/into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #Hoe installeer ik SSH Server for remote administration service
  • Download FileZilla: Here

How to limit the user accounts that can connect through ssh remotely

e.g. If you enable the SSH server, then any user with a valid account can connect remotely
This can lead to security risks, as there exist remote password cracking tools that
try common username/password pairs.
  • Keep a backup of the ssh server configuration file with

sudo cp /etc/ssh/sshd_config /etc/ssh/sshd_config.ORIGINAL

  • Edit the configuration file

sudo gedit /etc/ssh/sshd_config

  • Change the parameter PermitRootLogin from yes to no. The superuser must not be able to connect directly from remote.
  • Add the parameter AllowUsers and specify the usernames (space separated) that can connect remotely.
  • You can also use DenyUsers for fine-grained selection of users.
  • If you enable the openssh server and you have no intention for now to enable remote connections, you may add AllowUsers nosuchuserhere to disable anyone connecting.

DHCP Server

Hoe installeer ik DHCP Server for automatic IP addresses assignment

e.g. Assumed that "eth0" is the interface for network card
IP Address Range: 192.168.0.100 to 192.168.0.200
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
DNS Servers: 202.188.0.133, 202.188.1.5
Domains: tm.net.my
Gateway Address: 192.168.0.1
sudo apt-get install dhcp3-server
sudo cp /etc/default/dhcp3-server /etc/default/dhcp3-server_backup
sudo gedit /etc/default/dhcp3-server
  • Zoek deze regel
...
INTERFACES=""
  • Vervang de volgende regel
INTERFACES="eth0"
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand
sudo cp /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf
  • Zoek deze sectie
...
# option definitions common to all supported networks...
option domain-name "example.org";
option domain-name-servers ns1.example.org, ns2.example.org;
default-lease-time 600;
max-lease-time 7200;
...
  • Vervang de volgende regels
# option definitions common to all supported networks...
#option domain-name "example.org";
#option domain-name-servers ns1.example.org, ns2.example.org;
#default-lease-time 600;
#max-lease-time 7200;
  • Zoek deze sectie
...
# A slightly different configuration for an internal subnet.
#subnet 10.5.5.0 netmask 255.255.255.224 {
# range 10.5.5.26 10.5.5.30;
# option domain-name-servers ns1.internal.example.org;
# option domain-name "internal.example.org";
# option routers 10.5.5.1;
# option broadcast-address 10.5.5.31;
# default-lease-time 600;
# max-lease-time 7200;
#}
...
  • Vervang de volgende regels
# A slightly different configuration for an internal subnet.
subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
 range 192.168.0.100 192.168.0.200;
 option domain-name-servers 202.188.0.133, 202.188.1.5;
 option domain-name "tm.net.my";
 option routers 192.168.0.1;
 option broadcast-address 192.168.0.255;
 default-lease-time 600;
 max-lease-time 7200;
}
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand
sudo /etc/init.d/dhcp3-server restart


Database Server

Hoe installeer ik MYSQL Database Server

sudo apt-get install mysql-server
  • MySQL initially only allows connections from the localhost (127.0.0.1). We'll need to remove that restriction if you wish to make it accessible to everyone on the internet. Open the file /etc/mysql/my.cnf
sudo mousepad /etc/mysql/my.cnf
  • Find the line bind-address = 127.0.0.1 and comment it out
...
#bind-address           = 127.0.0.1
...
  • MySQL comes with no root password as default. This is a huge security risk. You'll need to set one. So that the local computer gets root access as well, you'll need to set a password for that too. The local-machine-name is the name of the computer you're working on. For more information see here
mysqladmin -u root password your-new-password
mysqladmin -h root@local-machine-name -u root password your-new-password
sudo /etc/init.d/mysql restart

Hoe installeer ik MYSQL Administrator

sudo apt-get install mysql-admin

Apache HTTP Server

Hoe installeer ik Apache HTTP Server for HTTP (Web) Server service

sudo apt-get install apache2

Hoe installeer ik PHP voor de Apache HTTP Server

Hoe installeer ik PHP4
sudo apt-get install php4
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
  • To test if php4 installed correctly
sudo gedit /var/www/testphp.php
  • Insert the following line into the new file
<?php phpinfo(); ?>
Hoe installeer ik PHP5
sudo apt-get install php5
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
  • To test if php5 installed correctly
sudo gedit /var/www/testphp.php
  • Insert the following line into the new file
<?php phpinfo(); ?>

Hoe installeer ik MYSQL for Apache HTTP Server

sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-auth-mysql
  • Select either php4-mysql or php5-mysql depending on which version of PHP you installed
sudo apt-get install php<version-number>-mysql
sudo apt-get install phpmyadmin
  • To get PHP to work with MySQL, open the file (where <version> is either 4 or 5 depending on which PHP you installed)
sudo gedit /etc/php<version>/apache2/php.ini
  • You'll need to uncomment the ";extension=mysql.so" line so that it looks like this
...
extension=mysql.so
...
  • Bewaar het bestand en sluit af
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

How to map URLs to folders outside /var/www/

sudo gedit /etc/apache2/conf.d/alias
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
Alias /URL-path /location_of_folder/
<Directory /location_of_folder/>
  Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
  AllowOverride All
  Order allow,deny
  Allow from all
</Directory>
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

How to change the default port number for Apache HTTP Server

e.g. Assumed that new port number is 78
sudo cp /etc/apache2/ports.conf /etc/apache2/ports.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/apache2/ports.conf
  • Zoek deze regel
Listen 80
  • Vervang de volgende regel
Listen 78
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

How to parse RSS into PHP for Apache HTTP Server

e.g. Assumed that RSS is DistroWatch.com - News
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/magpierss-0.71.1.tar.gz
sudo mkdir /var/www/feeds
sudo tar zxvf magpierss-0.71.1.tar.gz -C /var/www/feeds/
sudo mv /var/www/feeds/magpierss-0.71.1/* /var/www/feeds/
sudo rm -fr /var/www/feeds/magpierss-0.71.1/
sudo chown -R www-data:root /var/www/feeds/
sudo gedit /var/www/feeds/index.php
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
 <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
 
 <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" lang="en" xml:lang="en">
 
 <head>
 
 <title>DistroWatch.com - News</title>
 
 <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1"/>
 
 <style type="text/css">
 /*<![CDATA[*/
 /* 
 DEFAULT TAG STYLES
 */
 
 body {
  background: #ffffff;
  margin-left: 20px;
  font-family: bitstream vera sans,sans-serif;
  font-size: 9pt;
 }
 
 h1 {
  font-family: luxi sans,sans-serif;
  font-size: 15pt;
 }
 
 /*]]>*/
 </style>
 
 </head>
  
 <body>
 
 <?php

 require_once 'rss_fetch.inc';
 error_reporting(E_ERROR);
 
 $url = 'http://distrowatch.com/news/dw.xml';
 $rss = fetch_rss($url);
 
 if ($rss) {
 
  echo "<h1>";
  echo "<a href=$url>", $rss->channel[title], "</a><br/>";
  echo "</h1>";
 
  foreach ($rss->items as $item ) {
   $url = $item[link];
   $title = $item[title];
   $description = $item[description];
   echo "<li>";
   echo "<b>Topic:</b> <a href=$url><b><u>$title</u></b></a><br/><br/>";
   echo "$description<br/><br/>";
   echo "</li>";
  }
 
 }
 else {
  echo "<a href=$url>", $url, "</a> - Server Down!<br/>";
 }
 
 ?>
 
 </body>
 
 </html>
 

FTP Server

Hoe installeer ik FTP Server for File Transfer service

sudo apt-get install proftpd

How to configure FTP user to be "jailed" (chrooted) into their home directory

sudo cp /etc/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/proftpd.conf
  • Zoek deze sectie
...
DenyFilter           \*.*/
...
  • Voeg de volgende regel hieronder toe
DefaultRoot           ~

  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to configure FTP Server to allow anonymous FTP user to read only

sudo cp /etc/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/proftpd.conf
  • Voeg de volgende regels toe aan het einde van het bestand
<Anonymous ~ftp>
 User            ftp
 Group            nogroup
 UserAlias          anonymous ftp
 DirFakeUser on ftp
 DirFakeGroup on ftp
 RequireValidShell      off
 MaxClients         10
 DisplayLogin        welcome.msg
 DisplayFirstChdir      .message
 <Directory *>
  <Limit WRITE>
   DenyAll
  </Limit>
 </Directory>
</Anonymous>
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to configure FTP Server to allow anonymous FTP user to read/write

sudo cp /etc/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/proftpd.conf
    • Voeg de volgende regels toe aan het eind van het bestand
<Anonymous ~ftp>
 User            ftp
 Group            nogroup
 UserAlias          anonymous ftp
 DirFakeUser on ftp
 DirFakeGroup on ftp
 RequireValidShell      off
 MaxClients         10
 DisplayLogin        welcome.msg
 DisplayFirstChdir      .message
</Anonymous>
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to map anonymous FTP user to folders outside /home/ftp/

sudo cp /etc/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/proftpd.conf
    • Voeg de volgende regels toe aan het eind van het bestand
<Anonymous /location_of_folder/>
 User            ftp
 Group            nogroup
 UserAlias          anonymous ftp
 DirFakeUser on ftp
 DirFakeGroup on ftp
 RequireValidShell      off
 MaxClients         10
 DisplayLogin        welcome.msg
 DisplayFirstChdir      .message
 <Directory *>
  <Limit WRITE>
   DenyAll
  </Limit>
 </Directory>
</Anonymous>
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to change the default port number for FTP Server

e.g. Assumed that new port number is 77
sudo cp /etc/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/proftpd.conf
  • Zoek deze regel
Port              21
  • Vervang de volgende regel
Port              77
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to ftp into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed FTP Server service
Read #Hoe installeer ik FTP Server for File Transfer service
  • Download FileZilla: Here

Streaming Media Server

Hoe installeer ik GNUMP3d for Streaming Media Server service

e.g. /var/music/ is the directory containing multimedia files
sudo apt-get install gnump3d

How to change the default directory containing multimedia files for GNUMP3d

e.g. Assumed that new directory containing multimedia files is /home/music/
sudo cp /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf
  • Zoek deze regel
root = /var/music
  • Vervang de volgende regel
root = /home/music
  • Zoek deze regel
user = gnump3d
  • Vervang de volgende regel
user = root
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand
sudo /etc/init.d/gnump3d restart

How to change the default port number for GNUMP3d

e.g. Assumed that new port number is 7878
sudo cp /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf
  • Zoek deze regel
port = 8888
  • Vervang de volgende regel
port = 7878
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand
sudo /etc/init.d/gnump3d restart


Image Gallery Server

  • For a comparison between Gallery1 and Gallery2 see here

Gallery1

Hoe installeer ik Gallery1 for Image Gallery Server service
sudo apt-get install gallery (when prompted to restart Apache, choose No or Cancel)
sudo apt-get install imagemagick
sudo apt-get install jhead
sudo apt-get install libjpeg-progs
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
sudo sh /usr/share/gallery/configure.sh
Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 1
Next Step ->
Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 2
General settings Tab ->
Admin password: Specify the password

Locations and URLs Tab ->
Album directory: /var/www/albums/
Temporary directory: /tmp/
Gallery URL: http://localhost/gallery
Albums URL: http://localhost/albums
Next Step -->
Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 3
Next Step -->
Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 4
Save Config ->
How to configure Gallery1 to be accessible via Internet (Hostname or fix IP) or LAN (fix IP)
e.g. Assumed that network and internet connections have been configured properly
Internet (Hostname or fix IP) or LAN (fix IP): http://www.url.com
sudo cp /etc/gallery/config.php /etc/gallery/config.php_backup
sudo gedit /etc/gallery/config.php
  • Zoek deze sectie
...
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "http://localhost/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "http://localhost/albums";
...
  • Vervang de volgende regels
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "http://www.url.com/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "http://www.url.com/albums";
How to configure Gallery1 to be accessible via LAN (dynamic IP)
e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
LAN (dynamic IP): 192.168.0.1
sudo cp /etc/gallery/config.php /etc/gallery/config.php_backup
sudo gedit /etc/gallery/config.php
  • Zoek deze sectie
...
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "http://localhost/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "http://localhost/albums";
...
  • Vervang de volgende regels
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "/albums";
How to backup/restore Gallery1 data
sudo tar zcvf gallery.tgz /var/www/albums/ /etc/gallery/
  • To restore Gallery data
sudo tar zxvf gallery.tgz -C /

Gallerij2

Hoe installeer ik Gallery2
How to configure Gallery2

Troubleshooting

Configuring network interfaces... (taking too long to load)

Synchronizing clock to ntp.ubuntulinux.org... (taking too long to load)

service_name = ntpdate

How to disable system time/date from being reset to UTC (GMT)

sudo cp /etc/default/rcS /etc/default/rcS_backup
sudo gedit /etc/default/rcS
  • Zoek deze regel
...
UTC=yes
...
  • Vervang de volgende regel
UTC=no
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand
  • System -> Administration -> Time and Date
Set the correct time/date
sudo /etc/init.d/hwclock.sh restart

How to configure sound to work properly in GNOME

sudo killall esd
sudo cp /etc/esound/esd.conf /etc/esound/esd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/esound/esd.conf
  • Zoek deze sectie
...
auto_spawn=0
spawn_options=-terminate -nobeeps -as 5
...
  • Vervang de volgende regels
auto_spawn=1
spawn_options=-terminate -nobeeps -as 2 -d default
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand
sudo apt-get install libesd-alsa0
sudo gedit /etc/asound.conf
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
pcm.card0 {
type hw
card 0
}

pcm.!default {
type plug
slave.pcm "dmixer"
}

pcm.dmixer {
type dmix
ipc_key 1025
slave {
pcm "hw:0,0"
period_time 0
period_size 2048
buffer_size 32768
rate 48000
}
bindings {
0 0
1 1
}
}
  • Bewaar het bewerkte bestand
sudo ln -fs /usr/lib/libesd.so.0 /usr/lib/libesd.so.1
System -> Preferences -> Sound
Sound preferences
General Tab -> Sounds for events (Uitvinken)
  • Alle geopende programma's afsluiten en de computer herstarten

How to forcefully empty Trash in GNOME

sudo rm -fr $HOME/.Trash/

Hoe kan ik dubbele menuitems verwijderen in GNOME

rm -f $HOME/.config/menus/applications.menu

How to refresh Places menu in GNOME (if mounts to /media/ in /etc/fstab does not show up)

sudo /etc/init.d/dbus-1 restart

How to consume static (not dhcp) wireless LAN (WLAN) connection (KDE)

  • I assume you have successfully consumed WLAN connection in Windows
  • To enable the network device please follow the following steps
  • Go to K-menu -> System Settings -> Network Settings
  • Enable Administrator mode
  • Select Network Interfaces tab and the wireless interface (usually ath0) to configure
  • Click Configure Interface...
  • Choose Manual or Automatic. Choose Manual
  • Fill the preferred IP address to identify your computer and the netmask. Choose to activate when computer starts
  • Click Advanced Settings to for more properties
  • Select Routes tab and fill the gateway IP address
  • Make sure you choose the correct device in the right dropdown (e.g. ath0)
  • Click apply to commit all changes
  • To choose wireless connection please follow the following steps
  • Go to K-menu -> Internet -> Wireless Assistant
  • Right click on preferred connection ssid
  • Choose and complete fields for Manual connection
  • Click Ok
  • Create connection configuration file /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf (do as super user)
network={
ssid="YOUR_PREFERRED_CONNECTION_SSID"
scan_ssid=1
proto=WPA
key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
psk="STRING_TO_GENERATE_PASSWORD"
#psk=123456789 #you have option to use connection key instead of connection password
}
  • Maak een script door het volgende bestand aan te maken: /etc/init.d/wifi_wpa.sh
#! /bin/sh
# wifi: wpa_supplicant init
echo " * [Wifi]: Enabling WPA supplicant..."
if [ -x /sbin/wpa_supplicant ]; then
/sbin/wpa_supplicant -B -i ath0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf -D madwifi -w
fi
exit 0
  • Maak de bestanden leesbaar en uitvoerbaar
sudo chmod +r /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
sudo chmod +x /etc/init.d/wifi_wpa.sh
  • Automatisch draadloos verbinding maken bij het opstarten van de computer
sudo ln -s /etc/init.d/wifi_wpa.sh /etc/rcS.d/S40netwifiwpa
  • Alle geopende programma's afsluiten en de computer herstarten

Ubuntu Upgraden

Hoe te upgraden van Dapper Drake naar Edgy Eft (experimenteel)

  • coming soon...

Verwijderde Items

  • Topics that have been removed from this guide can be found here
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