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Ubuntu 9.04 (Jaunty Jackalope)

請大家一起完成這個教學手冊。 想要編輯本頁請先 註冊並登入

簡介

關於 Jaunty

  • Ubuntu 9.04 於2009年四月23日發行
  • It is code named Jaunty Jackalope and is the successor to Intrepid Ibex (8.10) (Intrepid+1).
  • Jaunty Jackalope 不是一個LTS (Long Term Support) 發行版. 安全更新將只支援到2010年10月

Contents


如何知道您正使用的Ubuntu版本

打開終端機(terminal)並輸入:

lsb_release -a

如何知道您使用的是哪種核心(kernel)

uname -r

新版的 Ubuntu

  • Ubuntu has a six month release cycle, with releases in April and October.
  • Karmic Koala (9.10), scheduled for release in October 2009. This will not be an LTS version.
  • (10.04 LTS), scheduled for release in April 2010, will be the next LTS (Long-term support) version.

舊版的 Ubuntu

一般注意事項

  • Ubuntuguide 是非官方且與任何商業行為無關
  • Ubuntu 允許使用者用選單導向圖形介面 (GUI)或文字模式為基礎文字命令模式 (CLI)來完成工作. 在 Ubuntu, 文字命令視窗稱做終端機(Terminal), 可以在 應用程式 -> 附屬應用程式 -> 終端機 這裡啟動.
Text inside the grey dotted box like this should be put into the command-line Terminal.
  • 很多作業系統的修改只能在有管理員權限下才能進行. 'sudo' 等於使用者暫時擁有管理員權限(像是在安裝程式或改變系統設定時). 例如:
sudo bash
  • 'gksudo' should be used instead of 'sudo' when opening a Graphical Application through the "Run Command" dialog box. Example:
gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • "man" 這個指令可以用來找命令的說明文件。舉例來說 "man sudo" 將顯示說明文件中"sudo"這個命令的頁面:
man sudo
  • 使用 "apt-get" 和 "aptitude" 是一個快速安裝程式/套件的方法,您也可以使用圖形介面的套件管理Synaptic Package Manager, 來安裝程式/套件. 大部分的程式/套件都可以和使用 apt-get install 或透過套件管理來安裝

在此引導手冊中當您看到

sudo apt-get install 套件

您可以在套件管理中搜尋套件並用他安裝.

  • "應用程式" 指的是左下角(或左上角)的按鈕, 如同Microsoft Windows的開始按鈕.
  • 如果您用的是64位元版,請把任何"i386"字樣換成"amd64"

安裝 Ubuntu

硬體需求

Ubuntu Jaunty Jackalope 可以在最少 384 Mb 的RAM上順暢的執行. (安裝程式需要最少of 256 Mb RAM,文字安裝程式可以只用192 Mb RAM.) Netbooks 可以執行 Ubuntu Jaunty Jackalope.

安裝需要 3-4 Gb 的硬碟空間,建議 8 - 10 Gb 讓運作更順暢.

如果您有一台舊電腦記憶體低於此需求, 可以考慮 Xubuntu (如果介於256 Mb 和 512 Mb RAM) 或 PuppyLinuxDSL (如果低於 256 Mb RAM).

  • Issues: There are problems with integrated Intel graphics cards in the new Linux kernel supplied with Jaunty. Please research this issue (if you are affected) prior to installing Jaunty, since they are not trivial to fix. If you have an Intel graphics card, consider Hardy, Intrepid, or Karmic.

全新安裝

下載最新的 ISO 映像檔 Ubuntu 9.04. 請見 this guide 將 ISO 映像檔燒錄成 CD.

使用此 CD 安裝.

Windows 和 Ubuntu 雙重開機

Rarely, a user may experience problems dual-booting Ubuntu and Windows. In general, a Windows OS should be installed first, because its bootloader is very particular. A Windows installation usually occupies the entire hard drive, so the partition needs to be shrunk, creating free space for the Ubuntu partition. (You should clean up unnecessary files and defragment the drive before resizing.) The Windows partition can be resized from within Windows Vista using the shrink/resize option in the Administrative Tools --> Disk Management tool. If using Windows XP (or other Windows OS), use GParted partition manager to shrink the Windows partition and thereby leave free space on the hard drive for the Ubuntu partition.

After shrinking the Windows partition, you should reboot once into Windows prior to installing Ubuntu. This allows the Windows system to automatically rescan the newly-resized partition (using chkdsk) and write changes to its own bootup files. (If you forget to do this, you may later have to repair the Windows partition bootup files manually using the Windows Recovery Console.)

If done this way, there is no problem installing Ubuntu as the second operating system and it is done automatically from the Ubuntu LiveCD. Allow the Ubuntu LiveCD to install to "largest available free space."

A Windows partition should be at least 20 Gb (recommended 30 Gb), and a Ubuntu partition at least 10 Gb (recommended 20 Gb). Obviously, if you have plenty of disk space, make the partition for whichever will be your favoured operating system larger. For a perspective on other partitioning schemes, see this Psychocats Guide to Partitioning or this Ubuntu intro to alternative partitioning.

Alternatives include:

  • Wubi (Windows-based Ubuntu Installer), an officially supported dual-boot installer that allows Ubuntu to be run mounted in a virtual-disk within the Windows environment (which can cause a slight degradation in performance). Because the installation requires an intact functioning Windows system, it is recommended to install Ubuntu in this manner for short-term evaluation purposes only. A permanent Ubuntu installation should be installed in its own partition, with its own filesystem, and should not rely on Windows.
  • EasyBCD, a free Windows-based program that allows you to dual-boot Windows Vista and Ubuntu (as well as other operating systems) by configuring the Vista bootloader.

同一台電腦安裝多個 OS

如果您要同一台電腦安裝多於兩個作業系統,請見 這裡.

使用開機管理員更改 Grub 設定

Grub is the bootup utility that controls which OS to load by default and other bootup settings. You can change Grub settings from the Startup Manager:

System -> Administration -> Startup Manager

If Startup Manager is not installed, install it:

sudo apt-get install startupmanager
Note: You can also edit the Grub settings manually from the command-line interface.

Mac OS X 和 Ubuntu 雙重開機

Mac OS X has a similar structure to Linux (it is BSD Unix based). Dual-booting Mac OS X and Ubuntu detailed instructions can be found here.

在安裝Ubuntu後安裝Mac OS X (Installing Mac OS X after Ubuntu)
  • If you decide to dual boot with OS X, choose ext2 as your partition type during the Ubuntu installation. (For this the Super Grub Disk CD is a useful utility. You can download the Super Grub .iso image file at forjamari.linex.org and burn the image to a CD-ROM.)
  • Once you have installed Ubuntu, edit the Grub start-up list:
sudo nano /boot/grub/menu.lst
and add the following lines:
title Mac OS X
root (hd0,0)
makeactive
chainloader +1

Reboot your Mac and go to the terminal in Max OS X (if you have any issues booting, boot from your Mac OS X DVD). Press F8 and enter -s. Enter:

fdisk -e /dev/rdisk0
flag 2 <--note that flag 2 is my Mac partition number two
quit
y
reboot
  • If are still unsure whether it is working correctly, use the Super Grub Disk CD and make grub active.
在安裝Mac OS X後安裝 Ubuntu(Installing Ubuntu after Mac OS X)
  • If you get an error message during boot such as HFS+error in the bootloader, you can also use the Super Grub Disk for recovering Linux GRUB and the Windows MBR (Master Boot Record).
  • Once you have installed Ubuntu, edit the Grub start-up list:
sudo nano /boot/grub/menu.lst
and add the following lines:
title Mac OS X
root (hd0,0)
makeactive
chainloader +1
If you have issues with Mac OSX or Windows in GRUB, try changing the Mac OS X Grub entry
change root (hd0,0) to root (hd0,1)

This means you will boot into partition number 1. You can try any partition number until you get it right.

升級 Intrepid 到 Jaunty

If you are using an older version of Ubuntu, you may wish to upgrade to Jaunty. A new installation is recommended to prevent software bloat.

  • It is possible to do a distribution upgrade using Synaptic by clicking on the "Full Upgrade option."
  • Alternatively, use the update-manager (all editions):
sudo apt-get install update-manager
sudo update-manager -d
  • You can also use:
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

Screenshots of the upgrade process are available at UbuntuGeek upgrade guide.

  • Issues: 1) There are problems with integrated Intel graphics cards in the new Linux kernel supplied with Jaunty. Please research this issue (if you are affected) prior to upgrading to Jaunty, since they are not trivial to fix. 2) The sound system has changed somewhat between Intrepid and Jaunty. Sound works better with a fresh install of Jaunty than after an upgrade from Intrepid. If you have sound problems after an upgrade, consider a fresh install.

在全新安裝後重新安裝應用程式

If you upgrade your Ubuntu system with a fresh install, it is possible to mark the packages and services installed on your old system (prior to the upgrade) and save the settings ("markings") into a file. Then install the new version of Ubuntu and allow the system to reinstall packages and services using the settings saved in the "markings" file. For instructions, see this Ubuntu forum thread. In brief:

  • On the old system: Synaptic Package Manager -> File -> Save Markings
  • Save the markings file to an external medium, such as USB drive.
  • Complete the backup of your system's other important files (e.g. the /home directory) before the fresh install of the new system.
  • In the freshly installed new system, again open Synaptic Package Manager -> File -> Read markings and load the file on your USB drive (or other external storage) previously saved.

Note: Many packages, dependencies, and compatibilities change between version of Ubuntu, so this method does not always work. Automated updates remains the recommended method.

Ubuntu 軟體來源

Gnome 專案(Project)

  • Gnome is the default desktop in Ubuntu.

Ubuntu Screenshots and Screencasts

There are old screenshots available at:

新的應用程式來源

其他 *buntu 教學和支援手冊

  • Kubuntuguide
  • Xubuntu -- Xubuntu can run with as little as 256 Mb RAM. It is better for older machines with limited resources.

新增額外的Ubuntu套件庫

Software packages and programs are freely available for download at multiple online sites with standardized structures, called repositories. There are repositories officially sanctioned and monitored by the Kubuntu/Ubuntu developer community, while other repositories are independently provided, without official sanction or supervision (and should be used with caution). Additional information is available from the Ubuntu Repository Guide.

套件庫種類

  • There are four major package repository types in Ubuntu:
  • main - Supported by Canonical. This is the major part of the distribution.
  • restricted - Software not licensed under the GPL (or similar software license), but supported by Canonical.
  • universe - Software licensed under the GPL (or similar license) and supported by users.
  • multiverse - Software not licensed under the GPL (or similar license), but supported by users.
  • There are also these additional types of repositories:
  • jaunty-updates - Updates to official packages.
  • jaunty-backports - Current version software from Jaunty+1 (Karmic) that have been backported to Jaunty Jackalope.
  • jaunty-proposed - Proposed updates & changes (bleeding edge stuff).

第三方套件庫

Software developers often maintain their own repositories, from which software packages can be downloaded and installed directly to your computer (if you add the repository to your list). Many of these third party repositories and software packages have never been reviewed by the (K)Ubuntu/Debian community and can present a security risk to your computer. Trojans, backdoors, and other malicious software can be present at any unregulated repository. When using repositories not endorsed by the (K)ubuntu/Debian community, make sure you have utter confidence in that site before enabling the repository and installing a software package from it.

使用套件管理加入套件庫

This is the preferred method.

  • System -> Administration -> Synaptic Manager -> Settings -> Repositories.
  • Here you can enable the repositories for Ubuntu Software and Third Party Software.
  • For Third Party Software select Add -> enter the repository's address. It will have a format similar to:
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty main restricted
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty main restricted
  • Example: To add the Medibuntu repository, Add:
deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ jaunty free non-free
  • Download the repository key to a folder.
  • Example: The Medibuntu key can be downloaded from
http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg
  • Then add the key from:
系統 -> 管理 -> 套件管理 -> 設定 -> Repositories -> Authentication -> Import Key File...
  • (Alternatively, you can manually add the key from the command line Terminal. See Add Repository keys.)
  • Refresh the package list from the new repository:
Synaptic -> 重新載入

手動加入套件庫

  • Do this at your own risk. Modify the default Ubuntu sources.list only if you understand what you're doing. Mixing repositories can break your system. For more information see the Ubuntu Command-line Repository guide.
  • Create a backup of your current list of sources.
sudo cp -p /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list_backup

Note: sudo - runs the command with root privileges. cp = copy. -p = prompt to overwrite if a file already exists.

  • 編輯軟體來源清單:
sudo nano /etc/apt/sources.list
或使用圖形編輯器:
gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • 注意: To use your local mirror you can add "xx." before archive.ubuntu.com, where xx = your country code.
Example: deb http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu jaunty main restricted universe multiverse indicates a repository for Great Britain (gb).
  • 以下是一個簡單的sources.list範本. 已經在最後加入Medibuntu和Google套件庫:
#deb cdrom:[Ubuntu 8.10 _Jaunty Jackalope_ - Release i386 (20081029.1)]/ jaunty main restricted
# See http://help.ubuntu.com/community/UpgradeNotes for how to upgrade to
# newer versions of the distribution.

deb http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty main restricted
deb-src http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty main restricted

## Major bug fix updates produced after the final release of the
## distribution.
deb http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty-updates main restricted
deb-src http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty-updates main restricted

## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu
## team. Also, please note that software in universe WILL NOT receive any
## review or updates from the Ubuntu security team.
deb http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty universe
deb-src http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty universe
deb http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty-updates universe
deb-src http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty-updates universe

## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu 
## team, and may not be under a free licence. Please satisfy yourself as to 
## your rights to use the software. Also, please note that software in 
## multiverse WILL NOT receive any review or updates from the Ubuntu
## security team.
deb http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty multiverse
deb-src http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty multiverse
deb http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty-updates multiverse
deb-src http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty-updates multiverse

## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from the 'backports'
## repository.
## N.B. software from this repository may not have been tested as
## extensively as that contained in the main release, although it includes
## newer versions of some applications which may provide useful features.
## Also, please note that software in backports WILL NOT receive any review
## or updates from the Ubuntu security team.
deb http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty-backports main restricted universe multiverse

## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from Canonical's
## 'partner' repository. This software is not part of Ubuntu, but is
## offered by Canonical and the respective vendors as a service to Ubuntu
## users.
deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu jaunty partner
deb-src http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu jaunty partner

deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu jaunty-security main restricted
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu jaunty-security main restricted
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu jaunty-security universe
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu jaunty-security universe
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu jaunty-security multiverse
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu jaunty-security multiverse

## Medibuntu - Ubuntu 8.10 "jaunty jackalope"
## Please report any bug on https://bugs.launchpad.net/medibuntu/
deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ jaunty free non-free
deb-src http://packages.medibuntu.org/ jaunty free non-free

# Google software repository
deb http://dl.google.com/linux/deb/ stable non-free

  • Refresh the packages list from the new repositories:
sudo apt-get update

Add repository keys

  • Download the gpg keys for the repositories and automatically add them to your repository keyring:
  • Example: To obtain and add the Medibuntu repository key:
wget --quiet http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O - | sudo apt-key add -
  • Example: To obtain and add the Google repository key:
wget --quiet http://dl.google.com/linux/linux_signing_key.pub -O - | sudo apt-key add -

Note: wget - retrieves a file from a network location. --quiet = no output. -O = Output downloaded item to terminal. The | (pipe symbol) is used to capture the output from the previous command (in our case the screen) and use it as an input for the piped command (i.e. apt-key, which adds it to the keyring).

  • Alternatively (and perhaps more easily), you can use apt-key directly:
sudo apt-key adv --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv-keys KEY
where KEY is the missing key code printed in apt-get output, e.g. EF4186FE247510BE.
Note: Key servers often use port 11371. Make sure your firewall allows port 11371 to be open.
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