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উবুন্টু ৮.১০ (ইন্ট্রিপিড আইবেক্স)

এই টিউটোরিয়ালটি শুরু করেছেন Chua Wen Kiat (কোয়ালালাম পুর, মালেশিয়া) এবং বর্তমানে এটি দেখাশোনা করছেন লিনাক্স সেন্টার of the University of Latvia.

দয়া করে সহায়িকাটি পরীক্ষা করুন এবং নির্ভুল করতে সাহায্য করুন । আপনি পাতাটি সম্পাদনা করতে করতে নিবন্ধন করুন .

ইন্ট্রিপিড সম্বন্ধে

  • ৩০শে অক্টোবর ২০০৮ উবুন্টু ৮.১০ মুক্তি দেওয়া হয়েছে।
  • এইটির কোড নাম দেয়া হয় ইন্ট্রিপিড আইবেক্স তবে এটির উত্তরসূরী হার্ডি হেরন উবুন্টু ৮.০৪ LTS হার্ডি হেরন (Hardy+1).
  • Intrepid Ibex is NOT an LTS (Long Term Support) release. It will be supported with security updates until April 2010.


Contents


ভূমিকা

কিভাবে আপনি খুঁজে বের করবেন আপনি উবুন্টু কোন সংস্করণ ব্যবহার করছেন।

নিচের কমান্ড লাইনটি টার্মিলে লিখুন:

lsb_release -a

কিভাবে আপনি খুঁজে বের করবেন আপনি কর্নেল কোন সংস্করণ ব্যবহার করছেন।

uname -r

উবুন্টুর অপেক্ষাকৃত নতুন সংস্করণ

  • উবুন্টুর মুক্তি দেওয়া হয় ছয় মাস অন্তর, এপ্রিল এবং অক্টোবরে।
  • The successor to Ubuntu 8.10 Intrepid Ibex will be Ubuntu 9.04 Jaunty Jackalope, scheduled for release in April 2009. This will not be an LTS version.
  • The next LTS (Long-term support) version will be Ubuntu 9.10, scheduled for release in October 2009.

উবুন্টুর পুরাতন সংস্করণ

সাধারণ নোট

  • Ubuntuguide is unofficial and is not associated with Canonical Ltd.
Text inside the grey dotted box like this should be put into a Terminal (Applications -> Accessories -> Terminal).
  • 'sudo' elevates Administrator level rights (i.e. when installing programs or making changes to the system). Example
sudo bash
  • 'gksudo' should be used instead of 'sudo' when opening a Graphical Application through the "Run Command" dialog box. Example:
gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • "man" command can be used to find help manual for a command. E.g. "man sudo" will display the manual page for the "sudo" command. Example:
man sudo
  • While "apt-get" and "aptitude" are fast ways of installing programs/packages, you can also use the Synaptic Package Manager, a GUI method for installing programs/packages. Most (but not all) programs/packages available with apt-get install will also be available from the Synaptic Package Manager. In this guide, when you see
sudo apt-get install package

you can search for package in Synaptic and install it that way.

  • "Applications" means the bottom-left button, akin to the Start button in Microsoft Windows®.
  • If you are using the 64-bit version, replace any "i386" with "amd64"

ইনস্টল করুন উবুন্টু

ফ্রেশ ইনস্টলেশন

এখান থেকে সাম্প্রতিক আই-এস-ও ফাইলটি ডাউনলোড করুন উবুন্টু ৮.১০. দেখুন এই সহায়িকাটি কিভাবে আই-এস-ও ফাইলটি সিডিতে কপি করতে হয়।

ইনস্টলেশনের জন্য এই সিডি ব্যবহার করুন।

ডুয়েল বুটিং উইন্ডোজ এবং উবুন্টু

Rarely, a user may experience problems dual-booting Ubuntu and Windows. In general, a Windows OS should be installed first, because its bootloader is very particular. A Windows installation usually occupies the entire hard drive, so the partition needs to be shrunk, creating free space for the Ubuntu partition. (You should clean up unnecessary files and defragment the drive before resizing.) The Windows partition can be resized from within Windows Vista using the shrink/resize option in the Administrative Tools --> Disk Management tool. If using Windows XP (or other Windows OS), use GParted partition manager to shrink the Windows partition and thereby leave free space on the hard drive for the Ubuntu partition. If done this way, there is no problem installing Ubuntu as the second operating system and it is done automatically from the Ubuntu LiveCD. Allow the Ubuntu LiveCD to install to "largest available free space."

A Windows partition should be at least 20 Gb (recommended 30 Gb), and a Ubuntu partition at least 10 Gb (recommended 20 Gb). Obviously, if you have plenty of disk space, make the partition for whichever will be your favoured operating system larger. For a perspective on other partitioning schemes, see this Psychocats Guide to Partitioning.

Alternatives include:

ডুয়েল বুটিং ম্যাক অপারেটিং সিস্টেম এক্স এবং উবুন্টু

Mac OS X has a similar structure to Linux (it is BSD Unix based)

উবুন্টু ইনস্টলের পর ম্যাক ওএস এক্স ইনস্টল করা

  • উবুন্টুর পাশাপাশি ম্যাক ওএস এক্স রাখতে চাইলে উবুন্টু ইনস্টলের সময় পার্টিশন টাইপ ext2 রাখুন। (এজন্য সুপার গ্রাব ডিস্ক একটি সহজ ইউটিলিটি। এর .iso ইমেজ ফাইলটি forjamari.linex.org থেকে ডাউনলোড করুন এবং সিডি রমে বার্ন করে নিন।)
  • উবুন্টু ইনস্টলের পর Grub start-up লিস্ট আপডেট করে নিন:
sudo nano /boot/grub/menu.lst
নিচের লাইনগুলো যোগ করুন:
title Mac OS X
root (hd0,0)
makeactive
chainloader +1

ম্যাক রিস্টার্ট দিন এবং ম্যাক ওএস এক্স-এর টার্মিনাল চালু করুন (চালু করতে সমস্যা হলে ম্যাক ওএস এক্সের ডিভিডি থেকে বুট করুন). F8 চাপুন এবং enter -s. চাপুন:

fdisk -e /dev/rdisk0
flag 2 <--note that flag 2 is my Mac partition number two
quit
y
reboot
  • ঠিকঠাকমতো কাজ করছে কিনা এ ব্যাপারে নিশ্চিত না হলে সিডি থেকে Super Grub চালু করুন।

Installing Ubuntu after Mac OS X

  • If you get an error message during boot such as HFS+error in the bootloader, you can also use the Super Grub Disk for recovering Linux GRUB and the Windows MBR (Master Boot Record).
  • Once you have installed Ubuntu, edit the Grub start-up list:
sudo nano /boot/grub/menu.lst
and add the following lines:
title Mac OS X
root (hd0,0)
makeactive
chainloader +1
If you have issues with Mac OSX or Windows in GRUB, try changing the Mac OS X Grub entry
change root (hd0,0) to root (hd0,1)

This means you will boot into partition number 1. You can try any partition number until you get it right.

For more info, see this Mac OS X and Linux guide.

আপডেট করুন হার্ডি থেকে ইন্ট্রিপিড

If you are using an older version of Ubuntu, you may wish to upgrade to Intrepid. A new installation is recommended to prevent software bloat.

However, it is possible to do a distribution upgrade using Synaptic by clicking on the "Full Upgrade option."

Alternatively, use this command:

sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

For other info, see this Ubuntugeek upgrade guide.

Ubuntu Resources

UbuntuGeek's Tutorials, Howto's and Tips

Gnome Project

Ubuntu Screenshots and Screencasts

New Applications Resources

  • GetDeb - Features the latest versions of software available from the official repositories as well as software not available in the official repositories. Available in easy-to-install .deb files (see Apt and Package Basics).

Other *buntu guides

Add Extra Ubuntu Repositories

Additional information is available from the Ubuntu Repository Guide.

Types of Repositories

  • There are four major package repository types in Ubuntu:
  • main - Supported by Canonical. This is the major part of the distribution.
  • restricted - Software not licensed under the GPL (or similar license), but supported by Canonical.
  • universe - Software licensed under the GPL (or similar license) and supported by users.
  • multiverse - Software not licensed under the GPL (or similar license), but supported by users.
  • There are also these additional types of repositories:
  • intrepid-updates - Updates to official packages.
  • intrepid-backports - Current version software from Intrepid+1 (Jaunty) that have been backported to Intrepid Ibex.
  • intrepid-proposed - Proposed updates & changes (bleeding edge stuff).

Add Repositories using Synaptic Package Manager

This is the preferred method.

  • System -> Administration -> Synaptic Manager -> Settings -> Repositories.
  • Here you can enable the repositories for Ubuntu Software and Third Party Software.
  • For Third Party Software select Add -> enter the repository's address. It will have a format similar to:
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ intrepid main restricted
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ intrepid main restricted
  • Example: To add the Medibuntu repository, Add:
deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ intrepid free non-free
  • Download the repository key to a folder.
  • Example: The Medibuntu key can be downloaded from
http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg
  • Then add the key from:
System -> Administration -> Synaptic Manager -> Settings -> Repositories -> Authentication -> Import Key File...
  • (Alternatively, you can manually add the key from the command line Terminal. See Add Repository keys.)
  • Refresh the package list from the new repository:
Synaptic -> Reload

Manually add repositories

  • Do this at your own risk. Modify the default Ubuntu sources.list only if you understand what you're doing. Mixing repositories can break your system. For more information see the Ubuntu Command-line Repository guide.
  • Create a backup of your current list of sources.
sudo cp -p /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list_backup

Note: sudo - runs the command with root privileges. cp = copy. -p = prompt to overwrite if a file already exists.

  • Edit the list of sources:
sudo nano /etc/apt/sources.list
or using a graphical editor:
gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Note: To use your local mirror you can add "xx." before archive.ubuntu.com, where xx = your country code.
Example: deb http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu intrepid main restricted universe multiverse indicates a repository for Great Britain (gb).
  • Here is a sample sources.list. At the end have been added repositories for Medibuntu and Google:
#deb cdrom:[Ubuntu 8.10 _Intrepid Ibex_ - Release i386 (20081029.1)]/ intrepid main restricted
# See http://help.ubuntu.com/community/UpgradeNotes for how to upgrade to
# newer versions of the distribution.

deb http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ intrepid main restricted
deb-src http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ intrepid main restricted

## Major bug fix updates produced after the final release of the
## distribution.
deb http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ intrepid-updates main restricted
deb-src http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ intrepid-updates main restricted

## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu
## team. Also, please note that software in universe WILL NOT receive any
## review or updates from the Ubuntu security team.
deb http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ intrepid universe
deb-src http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ intrepid universe
deb http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ intrepid-updates universe
deb-src http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ intrepid-updates universe

## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu 
## team, and may not be under a free licence. Please satisfy yourself as to 
## your rights to use the software. Also, please note that software in 
## multiverse WILL NOT receive any review or updates from the Ubuntu
## security team.
deb http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ intrepid multiverse
deb-src http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ intrepid multiverse
deb http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ intrepid-updates multiverse
deb-src http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ intrepid-updates multiverse

## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from the 'backports'
## repository.
## N.B. software from this repository may not have been tested as
## extensively as that contained in the main release, although it includes
## newer versions of some applications which may provide useful features.
## Also, please note that software in backports WILL NOT receive any review
## or updates from the Ubuntu security team.
deb http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ intrepid-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ intrepid-backports main restricted universe multiverse

## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from Canonical's
## 'partner' repository. This software is not part of Ubuntu, but is
## offered by Canonical and the respective vendors as a service to Ubuntu
## users.
deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu intrepid partner
deb-src http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu intrepid partner

deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu intrepid-security main restricted
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu intrepid-security main restricted
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu intrepid-security universe
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu intrepid-security universe
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu intrepid-security multiverse
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu intrepid-security multiverse

## Medibuntu - Ubuntu 8.10 "intrepid ibex"
## Please report any bug on https://bugs.launchpad.net/medibuntu/
deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ intrepid free non-free
deb-src http://packages.medibuntu.org/ intrepid free non-free

# Google software repository
deb http://dl.google.com/linux/deb/ stable non-free

  • Refresh the packages list from the new repositories:
sudo apt-get update

Add repository keys

  • Download the gpg keys for the repositories and automatically add them to your repository keyring:
  • Example: To obtain and add the Medibuntu repository key:
wget --quiet http://packages.medibuntu.org/medibuntu-key.gpg -O - | sudo apt-key add -
  • Example: To obtain and add the Google repository key:
wget --quiet https://dl-ssl.google.com/linux/linux_signing_key.pub -O - | sudo apt-key add -

Note: wget - retrieves a file from a network location. --quiet = no output. -O = Output downloaded item to the screen (-). The | (pipe symbol) is used to capture the output from the previous command (in our case the screen) and use it as an input for the piped command (i.e. apt-key, which adds it to the keyring).

Ubuntu Package Installation and Updates

Apt and Package Basics

Most new users will use the Synaptic Package Manager to install packages. These instructions are for installing packages from the command-line Terminal. Terminal can be started:

Applications -> Accessories -> Terminal
  • Install packages:
sudo apt-get install packagename
  • Example:
sudo apt-get install mpd sbackup
  • Remove packages:
sudo apt-get remove packagename
  • To remove all dependencies:
sudo apt-get autoremove
  • Example:
sudo apt-get remove mpd sbackup
  • Search for packages:
apt-cache search <keywords>
  • Examples:
apt-cache search Music MP3
apt-cache search "Text Editor"
sudo apt-get update
  • Upgrade packages:
sudo apt-get upgrade
  • Upgrade the entire distribution (e.g. from Gutsy to Hardy):
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

Installing .deb packages

Debian (.deb) packages are the packages that are used in Ubuntu. You can install any .deb package in your system. .deb files can generally be installed from your file manager (Nautilus) merely by clicking on them, since file associations with the default installer is already set in Ubuntu. These instructions are for those who wish to install packages from the command-line terminal (Terminal).

  • Install a downloaded Debian (Ubuntu) package (.deb):
sudo dpkg -i packagename.deb
  • Remove a Debian (Ubuntu) package (.deb):
sudo dpkg -r packagename
  • Reconfigure/Repair an installed Debian (Ubuntu) package (.deb):
sudo dpkg-reconfigure packagename
*Example:
sudo dpkg-reconfigure mpd

Handling (Tar/GZip) and (Tar/Bzip2) archives

(Tar/GZip) archives end in ".tar.gz" and (Tar/Bzip2) archives end in ".tar.bz2". Bzip2 is the newer, more efficient compression method. These files can generally be automatically extracted by merely clicking on them from your file manager (Nautilus), since file associations with the appropriate archival utilities are set by default in Ubuntu. These instructions are for those who wish to use the command line Terminal.

  • To extract:
tar xvf packagename.tar.gz

Note: tar is an application which can extract files from an archive, decompressing if necessary.

-x means extract.
-v means verbose (list what it is extracting).
-f specifies the file to use.
  • Decompressing ".gz" files
gunzip file.gz
  • Decompressing ".bz2" files
bunzip2 file.bz2
Note: You can also decompress a package first by using the command gunzip (for .gz) or bunzip2 (for .bz2), leaving the .tar file. You would then use tar to extract it.
  • To create a .gz archive:
tar cvfz packagename.tar.gz folder
  • To create a .bz2 archive:
tar cvfj packagename.tar.bz2 folder

Installing a package from source

  • Make sure you have all the necessary development tools (i.e. libraries, compilers, headers):
sudo apt-get install build-essential
sudo apt-get install linux-headers-`uname -r`
Note: "uname -r" lists the current kernel you are using
  • Extract the archive that contains the source files:
tar xvf sourcefilesarchive.tar.gz
  • Build the package using the package's script (in this case the configure script), compile the package (make), and install the compiled package into your system (make install):
cd /path/to/extracted/sourcefiles
./configure
sudo make
sudo make install
Note: typing ./ before a filename in the current folder allows the Linux shell to try and execute the file as an application even if it is not in the path (the set of folders which it searches when you type a command name). If you get a "permission denied" error, the file is not marked as being executable. To fix this:
sudo chmod +x filename
Example: In the above instructions, configure is the shell script to build the package from source. To be sure the configure script is executable:
sudo chmod +x configure
Create a .deb package from source files

If your build from source is successful, you can make a Debian (Ubuntu) package (.deb) for future use:

  • Install package tools:
sudo apt-get install checkinstall
  • Rebuild package using "checkinstall":
cd /path/to/extracted/package
./configure
sudo make
sudo checkinstall
  • Keep the resulting ".deb" file for future use. It can later be installed using:
sudo dpkg -i packagename.deb

Note: These are basic instructions that may not always work. Some packages require additional dependencies and optional parameters to be specified in order to build them successfully.

Aptitude

Aptitude is a terminal-based package manager that can be used instead of apt-get. Aptitude marks packages that are automatically installed and removes them when no packages depend on them. This makes it easy to remove applications completely. To use Aptitude, replace apt-get with aptitude in the command line. Example:

sudo aptitude install packagename
sudo aptitude remove packagename
sudo aptitude update
sudo aptitude upgrade

For an ncurses-based graphical user interface, type

sudo aptitude

For more information, see the aptitude documentation.

Synaptic Package Manager

While "apt-get" and "aptitude" are fast ways of installing programs/packages, you can also use the Synaptic Package Manager (System -> Administration -> Synaptic Manager), a GUI method for installing programs/packages. Most (but not all) programs/packages available with apt-get install will also be available from the Synaptic Package Manager. This is the preferred method for most desktop users. In this guide, when you see

sudo apt-get install package

you can simply search for package in Synaptic and install it that way.

  • System -> Administration -> Synaptic Package Manager
  • Search for the name of the program/package. You can also search for a word in its description.
  • Check the box "Mark for Installation"
  • Click the "Apply" button.
  • The selected program(s) will be automatically installed, along with its dependencies.

প্রোগ্রাম ইনস্টল করা/বাদ দেওয়া

Add/Remove Programs-এ apt-get, aptitude, এবং Synaptic Package Manager-এর সব প্যাকেজ থাকে না। কিন্তু নতুন উবুন্টু ব্যবহারকারীদের জন্য সহজে প্যাকেজ ইনস্টল করা বা বাদ দেওয়ার জন্য Add/Remove Programs অনেক সহজ উপায়। Add/Remove Programs থেকে প্যাকেজ ইনস্টল করতে নিচের ধাপগুলো অনুসরণ করুন-

  • Applications -> Add/Remove Programs
  • যে প্যাকেজটি ইনস্টল করতে চান সেটি খুঁজে বের করুন। যেমন: mp3 সফটওয়্যারের জন্য MP3 টাইপ করুন।
  • "Mark for Installation" বক্সে ক্লিক করুন।
  • "Apply" বাটনে ক্লিক করুন।
  • প্রোগ্রামটি স্বয়ংক্রিয়ভাবে ইনস্টল হবে।

Manual Updates

  • Manually, from Terminal (command line interface):
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
or
  • Use Synaptic Package Manager:
System -> Administration -> Synaptic Package Manager -> "Reload" then "Mark all upgrades"
If there are packages available for updating, you will be prompted whether to install them.

স্বয়ংক্রিয়ভাবে আপডেট

  • স্বয়ংক্রিয় আপডেটের জন্য সিন্যাপটিক প্যাকেজ ম্যানেজার ব্যবহার করুন:
  • System -> Administration -> Synaptic Manager -> Settings -> Preferences -> General -> Reloading Outdated Package Information -> Automatic
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