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Image:Ubuntuguide_logo.png

Unofficial Ubuntu 6.10 (Edgy Eft) Starter Guide

Ubuntu 6.10 (Edgy Eft) was released on October 26, 2006.

คู่มือนี้กำลังอยู่ระหว่างดำเนินการ คุณสามารถช่วยเราได้ด้วยการทดสอบความสมบูรณ์ของคู่มือที่เราเขียน หรือจะช่วยแปลด้วยก็ได้ โดยจะต้องทำการสมัครเป็นสมาชิกของทาง ubuntuguide เสียก่อน


Ubuntuguide ภาคภาษาไทย ดูแลโดย มะระ หากคุณมีปัญหาในการช่วยแปลคู่มือนี้ หรือปัญหาอื่นๆในการใช้งาน ubuntu คุณสามารถสอบถามได้ที่ http://ubuntuclub.com


ดูหน้าย่อยทั้งหมดได้ที่ Ubuntu:Edgy_th/TOC


Contents


General Notes

  1. นี่คือคู่มือแนะนำสำหรับผู้เริ่มต้นอย่างไม่เป็นทางการของ Ubantu 6.10 (Edgy Eft) ไม่มีความเกี่ยวข้องใดๆกับทาง Ubantu และ Canonical Ltd.
  2. This guide can be discussed at the official UbuntuGuide.org Forum at ubuntuforums.org. Stop by and join the discussion.
  3. ข้อความที่อยู่ในกรอบเส้นประคือคำสั่งที่คุณต้องพิมพ์ลงไปในTerminal mode (Applications -> Accesories -> Terminal) or use the content of that box as mentioned in some other instructions.
  4. เพื่อเป็นการลดความผิดผลาดในการพิมพ์คำสัง สามารถคัดลอกคำสังไปวางใน Terminal mode ได้โดย(คลิกขวาบนคำสั่งนั้นแล้วเลือก -> "Copy" หรือ "Paste" คุณสามารถกด Ctrl+C เพื่อทำการคัดลอกคำสั่ง และกด Shift+Insert เพื่อวางคำสั่ง)
  5. "sudo" หมายถึง superuser do(การกระทำของ superuser) "sudo" จะขึ้นpromptมาสำหรับกรอกพาสเวิร์ด "Password:" แล้วกรอกพาสเวิร์ดของ superuser ลงไป
  6. หากคุณต้องการทราบข้อมูลรายละเอียดเกี่ยวกับคำสั่งใดๆก็ตาม คุณสามารถเข้าไปดูหน้าคู่มือได้โดยพิมพ์คำสั่ง "man" แล้วตามด้วยคำสั่งที่ต้องการ เช่น "man sudo"จะแสดงหน้าคู่มือของคำสั่ง "sudo"
  7. หากคุณไม่ต้องการจะพิมพ์คำสั่ง "apt-get" อยู่เสมอให้อ่านที่หัวข้อ#How to apt-get the easy way (Synaptic)
  8. คำสั่ง "apt-get" และ "wget" ต้องทำการเชื่อมต่อInternetก่อน เพื่อทำการ install/update/download โปรแกรม
  9. การดาวน์โหลดไฟล์สามารถทำได้โดย คลิกขวาที่ลิงค์แล้วเลือก "Save Link As..." -> ตรวจสอบชื่อไฟล์และส่วนต่อท้ายให้ถูกต้อง
  10. หากคุณต้องการแปล Ubuntu ให้เป็นภาษาท้องถิ่นของคุณ หรือว่าให้ความช่วยเหลือด้านอื่นๆแก่ Ubantu กรุณาเข้าไปที่ https://launchpad.net/
  11. ขอให้คำว่า "humanity to others" จงสถิตอยู่กับท่านตลอกกาลเถิด...


ถ้าคุณใช้เวอร์ชัน 64-bit ให้แทนที่คำว่า "i386" ด้วย "amd64"

Getting Started

อะไรคือ Ubuntu

มีอะไรใหม่ใน Ubuntu 6.10 Edgy Eft
หา Ubuntu ได้จากไหน

Note: โครงการ ShipIt จะไม่มีเวอร์ชั่น 6.10 แจก(Announcement), instead you can still obtain Ubuntu 6.06 Dapper Drake LTS CDs via ShipIt. CDs may take four to six weeks to deliver. You are encouraged to copy, modify, and redistribute the discs as much as possible.

คู่มือติดตั้งแบบเดสก์ทอป
แหล่งหารายชื่อของ programs/libraries ทั้งหมดที่มาพร้อมกับ
แหล่งขอความช่วยเหลือในการใช้ Ubuntu

ดูภาพหน้าจอ Ubuntu

ดูภาพหน้าจอ Kubuntu
ดูภาพหน้าจอ Xubuntu
ดูภาพหน้าจอ Edubuntu
ดูภาพหน้าจอ ลินุกซ์อื่นๆ ที่พัฒนาต่อจาก Ubuntu

มองหาโปรแกรมใหม่ได้ที่นี่

ชุดตกแต่งหน้าจอ

ติดตั้งซอฟต์แวร์เพิ่มเติม

การใส่ repositories เพิ่มเติม

sudo cp -p /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list_backup
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • แทนนี่ทุกอย่างลงไปตามบรรทัดข้างล่างนี้
การเพิ่ม reporitory จากเซิร์ฟเวอร์ในประเทศให้ส่ "cc." ก่อนข้อความ archive.ubuntu.com (cc = รหัสประเทศ)
เช่น deb http://th.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy main restricted universe multiverse
## Add comments (##) in front of any line to remove it from being checked.   
## Use the following sources.list at your own risk.  

deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy main restricted universe multiverse

deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-proposed main restricted universe multiverse

## MAJOR BUG FIX UPDATES produced after the final release
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-updates main restricted universe multiverse

## UBUNTU SECURITY UPDATES
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-security main restricted universe multiverse

## BACKPORTS REPOSITORY (Unsupported.  May contain illegal packages.  Use at own risk.)
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-backports main restricted universe multiverse

## PLF REPOSITORY (Unsupported.  May contain illegal packages.  Use at own risk.)
deb http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/ edgy free
deb http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/ edgy non-free
deb-src http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/ edgy free
deb-src http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/ edgy non-free
                                                                                                                                         
## CANONICAL COMMERCIAL REPOSITORY (Hosted on Canonical servers, not Ubuntu
## servers. RealPlayer10, Opera, DesktopSecure and more to come.) 
deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu edgy-commercial main

## Listen
#deb http://theli.free.fr/packages/ edgy listen
  • ทำการเซฟไฟล์ที่ทำการแก้ไข
wget -q http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
sudo apt-get update
  • คุณอาจจะสร้างsources.listที่เป็นของคุณเองได้ และสามารถหา repositories อื่นๆได้ที่: http://www.ubuntulinux.nl/source-o-matic
  • Modify the default Ubuntu sources.list only if you understand what you're doing. Mixing repos can cause breakage.

การเพิ่ม DVD repository

สำหรับผู้ใช้ที่ไม่มีอินเทอร์เน็ตความเร็วสูงเพื่อใช้สำหรับอัพเดทแพคเกจผ่านอินเทอร์เน็ต คุณสามารถดาวน์โหลดแพคเกจในรูปแบบ DVD เพื่อใช้สำหรับติดตั้งแพคเกจที่จะต้องอัพเดทผ่านอินเทอร์เน็ต

  • ดาวน์โหลด DVD
สำหรับ CPU ตระกูล i386
Main Repository
Universe - Multiverse - Restricted DVD1
Universe - Multiverse - Restricted DVD2
Universe - Multiverse - Restricted DVD3
สำหรับ amd64
Main Repository
Universe - Multiverse - Restricted DVD1
Universe - Multiverse - Restricted DVD2
Universe - Multiverse - Restricted DVD3


  • เปิดที่เมนู System -> Administration -> Synaptic Package Manager เพื่อเรียกโปรแกรมจัดการแพคเกจ
  • To add DVDs in Repository lists
    1. Settings -> Repositories -> Third Party
    2. ใส่แผ่น DVD ลงไดรว์แล้วคลิก Add Cdrom
    3. Name the added DVD
    4. repeat for other DVDs also

"Automated" Methods

วิธีติดตั้ง EasyUbuntu
  • อ่าน #General Notes
  • Easy Ubuntu คือโปรแกรมอรรถประโยชน์ตัวเล็กๆ สำหรับติดตั้งเพคเกจบางชนิดเพิ่มเติมให้้โดยอัตโนมัต เช่น media codecs, fonts, Macromedia Flash และ Sun Java เป็นต้น

เปิดเทอร์มินอล จากเมนู Menu -> Accessories -> Terminal และพิมพ์คำสั่งตามนี้

wget http://easyubuntu.freecontrib.org/files/easyubuntu-3.023.tar.gz
tar -zxf easyubuntu-3.023.tar.gz
cd easyubuntu
cp packagelist-dapper.pot packagelist-edgy.pot
cp packagelist-dapper.xml packagelist-edgy.xml
sudo python easyubuntu.in
  • ที่หน้าต่าง Easy Ubuntu window, เลือกที่ตัวเลือกต่างๆเพื่อดาวน์โหลดและติดตั้งแพคเกจตามต้องการ
  • Note: Users of the previous EasyUbuntu 3.0 version may experience issues with installing Flash and Java.
  • ถ้าคุณต้องการให้ทำการอัพเดทอัตโนมัติ ให้ตามวิธีด้านล่างนี้:

พิมพ์คำสั่งในเทอร์มินอลตามนี้:

สำหรับ Ubuntu:

sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list

สำหรับ Kubuntu:

sudo kate /etc/apt/sources.list

สำหรับ Xubuntu:

gksudo mousepad /etc/apt/sources.list

โปรแกรมเท็กซ์เอดิเตอร์จะถูกเรียกขึ้นมา ให้เพิ่มบรรทัดด้านล่างนี้ลงไป

deb http://easyubuntu.cafuego.net main easyubuntu

From now on, EasyUbuntu should be automatically updated.

ถอนโปรแกรม EasyUbuntu
sudo apt-get remove easyubuntu
  • Delete the easyubuntu directory
วิธีติดตั้ง Automatix2 บน Ubuntu, Kubuntu, และ Xubuntu
  • อ่าน #General Notes
  • Automatix2 คือ Automatix ที่เขียนขึ้นมาจาก python โดยมีหน้าที่ใช้งานได้ง่ายและได้ทำการออกแบบมาเป็นอย่างดี โดยโปรแกรมนี้ จะใช้สำหรับติดตั้งโปรแกรมที่ต้องการโดยอัตโนมัติ
  • Note: Before installing, please note that certain codecs it provides may be prohibited in certain countries. You are responsible for ensuring those laws are not broken.
  • Note: ถ้าคุณใช้ xubuntu ให้แก้คำสั่ง "sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list" เป็น "gksudo mousepad /etc/apt/sources.list".
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list 
  • เพิ่มบรรทัดข้างล่างนี้ลงไปที่ท้ายไฟล์
## Automatix repo
deb http://www.getautomatix.com/apt edgy main
  • NOTE: Kubuntu/Xubuntu หากมีเครื่องหมาย # หน้าคำว่า deb ให้เอาเครื่อง # ออก
  • เพื่ม GPG key
wget http://www.getautomatix.com/apt/key.gpg.asc
gpg --import key.gpg.asc
gpg --export --armor 521A9C7C | sudo apt-key add -

  • อัพเดท APT
sudo apt-get update
  • พิมพ์คำสั่งข้างล่างนี้ เพื่อติดตั้ง Automatix2
sudo apt-get install automatix2

  • สามารถเรียกใช้งาน Automatix2 ได้ทางเมนู
Menu -> System -> Automatix
  • หรือจะเรียกใช้ Automatix2 ผ่านเทอร์มินอลก็ได้ โดยสั่ง
automatix2
script อื่นๆในการติดตั้งโปรแกรมเพิ่มเติม

Note: โปรแกรมต่างๆหลายตัวได้รวมอยู่ใน Automatix2 แล้ว

wget http://www.iki.fi/kuparine/comp/ubuntu/install.sh
sh install.sh

สามารถเข้าไปดูข้อมูลอื่นๆเพิ่มเติมเกี่ยวกับวิธีการติดตั้งได้ที่ http://www.iki.fi/kuparine/comp/ubuntu/install.html

Ubuntu Updates

วิธี update Ubuntu ด้วยตัวเอง

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo apt-get dselect-upgrade

หรือ

ใช้โปรแกรม Update Manager: System -> Administration -> Update Manager

Add-On Applications

Java & Non-Media Browser Plug-ins

วิธีติดตั้ง J2SE Runtime Environment (JRE) พร้อมกับ Plug-in สำหรับ Firefox

Note: โปรแกรมรวมอยู่ใน Automatix2 ถ้าคุณได้ติดตั้ง Automatix2 ไว้แล้ว คุณอาจติดตั้ง J2SE ผ่าน Automatix2 ก็ได้

sudo apt-get install sun-java5-jre sun-java5-plugin
  • When asked, agree with DLJ license terms.

วิธีติดตั้ง JRE v5.0 Update 10

Note: Program included in Automatix2. If you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

เลือก "Java Runtime Environment (JRE) 5.0 Update 10" และคลิกที่ "Download"
Accept License Agreement 
ดาวน์โหลด "Linux self-extracting file"
  • ติดตั้งเครื่องมือที่ระบบต้องการ :
sudo apt-get install java-package
  • สร้างแพคเกจ Ubuntu :
fakeroot make-jpkg jre-1_5_0_10-linux-i586.bin
  • ติดตั้งแพคเกจที่ได้ :
sudo dpkg -i sun-j2re1.5_1.5.0+update10_i386.deb


  • รีสตาร์ทโปรแกรม Firefox
  • If you get an error, try changing the 10's in the filenames to the appropriate version number.

วิธีติดตั้ง Java Development Kit (JDK) v5.0

Note: Program included in Automatix2. If you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo apt-get install sun-java5-jdk
  • Accept the licence agreement that appears.
  • Set Sun's JVM as default Java version:
sudo update-java-alternatives -s java-1.5.0-sun
  • Edit /etc/jvm and move /usr/lib/jvm/java-1.5.0-sun to the top of JVMs offered:
gksudo gedit /etc/jvm

วิธีติดตั้ง Flash Player (Macromedia Flash) Plug-in สำหรับ Firefox

Note: โปรแกรมจะติดตั้ง Flash version 7 ถ้าคุณติดตั้งผ่าน repositories (backports) แต่ถ้าทำตามคู่มือนี้ คุณจะได้ Flash เวอร์ชั่น 9

Note: Program included in Automatix2. If you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo apt-get install flashplugin-nonfree
sudo update-flashplugin

Note: if you get an error message that the package is not found, try the Gnash (GNU Flash substitute)

sudo apt-get install libflash-mozplugin
  • รีสตาร์ท Firefox


Note: ถ้าหาก Firefox เกิดแครชขณะเปิดเว็บไซต์ที่มี Flash ให้ทำตามขั้นตอนนี้

sudo gedit /usr/bin/firefoxrc

และเพิ่มบรรทัดนี้ลงในท้ายไฟล์

export XLIB_SKIP_ARGB_VISUALS=1

และถ้าไม่มีปัญหาอะไร Firefox ไม่ควรจะแครชอีกแล้ว (Launchpad bug report: [1])

  • รีสตาร์ท Firefox


Note: ถ้าหากเล่นไฟล์ Flash แล้วไม่มีเสียงให้ทำตามนี้ (ลองเปิดดูบน YouTube):

sudo apt-get install alsa-oss
gksudo gedit /etc/firefox/firefoxrc

เปลี่ยน:

FIREFOX_DSP=""

เป็น:

FIREFOX_DSP="aoss"
  • รีสตาร์ท Firefox แล้วรอฟังเสียงได้เลย

วิธีติดตั้งโปรแกรมอ่านไฟล์ PDF (Adobe Reader) พร้อมทั้ง Plug-in สำหรับ Firefox

sudo apt-get install acroread mozilla-acroread acroread-plugins
  • Applications -> Office -> Adobe Reader
  • รีสตาร์ท Firefox

Note: Adobe Reader 7.0 จะไม่สามารถทำงานได้ ถ้าหาก SCIM กำลังทำงานอยู่ วิธีแก้ไขให้ทำตามนี้

gksudo gedit /usr/bin/acroread

เปลี่ยน:

#!/bin/sh
#

เป็น:

#!/bin/sh
#
GTK_IM_MODULE=xim

บันทึกไฟล์ และ Adobe Reader 7.0 ควรจะใช้งานได้แล้วในตอนนี้

อ่านเพิ่มเติมได้ที่:

วิธีติดตั้ง Google Toolbar for Firefox

เวอร์ชั่นปัจจุบันของ Google Toolbar นั้น ทำงานได้ดีกับ Firefox 1.5.0.7 บน Ubuntu 6.06

ที่ Firefox ให้คลิกที่ลิงก์ด้านล่างนี้

http://www.google.com/tools/firefox/toolbar/

จากนั้นคลิกที่ปุ่ม Download

The official Google version doesn't work with Firefox 2.0 on Ubuntu Edgy for now, but there's a rebuild which works - Google Toolbar Edgy (download this file and open in Firefox 2.0), you can read more information about it on UbuntuForums.org thread Warning! This is unsigned extension, use it at your own risk.

Internet

วิธีติดตั้ง Opera web browser

sudo apt-get install libqt3-mt
wget http://ftp.wayne.edu/opera/linux/910/final/en/i386/shared/opera_9.10-20061214.6-shared-qt_en_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i opera_9.10-20061214.6-shared-qt_en_i386.deb
  • เรียกใช้งานได้ทางเมนู Applications -> Internet -> Opera
  • การเปิดการทำงานของ java ให้ไปที่ Tools->Preferences->Advanced->Content-> Check "Enable Java". Click the "Enable Java..." button enter "/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.5.0-sun/jre/lib/i386" (for sun java) in the new dialog and then click the "Validate Java Path" button.

วิธีติดตั้ง Download Manager (Downloader for X)

sudo apt-get install d4x
  • เรียกใช้งานได้ทงเมนู Applications -> Internet -> Downloader for X
วิธีถอนโปรแกรม Download Manager (Downloader for X)
sudo apt-get remove d4x

วิธีติดตั้ง FTP Client (gFTP)

sudo apt-get install gftp
  • เรียกใช้งานได้ผ่านเมนู Applications -> Internet -> gFTP
วิธีถอนโปรแกรม gFTP
sudo apt-get remove gftp

วิธีติดตั้ง IRC Client (XChat)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo apt-get install xchat xchat-systray 
  • เรียกใช้งานได้ผ่านทางเมนู Applications -> Internet -> XChat IRC
วิธีถอนโปรแกรม XChat
sudo apt-get remove xchat xchat-systray

วิธีติดตั้ง Email Client (Thunderbird)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo apt-get install mozilla-thunderbird
  • เรียกใช้งานได้ผ่านเมนู Applications -> Internet -> Thunderbird Mail Client

วิธีติดตั้ง Newsreader (Pan)

sudo apt-get install pan
  • เรียกใช้งานได้ผ่านทางเมนู Applications -> Internet -> Pan Newsreader

วิธีติดตั้ง RSS/RDF/Atom Newsreader (RSSOwl)

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin.tar.gz -C /opt/
sudo chown -R root:root /opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin/
gksudo gedit /usr/bin/runRSSOwl.sh
  • เพิ่มข้อความด้านล่างนี้ลงไป
export MOZILLA_FIVE_HOME=/usr/lib/mozilla-firefox
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:${MOZILLA_FIVE_HOME}:${LD_LIBRARY_PATH}
cd /opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin/
./run.sh
  • บันทึกไฟล์ แล้วสั่งตามคำสั่งข้างล่างนี้
sudo chmod +x /usr/bin/runRSSOwl.sh
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/RSSOwl.desktop
  • เพิ่มบรรทัดข้างล่างนี้ลงไป
[Desktop Entry]
Name=RSSOwl
Comment=RSSOwl
Exec=runRSSOwl.sh
Icon=/opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin/rssowl.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;
  • บันทึกไฟล์ที่ได้ทำการแก้ไข
  • เรียกใช้งานได้ผ่านทางเมนู Applications -> Internet -> RSSOwl

วิธีติดตั้ง Internet Explorer + Flash 9 (IEs4Linux)

This will install a wine'd version of Internet Explorer 6 with Flash 9, as well as IE 5.5/5.01 if you really want them.

  • Note:Flash 9 ที่ทำการติดตั้งนี้จะ ไม่สามารถ ใช้งานในบราวเซอร์ตัวอื่นๆได้นอกจาก IE
  • Install Cabextract. Open a terminal and run
sudo apt-get install cabextract
  • Open a terminal and run this:
wget http://www.tatanka.com.br/ies4linux/downloads/ies4linux-latest.tar.gz
tar zxvf ies4linux-latest.tar.gz
cd ies4linux-*
./ies4linux

Do not run this as root (no sudo), as this can cause the script to malfunction and ruin your X configuration.

วิธีติดตั้ง Messenger (Skype)

Note: โปรแกรมได้อยู่ในAutomatix2แล้ว เราต่างได้ใช้โปรแกรม Automatix2มาแล้ว โปรแกรมนี้อาจถูกติดตั้งเรียบร้อยแล้ว

  • เนื่องจากว่า Edgy the Skype ไม่ได้ถูกบรรจุอยู่ใน Ubuntu repositories อีกต่อไป
sudo apt-get install libqt3-mt
wget http://www.skype.com/go/getskype-linux-deb
sudo dpkg -i skype_debian-*.deb
(วิธีการอื่น - Official Skype Repository)
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • เพิ่มบรรทัดต่อไปนี้ยังส่วนท้ายสุดของไฟล์
## Official Skype Repository
deb http://download.skype.com/linux/repos/debian/ stable non-free
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install skype
  • การเปิดโปรแกรม Applications > Internet > Skype

Peer to Peer (P2P)

การติดตั้ง File share utility (LinuxDC++)

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/linuxdcpp.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf linuxdcpp.tar.gz -C /opt
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/linuxdcpp.desktop
  • พิมพ์ข้อความต่อไปนี้ไปในไฟล์ใหม่
[Desktop Entry]
Encoding=UTF-8
Name=LinuxDC++
Exec=linuxdcpp
Terminal=false
Type=Application
StartupNotify=true
Icon=/opt/linuxdcpp/pixmaps/linuxdcpp.png
Categories=Application;Network;
  • ทำการบันทึกไฟล์ที่สร้างขึ้นมา
  • Applications -> Internet -> LinuxDC++
  • หากคุณต้องการจะสร้าง CVS เวอร์ชันล่าสุดให้ใช้คู่มือนี้ [2]

วิธีการติดต้อง P2P BitTorrent Client (Azureus)

Note: โปรแกรมนี้มอยู่ในAutomatix2แล้ว I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo apt-get install azureus
  • Applications -> Internet -> Azureus
(วิธีการอื่น)

The above method installs a version of Azureus compiled with gcj, the free alternative to Sun's Java.

wget http://kent.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/azureus/Azureus_2.5.0.0_linux.tar.bz2
sudo tar jxvf Azureus_2.5.0.0_linux.tar.bz2 -C /opt/
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/azureus.desktop
  • เพิ่มบรรทัดด้านล่างไปยังไฟล์ใหม่
[Desktop Entry] 
Name=Azureus
Comment=Java BitTorrent Client
Exec=/opt/azureus/azureus
Icon=/opt/azureus/Azureus.png
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;
  • ทำการเซฟไฟล์
  • Applications -> Internet -> Azureus
วิธีการลบ Azureus
sudo apt-get remove azureus

วิธีการติดตั้ง P2P BitTorrent Client (Bittornado)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo apt-get install bittornado bittornado-gui

หลังจากทำการติดต้ง Bittorrent หรือ Bittornado แล้วให้ทำการเปิดfirewallสำหรับlocal IP

sudo iptables -I INPUT -p tcp --destination-port 6881:6999 -j ACCEPT

Now if you specify those ports in your client and you will see better down and up speeds.

  • Applications -> Internet -> Bittornado Client
วิธีการลบ Bittornado
sudo apt-get remove bittornado bittornado-gui

วิธีการติดตั้ง P2P eMule Client (aMule)

Note: Program included in Automatix2 and Easy Ubuntu. I you have already used one of them, this program may have been installed

sudo apt-get install amule
  • Applications -> Internet -> aMule
วิธีการลบ P2P eMule Client (aMule)
sudo apt-get remove amule

วิธีการติดตั้ง P2P Gnutella Client (FrostWire)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

wget -c http://www.users.on.net/~stubby/FrostWire-4.10.9-2.i586.deb
sudo dpkg -i FrostWire-4.10.9-2.i586.deb
  • Applications -> Internet -> FrostWire

วิธีการใช้ utorrent

ในที่นี้จะถือว่าคุณได้ทำการดาวน์โหลด utorrent และได้ทำการติดตั้ง wine เรียบร้อยแล้ว

   sudo gedit /usr/bin/utorrent

นำบรรทัดด้านล่างไปใส่ไว้ในไฟล์

   #!/bin/sh
   cd ~/YOURPATH/utorrent
   if [ "$1" != "" ]; then
   var="`echo $1 | sed 's/\//\\\/g'`"
   var="Z:${var}"
   wine utorrent.exe "$var"
   else
   wine utorrent.exe
   fi

แทนที่ "YOURPATH" ด้วยที่อยู่ของโปรแกรม uTorrent ทำการเซฟและออกมา แล้วพิมพ์คำสั่งต่อไปนี้เพื่อให้โปรแกรมสามารถใช้งานได้

   sudo chmod a+x /usr/bin/utorrent

วิธีการติดตั้ง P2P Gnutella Client (LimeWire)

ทำการตรวจสอบว่าคุณได้ทำการติดตั้ง Java เวอร์ชันล่าสุดหรือไม่ โดยเปิดTerminal แล้วพิมพ์คำสั่งต่อไปนี้:

  java -version

ถ้า Java ของคุณเป็นเวอร์ชันที่เก่ากว่า 1.5 คุณต้องทำการอัพเกรดเสียก่อน การอัพเกรด Java ให้เป็นรุ่นล่าสุดให้ทำการพิมพ์คำสั่งต่อไปนี้ลงไปใน Terminal:

  sudo apt-get install sun-java5-jre sun-java5-plugin

แล้วพิมพ์คำสั่งด้านล่างนี้ลงไป หากมีข้อความให้คุณติดตั้ง Dash ให้คุณเลือก “NO.”

   sudo dpkg-reconfigure dash

แล้วทำการดาวน์โหลด LimeWire(Linux RPM) จาก http://www.limewire.com/english/content/downloadfree2.shtml

การที่จะแปลงแพ็กเกจ ไปเป็น *.deb ของUbantuได้นั้น คุณต้องทำการติดตั้งโปรแกรม alien เสียก่อน โดยใช้คำสั่ง:

   sudo apt-get install alien

แล้วพิมพ์คำสั่งต่อไปนี้ในTerminalเพื่อแปลงแพ็กเกจแบบ *.rpm ไปเป็น *.deb:

   sudo alien -d LimeWireLinux.rpm

หลังจากที่แปลงไฟล์แล้ว ให้double-click ที่ไฟล์ *.deb เพื่อทำการติดตั้ง LimeWire ถือเป็นอันเสร็จสิ้น

Multimedia Players & Browser Plug-ins

การติดตั้ง Multimedia Codecs

sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.10-ffmpeg gstreamer0.10-gl gstreamer0.10-plugins-base \
gstreamer0.10-plugins-good gstreamer0.10-plugins-bad gstreamer0.10-plugins-bad-multiverse \
gstreamer0.10-plugins-ugly gstreamer0.10-plugins-ugly-multiverse libxine-extracodecs w32codecs 

Stubby สามารถใช้งานได้ยกเว้น wmv,


Tip: WMV9 codecs บน amd64 สามารถใช้งานได้บนโปรแกรม VLC เท่านั้น (out of the box from the official repositories)หรือโดยการติดตั้งโปรแกรม mplayer เวอร์ชันล่าสุด (ล่าสุดคือVersion 1.0rc1 ณ ตอนที่เขียน)

วิธีการติดตั้ง DVD playback capability

ironss: gstreamer dvd plugin ถูกจัดไว้ในจำพวก plugins-bad (หรือแย่นั่นเอง) และใช้งานไม่ค่อยดีสักเท่าไร However, Totem works with the xine backend to play back DVDs. This will keep you going until gstreamer gets dvd playback. Note that you do not have to install xine-ui or mplayer as suggested in

sudo apt-get install libdvdread3 
sudo /usr/share/doc/libdvdread3/install-css.sh
sudo apt-get install totem-xine

Stubby: gstreamer dvd plugin not ported to Edgy yet. following instructions will not work properly

sudo apt-get install libdvdcss2

วิธีการติดตั้ง MIDI sound server (Timidity++)

  • อ่าน #General Notes
  • อ่าน #How to add extra repositories
  • Timidity allows for the playback of MIDI by those who do not have MIDI hardware or MIDI processing built into their sound card (most users) via a software synthesizer.
  • ทำการติดตั้ง Timidity
sudo apt-get install timidity
  • ตั้งค่าให้ Timidity ทำงานตอนบูทเครื่อง
sudo gedit /etc/default/timidity
  • นำcommentในบรรทัดด้านล่างนี้ออก (ลบเครื่องหมาย "#" ทิ้ง)
#TIM_ALSASEQ=true
  • ต้งค่า modules ที่ต้องการโหลดด้วย
sudo gedit /etc/modules
  • เพื่มคำสั่งต่อไปนี้ลงไปต่อท้ายไฟล์ที่เปิดมาแล้วทำการเซฟ
snd-seq-device
snd-seq-midi
snd-seq-oss
snd-seq-midi-event
snd-seq
  • Restart เครื่อง

How to install Multimedia Player (xine-ui)

sudo apt-get install xine-ui libxine-extracodecs
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> xine

How to install Multimedia Player (VLC) with plug-in for Mozilla Firefox

sudo apt-get install vlc vlc-plugin-* mozilla-plugin-vlc
  • In order to stream video via vlc, you also need to install the following packages.
sudo apt-get install avahi-daemon
sudo apt-get install avahi-utils
Applications -> Sound and Video -> VLC Media Player

How to install Multimedia Player (Mplayer) with plug-in for Mozilla Firefox

sudo apt-get install mozilla-mplayer
Applications -> Sound and Video -> MPlayer Movie Player


Tip: For AMD64 Users

If you want to easily install the latest version of mplayer (Version 1.0rc1 at the moment of writing) that it is supporting the native playback of videos using the WMV9 codec add the following repository into your sources.list.

deb http://ubuntu.moshen.de/ edgy misc multimedia

How to install Multimedia Player (Totem) with plug-in for Mozilla Firefox

sudo apt-get install totem-gstreamer-firefox-plugin
  • Restart Mozilla Firefox
How to uninstall Totem with plug-in for Mozilla Firefox
sudo apt-get remove totem-gstreamer-firefox-plugin

How to install Multimedia Player (XMMS)

sudo apt-get install xmms xmms-skins
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/xmms-wma_1.0.4-2_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i xmms-wma_1.0.4-2_i386.deb
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> XMMS

How to install Multimedia Player (Songbird)

First download this shell script from Psychocats.net Open up the terminal and type these commands in one at a time

cd Desktop
chmod +x installsongbird.sh
./installsongbird.sh
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> Songbird

To remove if you want use this shell script and use the same instructions that you used to install songbird but substitute install with remove.

How to install Multimedia Player (amaroK)

sudo apt-get install amarok
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> amaroK
How to uninstall amaroK
sudo apt-get remove amarok

How to install Music Manager and Player (Banshee)

sudo apt-get install banshee
How to uninstall Banshee
sudo apt-get remove banshee

How to install Multimedia Player (RealPlayer 10)

sudo apt-get install realplay
Note: 'realplay' installs RealPlayer 10 from PLF repository, which you should be enabled if you followed this guide. 'realplayer' installs RealPlayer 8 from multiverse.
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> RealPlayer 10
  • It will also install all the necessary plugins automagically for it to view embedded real videos in Firefox
  • To avoid issues of flickering or screen going blank when switching windows, goto
  • RealPlayer 10 -> Tools -> Preferences -> Hardware -> Uncheck XVideo

Alternative Source

Then add execute permissions to the installer and execute it.

chmod +x RealPlayer10GOLD.bin
sudo ./RealPlayer10GOLD.bin

How to install Stream Directory Browser (streamtuner)

sudo apt-get install streamtuner
sudo apt-get install streamripper
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> streamtuner
How to uninstall Stream Directory Browser (streamtuner)
sudo apt-get remove streamtuner streamripper

How to install Internet TV (DemocracyTV beta)

  • If your system has a 32bit processor (i386) open a Terminal and type
wget http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/pculture.org/democracy/linux/ubuntu/democracyplayer-data_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_all.deb
wget http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/pculture.org/democracy/linux/ubuntu/democracyplayer_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_i386.deb
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo dpkg -i democracyplayer-data_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_all.deb
sudo apt-get install mozilla-browser mozilla-psm mozilla-dev
sudo dpkg -i democracyplayer_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_i386.deb


  • if your system has a 64bit processor (amd64)
wget http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/pculture.org/democracy/linux/ubuntu/democracyplayer-data_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_all.deb
wget http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/pculture.org/democracy/linux/ubuntu/democracyplayer_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_amd64.deb
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo dpkg -i democracyplayer-data_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_all.deb
sudo apt-get install mozilla-browser mozilla-psm mozilla-dev
sudo dpkg -i democracyplayer_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_amd64.deb

  • in both cases you might also need to install dependencies of the player package if dpkg returns a dependency error.
sudo apt-get -f install
  • to get support for more formats you have to install libxine-extracodecs (check Restricted Formats for more info)
sudo apt-get install libxine-extracodecs

or use an alternate procedure: double click (or right click and select "Open with gdebi") on the deb files so they are opened with gdebi, first democracyplayer-data_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_all.deb and after that democracyplayer_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_i386.deb (if you have a 32bit processor) or democracyplayer_0.9.2.1-1ubuntupcf_amd64.deb (if you have a 64bit processor)

  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> Democracy TV

Multimedia Editors & misc tools

How to install Music Organizer (Cowbell)

sudo apt-get install cowbell
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> Cowbell Music Organizer
How to uninstall Cowbell
sudo apt-get remove cowbell

How to install ID3 Tag Editor (EasyTAG)

sudo apt-get install easytag
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> EasyTAG
How to uninstall ID3 Tag Editor (EasyTAG)
sudo apt-get remove easytag

How to install Video Editor (Kino)

sudo apt-get install kino
sudo apt-get install kinoplus
sudo apt-get install kino-timfx
sudo apt-get install kino-dvtitler
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> Kino Video Editor
How to uninstall Video Editor (Kino)
sudo apt-get remove kino kinoplus kino-timfx kino-dvtitler

How to install Audio Editor (Audacity)

sudo apt-get install audacity
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> Audacity
How to uninstall Audacity
sudo apt-get remove audacity

How to install Music Composition Program (NoteEdit)

sudo apt-get install noteedit lilypond
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/noteedit.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=NoteEdit
Comment=A free music score editor
Exec=noteedit
Icon=/usr/share/app-install/icons/noteedit.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;AudioVideo;
  • Save the file
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> NoteEdit



Image Editors, Viewers,etc.

How to install Image Viewer (digiKam)

sudo apt-get install digikam digikamimageplugins kipi-plugins
  • Applications -> Graphics -> digikam

How to install Picasa image organizer

gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add the following lines at the end of file
# Google Picasa for Linux repository
deb http://dl.google.com/linux/deb/ stable non-free
  • Save the edited file
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install picasa
  • Applications -> Graphics -> Picasa


How to install Vector Graphics Editor (Inkscape)

sudo apt-get install inkscape


Second installation method:

1. Download the official Inkscape Linux installer.
2. Choose a mirror and save it to your Desktop.
3. Right-click it, enable "Properties --> Permissions --> Owner:Execute" and close the dialogue box. (One-time procedure)
4. Double-click it and follow the instructions.
5. Install the support code system-wide, if you have the root password. (One-time procedure)

NOTE: You can and should install the program as a User, rather than Root. This is easily accomplished with the second method.

Development & Programming

How to install WYSIWYG Web Authoring System (Nvu)

sudo apt-get install nvu
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Programming -> Nvu

How to install Web Authoring System (BlueFish)

sudo apt-get install bluefish

  • Applications -> Programming -> Bluefish Editor

How to install Web Development Environment (quanta plus)

sudo apt-get install quanta
  • Applications -> Programming -> Quanta Plus

How to install Project Management Application (Planner)

sudo apt-get install planner
  • Applications -> Office -> Project Management

How to install jedit

wget -c http://optusnet.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/jedit/jedit_4.3pre8_all.deb
sudo dpkg -i jedit_4.3pre8_all.deb
  • Applications -> Programming -> Programmers text editor jedit

How to install Python Development Tools

Python Dev Tools

sudo apt-get install gcc libc6-dev python-dev python-setuptools python2.4-profiler

Install EZ Setup (tool for installing Python stuff)

wget http://peak.telecommunity.com/dist/ez_setup.py
sudo python ez_setup.py

Upgrade Setup Tools

sudo easy_install -U --script-dir /usr/local/bin setuptools

Install TurboGears Framework (optional)

sudo easy_install --script-dir /usr/local/bin TurboGears

How to install Integrated Development Environment (Anjuta)

sudo apt-get install anjuta
  • Applications -> Programming -> Anjuta IDE

How to install C# Integrated Development Environment (MonoDevelop)

sudo apt-get install mono mono-gmcs mono-gac mono-utils monodevelop

How to install Java Integrated Development Environment (Eclipse)

sudo apt-get install eclipse


  • By default Eclipse will use GNU's java instead of Sun's. This will make Eclipse run very slowly and crash from time to time. To solve this problem, we will use Sun's JVM.
  • Install Sun JRE:
sudo apt-get install sun-java5-jre sun-java5-plugin sun-java5-bin sun-java5-fonts


  • Make Sun's JVM default:
sudo update-alternatives --config java
  • Choose the line that says
/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.5.0-sun/jre/bin/java.
  • Edit the JVM Configuration file:
gksudo gedit /etc/jvm
# This file defines the default system JVM search order. Each
# JVM should list their JAVA_HOME compatible directory in this file.
# The default system JVM is the first one available from top to
# bottom.

/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.5.0-sun
/usr/lib/jvm/java-gcj
/usr/lib/jvm/ia32-java-1.5.0-sun
/usr


  • Next, we need to tell Eclipse to use this JVM as well. This can be done on systemlevel or userlevel.
  • System:
gksudo gedit /etc/eclipse/java_home
# This file determines the search order the Eclipse Platform uses to find a
# compatible JAVA_HOME. This setting may be overridden on a per-user basis by
# altering the JAVA_HOME setting in ~/.eclipse/eclipserc.

/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.5.0-sun
/usr/lib/jvm/java-gcj
/usr/lib/kaffe/pthreads
/usr/lib/j2se/1.5
/usr/lib/j2se/1.4
/usr/lib/j2sdk1.5-ibm
/usr/lib/j2sdk1.4-ibm
/usr/lib/j2sdk1.5-sun
/usr/lib/j2sdk1.4-sun
  • User:
gedit ~/.eclipse/eclipserc
JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.5.0-sun/


  • Applications -> Development -> Eclipse

How to install OpenCobol

  • After installing the build-essential, Run these lines of code
sudo apt-get install open-cobol
sudo apt-get install libdb4.4-dev libncurses5-dev libncursesw5-dev
  • Make a file called test.cob and put in this sample code (indentation is required)
	IDENTIFICATION DIVISION.
		PROGRAM-ID. hello.
		PROCEDURE DIVISION.
		DISPLAY "Hello World!".
		STOP RUN.
  • Save this, and open up a terminal in the directory that this file is in, and run the following command
cobc test.cob
./test
  • The program will output

hello world!

How to install Basic Compilers (build-essential)

sudo apt-get install build-essential

Finance

How to install Accounting Application (GnuCash)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo apt-get install gnucash
  • Applications -> Office -> GnuCash

How to install Personal Accounting Software (Eqonomize!)

sudo apt-get install eqonomize
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/eqonomize.desktop
  • Add the following to the new file
[Desktop Entry] 
Name=Eqonomize!
Comment=Personal Accounting Software
Exec=eqonomize %i %m -caption "%c"
Terminal=false
Type=Application
MimeType=application/x-eqonomize
Categories=Application;Office;
X-DCOP-ServiceType=Unique
X-DCOP-ServiceName=eqonomize
X-KDE-StartupNotify=true
Comment=Personal finances manager / bookkeeping software
X-Ubuntu-Gettext-Domain=desktop_eqonomize
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Office -> Eqonomize!

CD & DVD burning & ripping

How to install DVD Ripper (dvd::rip)

sudo apt-get install dvdrip vcdimager cdrdao subtitleripper
sudo ln -fs /usr/bin/rar /usr/bin/rar-2.80
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/dvdrip.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=dvd::rip 
Comment=dvd::rip
Exec=dvdrip
Icon=/usr/share/perl5/Video/DVDRip/icon.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;AudioVideo;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> dvd::rip

How to install DVD Ripper (AcidRip)

sudo apt-get install acidrip


Note: AcidRip will not recognize dvd if dma is turned on. If so undo the process #How to speed up CD/DVD-ROM.

How to install CD Ripper (Goobox)

sudo apt-get install goobox
sudo rm -f /usr/share/applications/goobox.desktop
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/goobox.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=CD Player & Ripper
Comment=Play and extract CDs
Exec=goobox
Icon=goobox.png
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;AudioVideo;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> CD Player & Ripper

How to install CD/DVD Burning Application (GnomeBaker)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo apt-get install gnomebaker
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> GnomeBaker

How to install CD/DVD Burning Application (K3b)

sudo apt-get install k3b libk3b2-mp3
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> K3b

Network

How to install Dialup PPP Client (GNOME PPP)

sudo apt-get install gnome-ppp
  • Applications -> Internet -> GNOME PPP

How to install Broadband ADSL/PPPoE Client (RP-PPPoE)

wget -c http://www.roaringpenguin.com/files/download/rp-pppoe-3.8.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf rp-pppoe-3.8.tar.gz -C /opt/
sudo chown -R root:root /opt/rp-pppoe-3.8/
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/RP-PPPoE.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=RP-PPPoE
Comment=RP-PPPoE
Exec=gksudo /opt/rp-pppoe-3.8/go-gui
Icon=pppoeconf.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Internet -> RP-PPPoE

How to use Bluetooth to share files

sudo apt-get install bluez-utils gnome-bluetooth
  • Open Applications -> Accessories -> Bluetooth file sharing
  • You're now able to receive files from other Bluetooth-devices
  • To send a file: find a file to send, right click and choose "Send to", wait until the other device is detected, and click "send".


To see if your Bluetooth-device is supported check this site: http://www.holtmann.org/linux/bluetooth/features.html

System

How to install Boot-Up Manager (BUM)

sudo apt-get install bum
  • System -> Administration -> Boot-Up Manager

How to install Partition Editor (GParted)

sudo apt-get install gparted
  • System -> Administration -> GNOME Partition Editor (GParted)

How to install Extra Fonts

sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-arabic
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-asian
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-chinese
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-chinese-big
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-european
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-japanese
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-japanese-big
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-phonetic
sudo apt-get install gsfonts-x11
sudo apt-get install msttcorefonts
sudo fc-cache -f -v


Note: Ubuntu Edgy comes with the DejaVu fonts (derived from Bitstream Vera) and provides adequate support for Latin, Greek and Cyrillic based languages.

Security

How to install Firewall (Firestarter)

sudo apt-get install firestarter
  • System -> Administration -> Firestarter

How to install a GUI desktop On-Access Anti-Virus Scanner for KDE (KlamAV)

Follow the Kubuntu KlamAV installation procedure described in the KlamAV FAQ. Read the instructions carefully - there is more to the installation than simply apt-get-ing the klamav package.
  • Applications -> System -> KlamAV Anti-Virus Manager

How to install network traffic analyzer (Ethereal)

Note: Ethereal has been abandoned by its developers in favor of Wireshark.
sudo apt-get install ethereal
  • Applications -> Internet -> Ethereal

How to install network traffic analyzer (Wireshark)

sudo apt-get install wireshark
  • Applications -> Internet -> Wireshark

How to install Vulnerability Scanner (Nessus)

sudo apt-get install nessus
sudo apt-get install nessusd
sudo nessus-adduser
sudo ln -fs /etc/init.d/nessusd /etc/rc2.d/S20nessusd
sudo /etc/init.d/nessusd start
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/Nessus.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Nessus
Comment=Nessus
Exec=nessus
Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/nessus.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;System;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Nessus

Archivers / Packages/ Compression

How to install 7z Archiver ( .7z)

sudo apt-get install p7zip-full

How to install RAR Archiver (rar)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. If you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo apt-get install rar unrar
  • Applications -> Accessories -> Archive Manager

How to install .rpm to .deb Converter (Alien)

sudo apt-get install alien


Games

How to install game Tuxracer

sudo apt-get install planetpenguin-racer planetpenguin-racer-data planetpenguin-racer-extras
  • Applications -> Games -> planetpenguin-racer

How to install game Frozen-Bubble

sudo apt-get install frozen-bubble
  • Applications -> Games -> Frozen-Bubble

How to install game Scorched3D

sudo apt-get install scorched3d
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/scorched3d.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Scorched 3D
Comment=A 3D Remake Of Scorched Earth
Exec=scorched3d
Icon=
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Game;ArcadeGame;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Games -> Scorched 3D

How to install real-time-strategy game (globulation 2 alpha21)

wget http://globulation2.org/releases/0.8.21/glob2_alpha21_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i glob2_alpha21_i386.deb

you might also need to install dependencies if dpkg returns a dependency error

sudo apt-get -f install

to play use command

glob2

How to install KDE Edutainment applications

sudo apt-get install kdeedu
  • Applications -> Education -> ...

Yet to be Categorized

How to install 3D modeling tool (Blender 3d)

sudo apt-get install blender
  • Applications -> Graphics -> Blender 3D modeller

How to install Chinese Input Method (SCIM)

Please follow the official Ubuntu guide HERE

How to install Desktop Applets (gDesklets)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo apt-get install gdesklets
sudo apt-get install gdesklets-data

How to install virtual planetarium (Stellarium)

sudo apt-get install stellarium
  • Applications -> Other -> Stellarium


How to install Google Earth

wget -c http://dl.google.com/earth/GE4/GoogleEarthLinux.bin
sudo sh GoogleEarthLinux.bin
  • Leave /usr/local/google-earth as the installation path
  • After installation click Exit. If you instead chose to run the application, read the Note below.
sudo cp /opt/google-earth/googleearth.desktop /usr/share/applications/
  • Applications -> Internet -> Google Earth
  • Note: If you run Google Earth for the first time from the installer, it will require root privileges to run the next time. To fix that:
sudo chmod 777 -R ~/.googleearth

How to install Virtual Machine Manager (VMware Server)

  • Register an account here to get your free serial number. The number will be emailed.
sudo apt-get install linux-headers-`uname -r` build-essential xinetd
wget -c http://download3.vmware.com/software/vmserver/VMware-server-1.0.1-29996.tar.gz
tar xzf VMware-server-1.0.1-29996.tar.gz -C /tmp
cd /tmp/vmware-distrib
sudo ./vmware-install.pl
  • Accept all defaults and enter your serial.
  • Applications -> System Tools -> VMware Server Console
  • Please see this thread if you have problems: Ubuntu Forums

How to install Windows Applications in Linux (Wine)

Wine Is Not an Emulator. Wine is an Open Source implementation of the Windows API on top of X and Unix. Think of Wine as a compatibility layer for running Windows programs. Wine does not require Microsoft Windows, as it is a completely free alternative implementation of the Windows API consisting of 100% non-Microsoft code, however Wine can optionally use native Windows DLLs if they are available.

In other words, Wine will let you run Windows applications in Linux.

  • First, add repository for Wine:
gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add the following lines at the end of this file
# Repository for wine
deb http://wine.budgetdedicated.com/apt edgy main
deb-src http://wine.budgetdedicated.com/apt edgy main
  • Save the edited file
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install wine

How to install a Drop Down Terminal like in First Person Shooters (tilda)

Do you want a console like in a first person shooter? Tilda should take care of you.

sudo apt-get install tilda
  • The default keybinding is F1. To change the default keybinding, either enter tilda -C at the terminal, or right click on the tilda terminal then click Preferences. While in preferences, you can change other things such as transparency, font, size, and window size.

How to install a password manager (Revelation)

sudo apt-get install revelation
  • Applications -> Accessories -> Revelation Password Manager
How to uninstall Revelation
sudo apt-get remove revelation

How to Automatically cycle Flickr images as your Ubuntu desktop wallpaper

Check here for Ubuntu Wallpapers You want to make your ubuntu desktop more Colourful and Beautiful this is for you


How to install WinPopup (LinPopUp)

sudo apt-get install linpopup
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/linpopup.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=LinPopUp
Comment=LinPopUp
Exec=linpopup
Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/linpopup.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Utility;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Accessories -> LinPopUp

How to install Desktop Publishing Application (Scribus)

sudo apt-get install scribus
  • Applications -> Office -> Scribus

How to install Diagram Editor (Dia)

sudo apt-get install dia-gnome
  • Applications -> Graphics -> Dia

How to install Compiled HTML Help (CHM) Viewer (xCHM)

sudo apt-get install xchm
  • Applications -> Graphics -> xCHM

Other Desktop Environments

How to install KDE

sudo apt-get install kubuntu-desktop
Note: This installation will require ~400MB of disk space
  • System -> Log Out -> Log Out
  • To log in to KDE click on Sessions and choose KDE

How to install XFCE

sudo apt-get install xubuntu-desktop
  • System -> Log Out -> Log Out
  • To log in to XFCE click on Sessions and choose XFCE


How to install XFCE 4.4 RC2

  • to install Xfce 4.4 RC2 on a fresh install:
sudo apt-get install build-essential gcc pkg-config libglib2.0-0 libglib2.0-dev libgtk2.0-0 libgtk2.0-dev \
     libxml2-dev libvte-dev libvte9 libxpm-dev libxpm4 libasound2-dev alsa-base alsa-utils libxml2 \
     libxml-parser-perl libpng12-0 libpng12-dev libice-dev libsm-dev xorg-dev
chmod +x xfce4-4.4RC2-installer.run 
sudo ./xfce4-4.4RC2-installer.run
  • finally to enable Xfce, logout and login choosing xfce session

How to install FluxBox

Here's some Screenshots. Fluxbox is a popular minimalist Window Manager.

sudo apt-get install fluxbox
Make it start when you login thru GDM
echo "exec startfluxbox" > ~/.xinitrc
Make it make the pretty sound on login
sudo apt-get install sox
gedit ~/.fluxbox/startup
  • Find this line:
exec /usr/local/bin/fluxbox
  • Put this above it somewhere:
play /usr/share/sounds/login.wav > /dev/null 2>&1 &
  • Listen happily.

Eye Candy

How to install Xgl/Compiz (Nvidia)



sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Find this section
Section "Module"
	Load	"i2c"
	Load	"bitmap"
	...
	Load	"type1"
	Load	"vbe"
EndSection
  • Comment out dri and GLcore (if present)
#	Load	"dri"
#	Load	"GLcore"
  • Make sure the glx module is loaded
	Load	"glx"
  • Find this section (your values may vary)
Section "Device"
	Identifier	"NVIDIA Corporation NV34M [GeForce FX Go5200]"
	Driver		"nv"
	BusID		"PCI:1:0:0"
EndSection
  • Replace with the following lines, leaving the Identifier and BusID as it is
Section "Device"
	...
	Driver		"nvidia"
	...
	Option		"RenderAccel"		"true"
	Option		"AllowGLXWithComposite" "true"
EndSection
  • Find this section
Section "Screen"
	Identifier	"Default Screen"
	Device		"NVIDIA Corporation NV34M [GeForce FX Go5200]"
	Monitor		"Generic Monitor"
	DefaultDepth	16
  • Make sure DefaultDepth is set to 24, if it isn't already
	DefaultDepth	24
  • Save the edited file
  • Install Xgl/Compiz
sudo apt-get install compiz xserver-xgl libgl1-mesa xserver-xorg libglitz-glx1 compiz-gnome
sudo cp /etc/gdm/gdm.conf-custom /etc/gdm/gdm.conf-custom-backup
gksudo gedit /etc/gdm/gdm.conf-custom
  • Replace everything with the following lines
# GDM Configuration Customization file.
#
# This file is the appropriate place for specifying your customizations to the
# GDM configuration.   If you run gdmsetup, it will automatically edit this
# file for you and will cause the daemon and any running GDM GUI programs to
# automatically update with the new configuration.  Not all configuration
# options are supported by gdmsetup, so to modify some values it may be
# necessary to modify this file directly by hand.
# 
# To hand-edit this file, simply add or modify the key=value combination in
# the appropriate section in the template below.  Refer to the comments in the
# gdm.conf file for information about each option.  Also refer to the reference
# documentation.
# 
# If you hand edit a GDM configuration file, you should run the following
# command to get the GDM daemon to notice the change.  Any running GDM GUI
# programs will also be notified to update with the new configuration.
#
# gdmflexiserver --command="UPDATE_CONFIG <configuration key>"
#
# For example, the "Enable" key in the "[debug]" section would be specified by
# "debug/Enable".
#
# You can also run gdm-restart or gdm-safe-restart to cause GDM to restart and
# re-read the new configuration settings.  You can also restart GDM by sending
# a HUP or USR1 signal to the daemon.  HUP behaves like gdm-restart and causes
# any user session started by GDM to exit immediately while USR1 behaves like
# gdm-safe-restart and will wait until all users log out before restarting GDM.
# 
# For full reference documentation see the gnome help browser under
# GNOME|System category.  You can also find the docs in HTML form on
# http://www.gnome.org/projects/gdm/
# 
# NOTE: Lines that begin with "#" are considered comments.
# 
# Have fun!

[daemon]

[security]

[xdmcp]

[gui]

[greeter]

[chooser]

[debug]

[servers]# Override display 1 to use Xgl
0=Xgl 

[server-Xgl] 
name=Xgl server 
command=/usr/bin/Xgl :0 -fullscreen -ac -accel glx:pbuffer -accel xv:fbo 
flexible=true
  • Create a script that runs Xgl/Compiz on startup
gksudo gedit /usr/bin/thefuture
  • Insert the following lines into the new file. Replace .us with appropriate keyboard binding for your region. Eg .gb for United Kingdom. For a full list of keyboard bindings, type ls /usr/share/xmodmap in a terminal. If unsure, leave as .us (United States)
#!/bin/bash
gnome-window-decorator &  compiz --replace gconf decoration wobbly fade minimize cube rotate zoom scale move resize place switcher &
xmodmap /usr/share/xmodmap/xmodmap.us
  • Save the file
sudo chmod 755 /usr/bin/thefuture
  • To run compiz for this session
thefuture
  • To have compiz load on startup
    • System -> Preferences -> Sessions
    • Startup Programs -> Add
/usr/bin/thefuture
  • Troubleshooting
    • If Xgl/Compiz doesn't seem to work, or you get errors, simply restart your machine after adding "thefuture" to Startup programs
    • If moving windows slows down the system, run gconf-editor from the terminal. Find apps/compiz/general/screen0/options. Disable detect_refresh_rate and set refresh rate to 60. Everything should work fine now...
    • If you are using a non default keyboard layout (other language), you might have to change it back to what you need if the keyboard acts funny at System/Settings/Keyboard.
    • You can also set the Super-key to the windows button here.
    • If you don't want "bottom expanded panel", type "killall gnome-panel" in terminal.
  • Tips
    • Switch windows = Alt + Tab
    • Arrange and View All Windows = F12 turns on or off; clicking a window will zoom it to the front
    • Switch desktops on cube = Ctrl + Alt + Left/Right Arrow
    • Switch desktops on cube - with active window following = Ctrl + Shift + Alt + Left/Right Arrow
    • Rotate cube manually = Ctrl + Alt + left-click
    • Make window translucent/opaque = currently only possible with the "transset" utility
    • Zoom-in once = Super-key right-click
    • Zoom-in manually = Super-key + wheel mouse up
    • Zoom-out manually = Super-key + wheel mouse down
    • Move window = Alt + left-click
    • Snap Move window (will stick to borders) = Ctrl + Alt + left-click
    • Resize window = Alt + right-click

วิธีติดตั้ง Xgl/Beryl บนการ์ดจอ ATI

(From Beryl Forums) "(From ubuntuforums.org)"


"ทดสอบบน Ubuntu Feisty version i386 การ์ดจอ onboard ATi Xpress 1100 share 128 MB"

  • เปิดเทอร์มินอล จากเมนู
โปรแกรม > อำนวยความสะดวก > เทอร์มินอล
  • Verify our system is up-to-date:
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
  • ติดตั้ง Xgl (ในการ์ดจอ ATI cards ไดรเวอร์ fglrx สนับสนุนเฉพาะ Xgl):
sudo apt-get install xserver-xgl
  • สร้างสคริปท์ให้ Xgl รัน:
sudo gedit /usr/local/bin/startxgl.sh
  • พิม์ข้อความด้านล่างแล้วบันทึกดังนี้:
#!/bin/sh
Xgl :1 -fullscreen -ac -accel xv:pbuffer -accel glx:pbuffer &
DISPLAY=:1
exec dbus-launch --exit-with-session gnome-session
  • ถ้ามองไม่เห็นปุ่ม shutdown กับปุ่ม restart ให้แก้เป็น:
#!/bin/sh
Xgl :1 -fullscreen -ac -accel xv:pbuffer -accel glx:pbuffer &
DISPLAY=:1
cookie="$(xauth -i nextract - :0 | cut -d ' ' -f 9)"
xauth -i add :1 . "$cookie"
exec dbus-launch --exit-with-session gnome-session
  • ทำให้สคริปท์สามารถรันเป็นโปรแกรมได้:
sudo chmod a+x /usr/local/bin/startxgl.sh
  • จากนั้นแก้ให้มีตัวเลือก Xgl หน้าจอเข้าระบบบน GDM:
sudo gedit /usr/share/xsessions/xgl.desktop
  • พิม์ข้อความด้านล่างแล้วบันทึกดังนี้:
[Desktop Entry]
Encoding=UTF-8
Name=GNOME with XGL
Comment=
Exec=/usr/local/bin/startxgl.sh
Icon=
Type=Application
  • ทำให้สคริปท์สามารถรันเป็นโปรแกรมได้:
sudo chmod a+x /usr/share/xsessions/xgl.desktop
  • ยกเลิกตัวเลือก universe ใน repositories (Beryl ใน universe ไม่สนับสนุนไดรเวอร์ fglrx).
ไปที่ ระบบ > ดูแลระบบ > แหล่งของซอฟแวร์
คลิกไม่เลือก ที่ Community-maintained Open Source software (universe)
คลิกปิด
เปิดเทอร์มินอล:
  • เพิ่ม repository key:
sudo wget http://ubuntu.beryl-project.org/root@lupine.me.uk.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
  • เพิ่ม repository ลงใน apt source list:
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
เพิ่มบรรทัด deb http://ubuntu.beryl-project.org/ feisty main
บันทึกแล้วปิด gedit
  • อัปเดท apt sources:
sudo apt-get update
  • ติดตั้ง Beryl :
sudo apt-get install beryl emerald-themes

Apt จะเลือกติดตั้ง plug-ins and libraries ให้อัตโนมัติ

  • วิธีติดตั้งไดรเวอร์การ์ดจอ ATI (ถ้ายังไม่ติดตั้ง):
Go to System > Administration > Restricted Drivers Manager
Check the Enable check box for your ATI graphics card

You will need to reboot to enable the card.

  • After a reboot and choosing Xgl from your sessions list at your login screen, test Beryl. In a terminal:
beryl-manager
emerald --replace

You should see the Beryl diamond next to your clock, and you should try moving a window. You may need to right-click on the diamond, select "Beryl" from the "Select Window Manager" flyout, and select "Standard Beryl Decorator (Emerald)" from the "Select Window Decorator" flyout. You may also need to click Reload for each one of these under the same menu.

  • If you are using ATI with XGL, you'll get an error that beryl-xgl is missing. Solution is not elegant, but it's working:
Download beryl-core deb from http://ubuntu.beryl-project.org/pool/feisty/main/0.2.0/beryl-core_0.2.0~0beryl1_i386.deb
Unpack beryl-xgl from archive to ie. ~/Desktop
From terminal run: sudo cp ~/Desktop/beryl-xgl /usr/bin/beryl-xgl

  • If everything seems to work OK, add Beryl and the Emerald themes to your start-up programs:
Go to System > Preferences > Sessions
Click the New button
Type "Beryl" (no quotes) for the Name text box
Type "beryl-manager" (no quotes) for the Command text box
Click the OK button

Click the New button
Type "Emerald Themes" (no quotes) for the Name text box
Type "emerald --replace" (no quotes) for the Command text box
Click the OK button

Congratulations! Hopefully, you have Beryl working now. You can now re-enable your universe repositories, but make sure you do not let it update anything related to Beryl. Hopefully, the Beryl apps in the universe repositories will soon work with the ATI cards without Xgl.

How to install Beryl/AIGLX (Nvidia)

(From Ubuntu Forums)

  • Ensure all packages up to date
Install your *ubuntu-desktop metapackage specific to your DE, e.g. sudo apt-get install ubuntu-desktop
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
  • Add repositories
gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add the following line at the end of this file (x86 and amd64):
deb http://ubuntu.beryl-project.org/ edgy main
  • Add key
wget http://ubuntu.beryl-project.org/root@lupine.me.uk.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
  • Save the edited file then update package lists
sudo apt-get update
  • Install Beryl
sudo apt-get install beryl emerald-themes
  • Back up xorg.conf
sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Add this to xorg.conf "Screen" section
# Enable 32-bit ARGB GLX Visuals
    Option "AddARGBGLXVisuals" "True"

# If you are using an older version of compiz that
# does not support rendering into the Composite
# Overlay Window, you will need to disable clipping
# of GLX rendering to the X Root window with this
# option, or you will get a blank screen after
# starting compiz:
    Option "DisableGLXRootClipping" "True"
  • Add this to xorg.conf "Device" section
Option          "TripleBuffer" "true"
  • Restart X with ctrl+alt+backspace
  • Start Beryl (if it doesn't start on its own)
beryl-manager
  • Start Emerald (if it doesn't start on its own)
emerald --replace
  • Have Beryl and Emerald load on login
    • System -> Preferences -> Sessions
    • Startup Programs -> Add
beryl-manager

and

emerald --replace
    • If, on reboot, program menus aren't displaying in the correct layer (you can't see them when you select them because they are displaying behind the window) then right click on the 'Beryl Manager' icon in the panel (the red gem icon) and select 'Reload Window Manager'. The problem should be solved the next time you reboot.

How to install Beryl/AIGLX (Intel i915)

Follow the how-to on beryl project wiki.

If that does not work, check if you have direct rendering enabled (type into the terminal):

glxinfo | grep direct

The output should be:

direct rendering: Yes

If the output says No, check you have direct rendering manager loaded:

lsmod|grep 915

The output should be:

i915   21632  3
drm    74644  4 i915
tsdev   9152  0

If it shows only tsdev line, you can try to configure xorg.conf to driver i810, restart, CTRL-ALT-F1 to terminal session and configure xorg.conf back to use i915. That helped me.

How to install compiz-freedesktop without XGL / AIGLX utilising the latest Nvidia BETA drivers

  • Ensure that all packages are up to date
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
  • Add repositories
gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add the following line at the end of this file for the edgy stable repos
## compiz-freedesktop stable
deb http://gandalfn.club.fr/ubuntu edgy stable
  • Or add the following line at the end of this file for the edgy dev repos
## compiz-freedesktop dev
deb http://gandalfn.club.fr/ubuntu edgy stable dev

Note for compiz-freedesktop git repos: these packages are considered experimental and unstable by nature

  • Or add the following line at the end of this file for the edgy git repos
## compiz-freedesktop git
deb http://gandalfn.club.fr/ubuntu edgy stable dev git
  • Add the GPG key
gpg --keyserver hkp://wwwkeys.eu.pgp.net --recv-keys 0x483170E9 ; \
gpg --export -a 0x483170E9 | sudo apt-key add -
  • Save the edited file then update package lists
sudo apt-get update
  • Install compiz-freedesktop
sudo apt-­get install compiz-­freedesktop compiz­-freedesktop-­gnome gnome-­compiz-­manager
  • Back up xorg.conf
sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Find this section
Section "Screen"
    Identifier     "Default Screen"
    Device         "NVIDIA Corporation NVIDIA Default Card"
    Monitor        "Generic Monitor"
    DefaultDepth    16
  • Make sure DefaultDepth is set to 24, if it isn't already
    DefaultDepth    24
  • Enable 32-bit ARGB GLX Visuals
    Option "AddARGBGLXVisuals" "True"
  • Save the edited file
  • Restart X with Ctrl+Alt+Backspace
  • Logon
  • Press Alt-F2 to open the Run Application window and enter the following in the text box:
compiz­-tray-­icon
  • Click Run to execute
  • Locate the compiz-tray-icon in your system tray, typically in the top right-hand corner of your screen, right-click mouse button and select the GL Desktop option
  • To customize preferences, locate the compiz-tray-icon in your system tray, typically in the top right-hand corner of your screen, right-click mouse button and select the Preferences option

How to install alternate boot splash screen

  • Read #General Notes
  • This installs a minimalistic splash screen that appears when the computer is booting up and shutting down. It is devoid of any text messages.
wget -c http://www.users.on.net/~stubby/usplash-minimalistic_0.1.deb
sudo dpkg -i usplash-minimalistic_0.1.deb
sudo update-alternatives --config usplash-artwork.so
  • Select the minimalistic alternative (/usr/local/lib/usplash/minimalastic.so) by entering the corresponding number. If you ever want to revert back to the original splash, select the default (/usr/lib/usplash/usplash-default.so)

Commercial Applications

How to install Windows 9X/ME/2000/XP (Win4Lin)

How to install Windows Applications (CrossOver Office)

How to install Windows Games (Cedega)

User Administration

How to set/change/enable root user password

sudo passwd root

How to disable root user account

sudo passwd -l root

How to allow root user to login into GNOME

Security Tab -> Security -> Allow root to login with GDM (Checked)

How to switch to root user in Console mode

sudo -s -H
Password: <specify user password>

How to add/edit/delete system users

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Users and Groups
  • Users and Groups
Users Tab -> Add User.../Properties/Delete
or
sudo useradd jim
sudo userdel jim
  • For more info read
man usermod

How to add/edit/delete system groups

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Users and Groups
  • Users and Groups
Groups Tab -> Add Group.../Properties/Delete

How to automatic login into GNOME (not secure)

Security Tab -> Enable Automatic Login (Checked)
Now choose a user from the drop-down menu.

How to allow more sudoers

EDITOR=gedit sudo visudo
  • Append the following line at the end of file
system_username	ALL=(ALL) ALL
  • Save the edited file

OR since everyone in the admin group can use sudo:

sudo adduser a_username admin

This appends the admin group to the user's supplementary group list. They will now have sudo access.

How to use "sudo" without prompt for password (not secure)

EDITOR=gedit sudo visudo
  • Find this line
...
system_username	ALL=(ALL) ALL
...
  • Replace with the following line
system_username	ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL
  • Save the edited file

How to explicitly destroy the "sudo" session

sudo -K

How to change files/folders permissions

Right click on files/folders -> Properties
Permissions Tab -> Read/Write/Execute (Checked the permissions for Owner/Group/Others)

How to change files/folders ownership

sudo chown system_username /location_of_files_or_folders

How to change files/folders group ownership

sudo chgrp system_groupname /location_of_files_or_folders

Hardware

Mice

Activate side-mouse-buttons in FireFox

Just add two lines to xorg.conf will activate side-mouse-buttons in FireFox. This should work with most 5-button mouse. Here is a list of mice that worked with this instruction.

  • Logitech MX510
  • Logitech MX518
  • Logitech MX700
  • Intellimouse Explorer (first edition)


Backup Gnome configuration file

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.bak

Modify the Gnome configuration file

gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf

Find the Input Device section for your mouse and add two lines as shown below. You may also increase the number of buttons if your mouse has more than 7, just fix the rest of the section based upon the number of buttons (remember back/forward, wheel click & tilt left/right all count as buttons)

Change:

Section "InputDevice"
	Identifier "Configured Mouse"
	Driver "mouse"
	Option "CorePointer"
	...
	Option "Protocol" "ExplorerPS/2"
	...
	Option "Emulate3Buttons"       "true"
EndSection

to:

Section "InputDevice"
	Identifier "Configured Mouse"
	Driver "mouse"
	Option "CorePointer"
	...
	Option "Protocol" "ExplorerPS/2"
	...
	Option "Emulate3Buttons"       "true"
	Option "Buttons" "7"
 	Option "ButtonMapping" "1 2 3 6 7"
EndSection


At this point you can reboot your computer or reboot Gnome (Ctrl-Alt-BackSpace) to see if your forward/back buttons work in FireFox. They still won't work in Nautilus yet until you install the imwheel dameon.

Install & Configure IMWheel

  • Install IMWheel
sudo apt-get install imwheel
  • Modify IMWheel configuration file
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/imwheel/imwheelrc
  • Insert the following at the bottom of this existing file
".*"
None, Up, Alt_L|Left
None, Down, Alt_L|Right 

"(null)"
None, Up, Alt_L|Left
None, Down, Alt_L|Right


  • Create IMWheel start-up script
sudo mkdir /home/login
gksudo gedit /home/login/mouse
  • Insert the following into this new file
#!/bin/sh
exec xmodmap -e "pointer = 1 2 3 6 7 4 5" &
exec imwheel -k -b "67" &
exec $REALSTARTUP
  • Grant execution for everyone to this new script
sudo chmod +x /home/login/mouse
  • Configure this script to be executed at start-up
    1. Select 'System' > 'Preferences' > 'Sessions'
    2. Click the StartUp tab
    3. Click Add, then input: /home/login/mouse
    4. Click OK, then Close
  • Reboot your computer or your Gnome environment and then test your back/forward mouse buttons in Nautilus

How to configure Apple Mighty Mouse

Apple Mighty Mouse works out of the box, this how to should cover setting up of horizontal scrolling using ball and sidebuttons.

This is placeholder only. Please, provide working howto.

Graphics Card

How to install Graphics Driver (NVIDIA)

sudo apt-get install nvidia-glx nvidia-kernel-common
sudo nvidia-xconfig
  • Should the above not enable the new driver, you can enable it manually by opening the X config file:
sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
 
  • and replacing "nv" with "nvidia"
  • Enable XvMC by creating the nVidia XvMC configuration file
sudo gedit /etc/X11/XvMCConfig
  • Insert the following line into the new configuration file, to tell the players the name of the nVidia XvMC shared library:
libXvMCNVIDIA_dynamic.so.1
  • To use XvMC to accelerate video playback, use the following flags. See [[3]] for more details.
xine -V xxmc filename.ts
mplayer -vo xvmc -vc ffmpeg12mc filename.ts

How to install Beta Graphics Driver (NVIDIA)

  • Thanks to Alberto Milone
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add ONE of the following lines based on your architecture
deb http://www.albertomilone.com/drivers/edgy/latest/32bit binary/
deb http://www.albertomilone.com/drivers/edgy/latest/64bit binary/
  • Save the edited file
  • Add the GPG key
wget http://albertomilone.com/drivers/tseliot.asc
gpg --import tseliot.asc
gpg --export --armor albertomilone@alice.it | sudo apt-key add -
  • Update and install
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install nvidia-glx
sudo apt-get upgrade
  • The upgrade should update your linux-restricted-modules & linux-restricted-modules-common packages.
sudo nvidia-xconfig
  • Add a menu option for nVidia Settings
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/NVIDIA-Settings.desktop
  • Insert these lines in the new file and save
[Desktop Entry]
Name=NVIDIA Settings
Comment=NVIDIA Settings
Exec=nvidia-settings
Icon=
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;System;
  • Restart the computer and your new drivers should be installed.

How to setup pivot (screen rotation) with default X.org NVIDIA drivers

  • Some LCD monitors are equipped with the pivot feature, to take advantage of it the display has to be rotated 90 degrees. The default nVidia drivers shipped with X.org ("nv") support software screen rotation. Note that it's unaccelerated and can be slow, read #How to install Graphics Driver (NVIDIA) if you decide to install the proprietary driver.
  • To rotate the screen find the "Device" section for the "nv" driver in the /etc/X11/xorg.conf file:
Section "Device"                                                                
       Identifier      "NVIDIA Corporation NV34 [GeForce FX 5200]"
       Driver          "nv"
  • Add the following options to this section:
       Option "Rotate" "CW"

Where the "Rotate" option has two possible values (depending on the orientation of the monitor):

  1. CW - rotate the display clockwise (right).
  2. CCW - rotate the display counterclockwise (right).

How to setup pivot (screen rotation) with proprietary NVIDIA drivers

  • Some LCD monitors are equipped with the pivot feature, to take advantage of it the display has to be rotated 90 degrees. The proprietary nVidia drivers support hardware rotation with the Xrandr extension.
  • To enable rotation support find the "Device" section for the "nvidia" driver in the /etc/X11/xorg.conf file:
Section "Device"                                                                
       Identifier      "NVIDIA Corporation NV34 [GeForce FX 5200]"
       Driver          "nvidia"
  • Add the following option to this section:
       Option          "RandRRotation" "on"
  • Then the display can be rotated (direction depends on the orientation of the monitor) by:
  1. Setting the "Rotation" property to either "Left" or "Right" in the "System > Preferences > Screen Resolution" dialog.
  2. Issuing either "xrandr -o left" or "xrandr -o right" command.

How to disable NVIDIA graphics logo on GNOME startup

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Find this section
 ...
Section "Device"
	Identifier	"NVIDIA Corporation NV11 [GeForce2 MX/MX 400]"
	Driver		"nvidia"
	BusID		"PCI:1:0:0"
...
  • Add the following line below it
   Option		"NoLogo"

How to install Graphics Driver (ATI)

How to Correct the Graphics Resolution (Intel)

  • Intel 915g, 945g, etc. graphics chipsets only have a limited set of resolutions initially installed, despite the correct driver being detected.
  • Install the resolution altering tool:
sudo apt-get install 915resolution
  • Run the following to see the availible modes:
915resolution -l
  • Choose a resolution you don't need and replace, for example the following changes 1920x1440 to 1920x1200
915resolution 5c 1920 1200
  • This should add the option for that resolution to the "System>Preferences>Screen Resolution" tool.
  • If it works correctly then you can make the change permanent:
sudo gedit /etc/rc.local
  • Simply add the command you typed in above before:
exit 0

How to show nvidia GPU temperature (nvidia-settings)

At a terminal, type

nvidia-settings

How to detect CPU temperature, fan speeds and voltages (lm-sensors)

sudo apt-get install lm-sensors

Create file called mkdev.sh, and paste in the following

#!/bin/bash

# Here you can set several defaults.

# The number of devices to create (max: 256)
NUMBER=32

# The owner and group of the devices
OUSER=root
OGROUP=root
# The mode of the devices
MODE=600

# This script doesn't need to be run if devfs is used
if [ -r /proc/mounts ] ; then
if grep -q "/dev devfs" /proc/mounts ; then
echo "You do not need to run this script as your system uses devfs."
exit;
fi
fi

i=0;

while [ $i -lt $NUMBER ] ; do
echo /dev/i2c-$i
mknod -m $MODE /dev/i2c-$i c 89 $i || exit
chown "$OUSER:$OGROUP" /dev/i2c-$i || exit
i=$[$i + 1]
done
#end of file

Make this file executable, then run it

sudo chmod +x mkdev.sh
sudo ./mkdev.sh

Now detect sensors, and answer "y" to all questions.

sudo sensors-detect

To load the manual modules, type

sudo /etc/init.d/module-init-tools

Load the modules into kernel with

sudo sensors -s

And check the output

sudo sensors

How to control fan speed (lm-sensors)

Install and config lm-sensors first, see section above. Then run pwmconfig to test your fans

pwmconfig

If you can control fan speeds, great. Now creat a file called /etc/init.d/fancontrol, and paste in the following

#!/bin/sh
#
# Fancontrol start script.
#

set -e

# Defaults
DAEMON=/usr/sbin/fancontrol
PIDFILE=/var/run/fancontrol-pid
PATH=/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin

test -f $DAEMON || exit 0

. /lib/lsb/init-functions


case "$1" in
       start)
               log_begin_msg "Starting fancontrol daemon..."
               start-stop-daemon --start -o -q -m -b -p $PIDFILE -x $DAEMON
               log_end_msg $?
               ;;
       stop)
               log_begin_msg "Stopping fancontrol daemon..."
               start-stop-daemon --stop -o -q -p $PIDFILE
               log_end_msg $?
               ;;
       force-reload|restart)
               sh $0 stop
               sh $0 start
               ;;
       *)
               log_success_msg "Usage: /etc/init.d/fancontrol {start|stop|restart|force-reload}"
               log_success_msg "  start - starts system-wide fancontrol service"
               log_success_msg "  stop  - stops system-wide fancontrol service"
               log_success_msg "  restart, force-reload - starts a new system-wide fancontrol service"
               exit 1
               ;;
esac

exit 0

Make it excutable

sudo chmod +x /etc/init.d/fancontrol

Test it

/etc/init.d/fancontrol start

and

/etc/init.d/fancontrol stop

If it works fine, autoload it when you reboot. Insert the following line into /etc/rc.local, before "exit 0"

/etc/init.d/fancontrol start

How to monitor CPU, GPU temperatures, fan speeds and voltages (GKrellM)

  • Install hddtemp first to monitor hard drive temperatures
sudo apt-get install hddtemp

GKrellM is a hardware monitor that can display CPU and GPU temperatures, fan speeds, voltages, CPU load, network load, disk activity, disk temperature, memory usage, and swap usage. The installation is very easy, and configuration is just a few mouse-clicks. You can set alerts to warn you if the CPU is too hot or there is a fan failure. The hddtemp utility works with GKrellM to allow it to sense the disk temperature, as keeping your disks cool (e.g. less than around 40C) will allow them to last longer than if they run continually at higher temperatures (e.g. above 50C).

sudo apt-get install gkrellm

To run the program

Click Applications -> System Tools -> GKrellM

To configure the settings,

Right click on GKrellM -> Configuration

I was struggling with lm_sensors before, but it doesn't detect all of the sensors on my computer. Later I found "GKrellM". It displays the GPU temperature on my nVidia 6600 GT out of the box. GKrellM also has plugins that show weather info, set reminders, etc.

Add an audio alert (optional Step): Here is how to play an audio message when the CPU is too hot or a fan fails. First you need to find or record your own audio alert files. (I use Audacity to record my own.) Then go to:

Configuration -> Builtins folder (Left side)-> Sensors -> Temperatures folder (Right side)-> CPU -> Alerts Button

Paste ONE of the following lines into a Terminal window first to test the sound. If you have two sound cards, you can use "-ao oss:/dev/dsp1" option to route the sound to the second sound card. Modify the file path and name so it points to the correct file. If you can hear the sound, then copy that line to a command line text field on the GKrellM's Alerts window.

mplayer /home/myfolder/alert_messages/heat_alert.mp3
mplayer -ao oss:/dev/dsp1 /home/myfolder/alert_messages/heat_alert.mp3

Modems / Network

How to identify Modem chipset

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/scanModem.gz
gunzip -c scanModem.gz > scanModem
chmod +x scanModem
sudo cp scanModem /usr/bin/
  • To identify Modem chipset
sudo scanModem
gedit Modem/ModemData.txt

How to install Windows Wireless Drivers (Ndiswrapper)

  • Find out if you have acx module loaded. Because acx module interferes with windows driver, we need to remove it if it is found.
lsmod | grep acx
  • Remove the acx module if found. It could also be acx_pci or similar. Please Note: New kernel updates will auto load the acx module again. So repeat the following two commands every time the kernel is updated.
sudo rmmod acx
sudo nano /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist
  • Add a new list at the end of the file like this:
# drivers wireless ACX
blacklist acx
  • Install ndiswrapper and drivers (due to a bug in Edgy, you need to specify ndiswrapper-utils-1.8)
sudo apt-get install ndiswrapper-utils-1.8
sudo ndiswrapper -i /location_of_your_wireless_driver/your_driver.inf
sudo ndiswrapper -l
sudo modprobe ndiswrapper
  • Set ndiswrapper to load on startup
sudo ndiswrapper -m
gksudo gedit /etc/modules
  • Add the following module to the list
ndiswrapper
  • Now you can configure your wireless card with ifconfig and iwconfig.
e.g. Supposing wlan0 is your wireless device.
sudo iwconfig wlan0 essid "AP" key ababababababababab mode Managed
iwconfig
  • You sould now be able to see the MAC address of the access point and signal rate.

Ndiswrapper for Broadcom 43xx wireless chipset

  • The Broadcom 43xx (bcm43xx) wireless chipset is one of the most common chipsets, so special scripts have been written for it.
  • Only follow this if you have a bcm43xx device. To check in the Terminal type:
lspci | grep Broadcom\ Corporation

If it displays a line similar to this,

0000:02:02.0 Network controller: Broadcom Corporation BCM4306 802.11b/g Wireless LAN Controller (rev 03)

you have a Broadcom wireless chipset. Please proceed with the instructions.

  • Put the Ubuntu CD that you installed Ubuntu with in the CD drive.
  • Download this to the desktop (the Firefox default, so if you haven't changed it, that's where it went/will go).
  • In a terminal type
cd ~/Desktop (or wherever you downloaded the file)
tar -xf bcm4318*.tar.gz
sudo ./ndiswrapper_setup

Your wireless chipset should now work. Try rebooting if you have problems. Please see this thread if you have problems: http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=197102&highlight=install+ndiswrapper

How to enable WPA with Ndiswrapper driver

  • First, make sure the Ndiswrapper driver works by itself without encryption.
  • Create a file called /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf, and paste in the following. Modify the ssid and psk values.
ctrl_interface=/var/run/wpa_supplicant
 network={
   ssid="YourWiFiSSID"
   psk="YourWiFiPassword"
   key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
   proto=WPA
   pairwise=TKIP
 }
  • Test it. Make sure your router is broadcasting its SSID.
sudo wpa_supplicant -Dwext -iwlan0 -c/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf -dd
  • If your WPA works. Load it automatically when you reboot.
gksudo gedit /etc/network/interfaces
  • Change your wlan0 section to the following.

If you are using static IP:

auto wlan0
iface wlan0 inet static
address 192.168.1.20
netmask 255.255.255.0
gateway 192.168.1.1
pre-up wpa_supplicant -Bw -Dwext -iwlan0 -c/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
post-down killall -q wpa_supplicant

or this, if you are using dhcp.

auto wlan0
iface wlan0 inet dhcp
pre-up wpa_supplicant -Bw -Dwext -iwlan0 -c/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
post-down killall -q wpa_supplicant


  • Reboot

How to install Modem Driver (SmartLink)

uname -r (must be 2.6.10-5-386)
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/sl-modem-modules-2.6.10-5-386_2.9.9a-1ubuntu2+2.6.10-34_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i sl-modem-modules-*.deb
sudo apt-get install sl-modem-daemon

Palm

How to configure PalmOS Devices

gksudo gedit /etc/udev/rules.d/10-custom.rules
  • Insert the following line into the new file
BUS="usb", SYSFS{product}="Palm Handheld*", KERNEL="ttyUSB*", NAME{ignore_remove}="pilot", MODE="666"
  • Save the edited file
  • Add the pilot-applet to the Taskbar by Right-Clicking on an empty spot
  • Follow the instructions on screen

Hard Drive

How to list partition tables

sudo fdisk -l
  • You can also use System -> Administration -> Disks

How to list filesystem disk space usage

df -Th
  • You can also use System -> Administration -> Disks

How to list mounted devices

mount

How to remount /etc/fstab without rebooting

sudo mount -a

USB

How to list USB devices

lsusb

Optical Drives

How to speed up CD/DVD-ROM

e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo hdparm -d1 /dev/cdrom
sudo cp /etc/hdparm.conf /etc/hdparm.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/hdparm.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
/dev/cdrom {
    dma = on
}
  • Save the edited file

How to mount/unmount CD/DVD-ROM manually, and show all hidden and associated files/folders

e.g. Assumed that /media/cdrom0/ is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
  • To mount CD/DVD-ROM
sudo mount /media/cdrom0/ -o unhide
  • To unmount CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /media/cdrom0/

How to forcefully unmount CD/DVD-ROM manually

e.g. Assumed that /media/cdrom0/ is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /media/cdrom0/ -l


Monitors / Displays

How to enable Large Widescreen Support

  • 24/23" widescreen monitors sometimes have issues running 1920x1200.
  • Examples include: Dell 2405, HP 2335 or an Apple Cinema Display.
sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Add the following line to the appropriate "Monitor" section
Modeline	"1920x1200" 154 1920 1968 2000 2080 1200 1203 1209 1235
  • For example the HP2335 should now look like:
Section "Monitor"
	Identifier	"hp L2335"
	Option		"DPMS"
	Modeline	"1920x1200" 154 1920 1968 2000 2080 1200 1203 1209 1235
EndSection

How to enable CRT output (external monitor/projector) for notebooks (Intel)

Note: Valid for Intel® graphics controller-based products only

sudo apt-get install i810switch

Turn on CRT output

i810switch crt on

Turn off CRT output

i810switch crt off

Sound

How to setup the surround speakers (5.1 and others) with ALSA

  • Edit the ~/.asoundrc file, create it if it doesn't exist:
gedit ~/.asoundrc
  • Enter the following section:
pcm.!default {
    type plug
    slave.pcm "surround51"
    slave.channels 6
    route_policy duplicate
}
  • This will allow to play the surround output and duplicate the stereo output to all 6 channels (not only front ones).


How to change default soundcard

  • View available soundcards
sudo asoundconf list
  • You should get something like this
Names of available sound cards:
  Live
  V8237
  • Switch soundcard with 'example' being the name of the preferred soundcard
sudo asoundconf set-default-card example

Misc

How to list PCI devices

lspci


How to install a Wacom tablet

For a detailed guide with screenshots about how to configure the "Extended input devices" in your graphic applications, please follow the official Dapper guide at https://wiki.ubuntu.com//Wacom

With the version of the Linux Wacom driver (0.7.2) in Ubuntu 6.06 Dapper Drake, if you unplug you tablet, it won't function when you plug it back in and you will have to restart X. For this reason, it is best to leave the tablet plugged in. This limitation will be removed when the 0.7.4 version of the driver is included in Ubuntu.

  • 1. Using Synaptic package manager, check if the packages xserver-xorg-input-wacom and wacom-tools are already installed - if not, install them. If you prefer using the command line, you can also execute :
     sudo apt-get install xserver-xorg-input-wacom wacom-tools
  • 2. Save a copy of your /etc/X11/xorg.conf :
      sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.backup
  • then edit it with the command line :
      gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • and change all /dev/wacom occurences into /dev/input/wacom (created by wacom-tools udev scripts), then save the file.
  • You should be ready to go after you have restarted X. Remember to configure the "Extended input devices" in your graphic applications (Gimp, Inkscape), however you can already check if it's working by moving your stylus on the tablet : the mouse cursor should go through the whole screen.

CD/DVD Burning

How to blank CD-RW/DVD-RW

e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /dev/cdrom
cdrecord dev=/dev/cdrom blank=fast

How to burn files/folders into CD/DVD

nautilus burn:///
  • File Browser: CD/DVD Creator
  • Drag files/folders into window
File Menu -> Write to Disc... -> Write

How to burn Image (ISO) files into CD/DVD

Right click on Image (ISO) file -> Write to Disc... -> Write

How to duplicate CD/DVD

How to create Image (ISO) files from CD/DVD

e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /dev/cdrom
dd if=/dev/cdrom of=file.iso bs=1024

How to create Image (ISO) files from folders

mkisofs -r -o file.iso /location_of_folder/

How to generate MD5 checksum files

md5sum file.iso > file.iso.md5

How to check MD5 checksum of files

e.g. Assumed that file.iso and file.iso.md5 are in the same folder
md5sum -c file.iso.md5

How to mount/unmount Image (ISO) files without burning

sudo mkdir /media/iso
sudo modprobe loop
sudo mount file.iso /media/iso/ -t iso9660 -o loop
  • To unmount Image (ISO) file
sudo umount /media/iso/

How to set/change the burn speed for CD/DVD Burner

  • Read #General Notes
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> default_speed (set/change the burn speed)

How to enable burnproof for CD/DVD Burner

  • Read #General Notes
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> burnproof (Checked)

How to enable overburn for CD/DVD Burner

  • Read #General Notes
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> overburn (Checked)

Networking

How to configure Google Talk

How to activate/deactivate network connections

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Networking
  • Network settings
Connections Tab -> Select "Ethernet connection" -> Activate/Deactivate

How to configure network connections

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Networking
  • Network settings
Connections Tab -> Select "Ethernet connection" -> Properties
Connection -> Enable this connection (Checked)
Connection Settings -> Configuration: Select "DHCP/Static IP address"
DNS Tab -> DNS Servers -> Add/Delete

How to configure dialup connections

sudo pppconfig
  • To connect dialup
sudo pon provider_name
  • To disconnect dialup
sudo poff

How to configure broadband connections

sudo pppoeconf

How to change computer name

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Networking
  • Network settings
General Tab -> Host Settings -> Hostname: Specify the computer name 
  • Save and close all opened applications, Reboot computer

How to change computer descriptions

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
  server string = %h server (Samba, Ubuntu)
...
  • Replace with the following line
  server string = new_computer_descriptions
  • Save the edited file
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to change computer Domain/Workgroup

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
  workgroup = MSHOME
...
  • Replace with the following line
  workgroup = new_domain_or_workgroup
  • Save the edited file
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to assign Hostname to local machine with dynamic IP using free DynDNS service

sudo apt-get install ipcheck
gksudo gedit /etc/ppp/ip-up.d/dyndns_update.sh
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
 #!/bin/sh

 USERNAME=myusername
 PASSWORD=mypassword
 HOSTNAME=myhostname.dyndns.org

 cd /root/
 if [ -f /root/ipcheck.dat ]; then
  ipcheck -r checkip.dyndns.org:8245 $USERNAME $PASSWORD $HOSTNAME
 else
  ipcheck --makedat -r checkip.dyndns.org:8245 $USERNAME $PASSWORD $HOSTNAME
 fi
  • Save the edited file
sudo chmod 700 /etc/ppp/ip-up.d/dyndns_update.sh
sudo sh /etc/ppp/ip-up.d/dyndns_update.sh

How to share folders the easy way

Right click on folder -> Share folder
Shared folder -> Share with: Select "SMB"
Share properties -> Name: Specify the share name

How to browse network computers

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
If computers or network folders could not be found, try access them directly
Read #How to access network folders without mounting
  • Places -> Network Servers

How to access network folders without mounting

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Shared folder's name: linux
  • Press 'Alt+F2' (Run Application...) and enter:
smb://192.168.0.1/linux

How to mount/unmount network folders manually, and allow all users to read

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
  • To mount network folder
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
sudo mount //192.168.0.1/linux /media/sharename/ -o username=myusername,password=mypassword
  • To unmount network folder
sudo umount /media/sharename/

How to mount/unmount network folders manually, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
  • To mount network folder
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
sudo mount //192.168.0.1/linux /media/sharename/ -o username=myusername,password=mypassword,dmask=777,fmask=777
  • To unmount network folder
sudo umount /media/sharename/

How to mount network folders on boot-up, and allow all users to read

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
gksudo gedit /root/.smbcredentials
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
username=myusername
password=mypassword 
  • Save the edited file
sudo chmod 700 /root/.smbcredentials
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file
//192.168.0.1/linux    /media/sharename smbfs  credentials=/root/.smbcredentials    0    0

How to mount network folders on boot-up, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
gksudo gedit /root/.smbcredentials
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
username=myusername
password=mypassword
  • Save the edited file
sudo chmod 700 /root/.smbcredentials
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file
//192.168.0.1/linux    /media/sharename smbfs  credentials=/root/.smbcredentials,dmask=777,fmask=777  0    0

How to get ipw2200 and wpa to work

How to get ipw3945 and wep/wpa to work

See the daemon source and the Intel ipw3945 project page.

OR

  • Install the daemon using apt (recommended for new users):
sudo apt-get install linux-restricted-modules-generic
reboot your system and you should have wireless internet/network.

How to Configure and start PPTP tunnels (VPN)

OR
  • Install manually
wget -c http://linux.edu.lv/uploads/content/pptp.tar.gz
tar zxvf pptp.tar.gz
sudo sh ./pptp/install
  • To configure PPTP Client
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/pptpconfig.desktop
  • Replace content of this file with the following lines
[Desktop Entry]
Name=PPTP Client
Comment=Configure and start PPTP tunnels (VPN)
Categories=Application;Network
Encoding=UTF-8
Exec=gksudo pptpconfig
Icon=gnome-remote-desktop.png
StartupNotify=true
Terminal=false
Type=Application
  • The above lines change the default file in three ways: the application is placed in the Application/Internet category, gksudo will make the application run as superuser and we put a nice icon that appears in the menu.
  • Start the client with Applications -> Internet -> PPTP Client

How to Configure Ubuntu/Kubuntu with WPA using Network-Manager

Ubuntu Dapper in typical cases can configure WPA to work out of the box with minimal hassle. You'll need to install network-manager.


For Ubuntu:

sudo apt-get install network-manager-gnome

For Kubuntu (will install knetworkmanager):

sudo apt-get install network-manager-kde

Logout/Reboot.

Ubuntu users should now see the NetworkManager Applet in the Gnome notification area. Kubuntu users will probably have to run knetworkmanager before they see NetworkManager in the systray.

If instead, you get a "The NetworkManager applet could not find some required resources. It cannot continue." message, then:

sudo gtk-update-icon-cache -f /usr/share/icons/hicolor

Once Network-Manager is installed, click on the NM icon in the notification area (default is at the top right of Ubuntu/Gnome). Choose your network, then enter your passphrase. Type a password for the keyring, and you're set.

If you don't see your network, click "Create New Wireless Network...", type your essid/networkname, then choose "WPA Personal" for wireless security.

  • Note: If you installed Kubuntu then installed ubuntu-desktop & network-manager-gnome, you may not be able to use network-manager in Gnome, if at all. In this case, you may have to use WPA Supplicant and do some manual editing of conf files to get WPA up and running.
  • Note: When you first log into Gnome/KDE, the keyring application will ask for a password. Future revisions of Network-Manager should resolve this.

Remote Access

Remote Login via XDMCP

What is XDMCP?

GNOME windows can support several different users simultaniously. Unlike vncviewer that just duplicates the current screen on a remote system, XDMCP allows several different users to login and run different GNOME sessions at the same time. So if you have a fast computer runing Ubuntu, several users can use their slow machines to login and run heavy applications only available on the fast machine.

How to turn on the XDMCP feature

To turn on the XDMCP feature on the fast computer, click the menu

System -> Administration -> Login Window 

In the Login Window Preferences dialog window, select

Remote Tab -> Style: Same as Local ->  Close the dialog window -> Restart the PC
How to login from another PC running Ubuntu
1. Reboot the slow PC and stop at the login screen
2. Click Options at the lower left corner of the login screen
3. Select "Remote Login via XDMCP"
4. On the dialog window, type in the host name or ip of the fast computer you want to login to


Remote Desktop Sharing/Duplication via VNC

How to configure remote desktop (not secure)
Warning! Remote Desktop will only work if there's a GNOME login session
Leaving computer with an unattended GNOME login session is not secure
Use (System -> Lock Screen) and switch off the monitor when computer is left unattended
  • System -> Preferences -> Remote Desktop
  • Remote Desktop Preferences
Sharing ->
Allow other users to view your desktop (Checked)
Allow other users to control your desktop (Checked)
Security ->
Ask you for confirmation (Un-Checked)
Require the user to enter this password: (Checked)
Password: Specify the password
How to connect into remote Ubuntu desktop
e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have configured Remote Desktop
Read #How to configure remote desktop (not secure)
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
vncviewer -fullscreen 192.168.0.1:0
  • To quit vncviewer
Press 'F8' -> Quit viewer
How to connect into remote Ubuntu desktop via Windows machine
e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have configured Remote Desktop
Read #How to configure remote desktop (not secure)
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
  • If you have a router remember to open the appropiate port. The default one is 5900
This process is called port forwarding port forwarding
  • Download DotNetVNC: Here or RealVNC Here
this is a free DotNet version that require the DotNet framework available from microsoft here
The RealVNC website was created and maintained by the original developers of VNC during their time at AT&T. RealVNC comes in Free, Personal, and Enterprise editions - the latter two costing money.
  • Open the VNC client you have chosen, and insert the connection string formatted like this <LINUX BOX IP><:DESKTOP NUMBER>|<::PORT>
In example use: 192.168.1.2:0 or 192.168.1.2::5900 to connect to desktop 0, to connect to desktop 1 use 192.168.1.2:1 or 192.168.1.2::5901 and so on
How to connect into remote Ubuntu desktop via OSX
e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have configured Remote Desktop
Read #How to configure remote desktop (not secure)
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
  • If you have a router remember to open the appropiate port the default one is 5900
This process is called port forwarding port forwarding
  • Download ChickenOfTheVNC: Here
  • Open ChickenOfTheVNC, and insert the host (IP adress of remote machine), the display number (0 is default and is port 5900) and the password.
In example use: Host: 192.168.0.1, Display 0, Password: password

Windows

How to mount/unmount Windows partitions (NTFS) manually, and allow all users to read only


e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (NTFS)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
  • To mount Windows partition
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo mount /dev/hda1 /media/windows/ -t ntfs -o nls=utf8,umask=0222
  • To unmount Windows partition
sudo umount /media/windows/

How to mount/unmount Windows partitions (FAT) manually, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (FAT)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
  • To mount Windows partition
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo mount /dev/hda1 /media/windows/ -t vfat -o iocharset=utf8,umask=000
  • To unmount Windows partition
sudo umount /media/windows/

How to mount Windows partitions (NTFS) on boot-up, and allow all users to read only

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (NTFS)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file
/dev/hda1    /media/windows ntfs  nls=utf8,umask=0222 0    0

How to mount Windows partitions (FAT) on boot-up, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (FAT)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file
/dev/hda1    /media/windows vfat  iocharset=utf8,umask=000  0    0

How to mount Windows partitions (NTFS) on boot-up, and allow users read and write access

Warning: The software you will use is still in Beta. You should not enable it on production machines

sudo apt-get install ntfs-3g
  • Create the local mount folder and edit the fstab file to mount the disks to this folder.
e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (NTFS)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab.bak
gksudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file.
/dev/hda1    /media/windows    ntfs-3g    defaults,locale=en_US.utf8    0    0
  • You can adjust your locale. Execute 'locale -a' in a terminal to know which one are supported by your system.
  • Save the edited file.
  • If you reboot now, the disk will be writable to every users. If you want the changes to take effect immediately without rebooting, execute the following command, ignoring the errors about "/" and others not being unmounted.
sudo umount -a && sudo mount -a

Security

What are the basic things I need to know about securing my Ubuntu

  • Read #General Notes
  • Ensure hard drive is first in BIOS boot-up sequence
    • To prevent trespassers from using Linux Installation CD which allows them to gain root user access
    • To prevent trespassers from using Linux Live CD (e.g. UBUNTU/KNOPPIX/MEPIS) which allows them to destroy/browse/share the entire hard drive
    • To prevent trespassers from installing another Operating System
  • Ensure a password is set for BIOS
    • To prevent trespassers from changing the BIOS boot-up sequence
  • Ensure computer is located at a secured place
    • To prevent trespassers from removing computer's hard drive which allows them to destroy/browse/share the entire hard drive from a different computer
    • To prevent trespassers from removing computer's on-board battery which resets the BIOS password
  • Ensure passwords used on the system cannot be easily guessed
    • To prevent trespassers from cracking password file using brute force attacks (e.g. John the Ripper)
    • Create password with minimum length of 8 characters
    • Create password with mixture of characters/numbers, and upper/lower case
    • Not create a password with just a single or just a typical union of main languages (english, german, french, spanish...) dictionary words
  • Ensure interactive editing control for GRUB menu is disabled
  • Ensure history listing is disabled in Console mode
  • Ensure Ctrl+Alt+Del is disabled in Console mode
  • Ensure interactive option is set for remove, copy and move of files/folders in Console mode
  • For day to day usage, login as a normal user
  • Disable root user account, use "sudo" instead
    • To reduce the amount of time spent with root privileges, and thus the risk of inadvertently executing a command as root
    • "sudo" provides a more useful audit trail (/var/log/auth.log)
    • Read #How to disable root user account
  • Install a Firewall
  • Perform vulnerability test

How to disable all interactive editing control for GRUB menu

  • Run This:
grub-md5-crypt 
Password: 
Retype password: 
$1$tumnZ1$xB/shuXs7MlawZXkLiBDV/
  • Backup your current configuration file
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this section
...
## password ['--md5'] passwd
# If used in the first section of a menu file, disable all interactive editing
# control (menu entry editor and command-line) and entries protected by the
# command 'lock'
# e.g. password topsecret
#   password --md5 $1$tumnZ1$xB/shuXs7MlawZXkLiBDV/
# password topsecret
...
  • Add the following line below it
password --md5 $1$tumnZ1$xB/shuXs7MlawZXkLiBDV/ (encrypted password above)
  • Find the section(s) that look like this (note the 'recovery mode' and the word 'single'):
...
title		Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (recovery mode)
root		(hd0,1)
kernel		/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro single
initrd		/boot/initrd.img-2.6.10-5-386
savedefault
boot
...
  • Add lock between the title and root lines:
...
title		Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (recovery mode)
lock
root		(hd0,1)
...
  • Save the edited file

This will make it so your grub console will require a password to edit the lines, and the recovery modes won't work unless the password is typed. To access the other grub options at the menu, follow the instructions at the bottom of the screen. It will be something like pressing p and typing your password.

How to disable history listing in Console mode

rm -f .bash_history
gedit ~/.bash_profile
  • Add the following:
export HISTFILESIZE=4
unset HISTFILE=5

# Change this to a reasonable number of lines to save, I like to save only 100.
export HISTSIZE=1

# Ignores duplicate lines next to each other
export HISTCONTROL=ignoredups

This will disable Bash history for the user, retaining keystroke history and recall to use while limiting recall history to 100 lines. This will also not record duplicate lines next to each other.

How to disable Ctrl+Alt+Del from restarting computer in Console mode

sudo cp /etc/inittab /etc/inittab_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/inittab
  • Find this line
...
ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -r now
...
  • Replace with the following line
#ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -r now
  • Save the edited file
sudo telinit q

How to enable prompt before removal/overwritten of files/folders in Console mode

sudo cp /etc/bash.bashrc /etc/bash.bashrc_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/bash.bashrc
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
alias rm='rm -i'
alias cp='cp -i'
alias mv='mv -i'
  • Save the edited file

How to setup a LoJack system for your laptop


What: Quote from Wikipedia: "LoJack is an aftermarket vehicle tracking system that allows cars to be tracked by police after being stolen. The manufacturer claims a 90% recovery rate. The name "LoJack" is a play on the word "hijack," meaning the theft of a vehicle through force."

Why: If your laptop is ever stolen and connected to the Internet. You will be able to find out from what IP it connects to the Internet from and contact the authorities.

How:

  • Get a free dynamic IP account from one of the many providers. Here we will use DynDNS.
sudo apt-get install ddclient 
  • Edit the configuration file /etc/ddclient.conf using you fevorite text editor (emacs, gedit, kedit or even vi)
sudo emacs /etc/ddclient.conf
  • Make it look like this:
# Configuration file for ddclient generated by debconf
#
# /etc/ddclient.conf
pid=/var/run/ddclient.pid
protocol=dyndns2
use=web
server=members.dyndns.org
login=YourNameHere
password='YourPasswordHere'
YourHostNameHere.gotmyip.com
NOTE:
* Make sure that you use the web IP detection method.
* Specify your own user id instead of the place holder YourNameHere.
* Specify your own password instead of the place holder YourPasswordHere, make sure to surround it with single quotes.
* The last line should specify the hostname you registered with the dynamic IP service.
  • You can now start the ddclient daemon, or wait until your next reboot.
sudo /etc/init.d/ddclient start
  • The hostname you registered with your dynamic IP service should be updated. You can test it with the ping command:
ping YourHostNameHere.gotmyip.com
Even if your laptop has a firewall that prevents pings the hostname should resolve to the IP of the network gateway that your laptop is connected to.
Now all that is left is for someone to steal your laptop.....

References:

Boot Menu

How to gain root user access without login

  • Read #General Notes
  • Easiest method (will not work if GRUB menu password is set)
    • Boot-up computer
    • If GRUB menu is hidden, press 'Esc' to enter the GRUB menu
    • Select
Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (recovery mode)

How to modify kernel boot-up arguments, to gain root user access

  • Read #General Notes
  • Boot-up computer
  • If GRUB menu is hidden, press 'Esc' to enter the GRUB menu
  • If GRUB password is set, press 'p' to unlock the GRUB menu
  • Select
Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386
  • Press 'e' to edit the commands before booting
  • Select
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro quiet splash
  • Press 'e' to edit the selected command in the boot sequence
  • Add "rw init=/bin/bash" to the end of the arguments
grub edit> kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro quiet splash rw init=/bin/bash
  • Press 'b' to boot

How to use Ubuntu Installation CD, to gain root user access

  • Read #General Notes
  • Boot-up computer into Ubuntu Installation CD
  • At "boot:" prompt, add "rescue" to the argument
boot: rescue
  • Follow the instructions on screen

How to change root user/main user password if forgotten

# passwd root
  • To change main user password
# passwd system_main_username

How to change GRUB menu password if forgotten

grub
grub> md5crypt
Password: ****** (ubuntu)
Encrypted: $1$ZWnke0$1fzDBVjUcT1Mpdd4u/T961 (encrypted password)
grub> quit
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this line
...
password --md5 $1$gLhU0/$aW78kHK1QfV3P2b2znUoe/
...
  • Replace with the following line
password --md5 $1$ZWnke0$1fzDBVjUcT1Mpdd4u/T961 (encrypted password above)
  • Save the edited file

How to restore GRUB menu after Windows installation

How to identify the name of the boot drive (hd0, hd1, hd2, etc)

Press "c" on boot menu. If you don't see a boot menu, press ESC key first when booting to show the boot menu.

Type:

root (hd0,0)

Most likely you will get "(hd0,0) ext2fs", which should be your current Linux drive. Now change hd0 to hd1 to see what is there.

root (hd1,0)

If you get "(hd1,0) filesystem type unknown, partition type 0x7", then hd1 is a Windows drive.

Now change hd1 to hd2, keep going until you reach hd7.

How to add Windows entry into GRUB menu

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
title		Microsoft Windows
rootnoverify	(hd0,0)
savedefault
makeactive
chainloader	+1
  • Save the edited file

How to boot into Windows installed on a seperate SATA drive

This configuration applies to people who have Linux installed on a IDE drive, and Windows installed on a seperate SATA. The IDE drive boots first, so we need to add an entry to the boot menu on the Linux disk. Here we assume the name of your Windows drive is hd1. If you are not sure, click the link above to find out.

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Append the following lines at the end of file.
title           Windows XP on SATA drive
map (hd0) (hd1)
map (hd1) (hd0)
chainloader (hd1,0)+1
  • Save the edited file

How to read Linux partitions (ext2, ext3) in Windows machine

OR

TipsAndTricks

How to enable lame for FFMPEG (needed to encode FLV with sound)

KINO FLVs silent? You need to recompile FFMPEG with LAME enabled. FFMPEG can be installed via apt-get as a package, but is not able encode MP3, which is the audio stream in FLV video (like Google & YouTube).

sudo apt-get install lame gcc
  • Download and extract FFMPEG source to current working directory
sudo apt-get source ffmpeg
sudo tar fvxz ffmpeg_[complete with actual filename]
  • Compile FFMPEG from source
cd ffmpeg-[complete with actual directory name]
sudo ./configure --enable-mp3lame
sudo make
sudo make install

If an application you are using employs FFMPEG to encode FLV, it should now work properly. You can also call FFMPEG directly from the command line. The extension/suffix of the outfile tells FFMPEG which audio or video format to encode to.

ffmpeg [-i infile] [outfile]

How to enable smooth fonts

gedit ~/.fonts.conf
  • Paste in this text:
<?xml version=”1.0” ?>
<!DOCTYPE fontconfig SYSTEM “fonts.dtd”>
<fontconfig>
<match target=”font”>
<edit name=”autohint” mode=”assign”>
<bool>true</bool>
</edit>
</match>
</fontconfig>
  • You’ll have to log out and back in to see the difference.

How to restart GNOME without rebooting computer

Press 'Ctrl + Alt + Backspace'

or
sudo /etc/init.d/gdm restart

How to turn on Num Lock on GNOME startup

sudo apt-get install numlockx
sudo cp /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default
  • Find this line
...
exit 0
  • Add the following lines above it
if [ -x /usr/bin/numlockx ]; then
 /usr/bin/numlockx on
fi

How to remap the Caps Lock key as another Control key

gksudo gedit /etc/console-tools/remap
In the Console
  • Change
#s/keycode  58 = Caps_Lock/keycode  58 = Control/;

to

s/keycode  58 = Caps_Lock/keycode  58 = Control/;
  • Save your work
sudo /etc/init.d/console-screen.sh
  • Try using it
In X Windows
gksudo gedit ~/.Xmodmap
  • Add this:
keycode 66 = Control_L
clear Lock
add Control = Control_L

  • Now, apply the changes.
xmodmap ~/.Xmodmap
  • To apply them on startup
    • If ~/.xinitrc does not exist,
cp /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc ~/.xinitrc
  • In all cases
gedit ~/.xinitrc
  • Make the first line this:
xmodmap ~/.Xmodmap
  • Restart X (Ctrl - Alt - Backspace)
  • Log In, a dialog should pop up, add .Xmodmap to the left side with the add button, and Save.

How to run programs on startup when login into GNOME

Startup Programs Tab -> Add/Edit/Delete

How to speed-up your Ubuntu box

How to switch to Console mode in GNOME

Press 'Ctrl + Alt + F1' (F2 - F6)
  • To switch between consoles in Console mode
Press 'Alt + F1' (F2 - F6)
  • To switch back to GNOME mode
Press 'Alt + F7'

How to disable Ctrl+Alt+Backspace from restarting X in GNOME

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
Section "ServerFlags"
	Option		"DontZap"		"yes"
EndSection

How to enable Ctrl+Alt+Del to open System Monitor in GNOME

gconftool-2 -t str --set /apps/metacity/global_keybindings/run_command_9 "<Control><Alt>Delete"
gconftool-2 -t str --set /apps/metacity/keybinding_commands/command_9 "gnome-system-monitor"

How to refresh GNOME desktop

killall nautilus

How to refresh GNOME panel

killall gnome-panel


How to enable autosave in Gedit and disable creation of some_file~ files

  • Read #General Notes
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> gedit-2 -> preferences -> editor -> save -> create_backup_copy (Unchecked)
/ -> apps -> gedit-2 -> preferences -> editor -> save -> auto_save (Checked)

How to show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus

  • Read #General Notes
  • Places -> Home Folder
  • To temporary show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus
Press 'Ctrl + H'
  • To permanently show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus
Edit Menu -> Preferences
Views Tab -> Default View -> Show hidden and backup files (Checked)

How to browse files/folders as root user in Nautilus

gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/Nautilus-root.desktop
    • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=File Browser (Root)
Comment=Browse the filesystem with the file manager
Exec=gksudo "nautilus --browser %U"
Icon=file-manager
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;System;
  • To browse files/folders as root user in Nautilus
    • Applications -> System Tools -> File Browser (Root)

How to install a "View in Terminal" Menu for Nautilus

sudo apt-get install nautilus-open-terminal
  • Nautilus -> Right-click on folder or background -> Open in Terminal

How to change default file type "Open with" program

Right click on file -> Properties
Open With Tab -> Add
Select "Open with" program
Select "Open with" program (Checked)

How to change preferred email client to Mozilla Thunderbird

Mail Reader Tab -> Default Mail Reader -> Command: mozilla-thunderbird %s

How to open files as root user via right click

gedit $HOME/.gnome2/nautilus-scripts/Open\ as\ root
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
for uri in $NAUTILUS_SCRIPT_SELECTED_URIS; do
	gksudo "gnome-open $uri" &
done
  • Save the edited file
chmod +x $HOME/.gnome2/nautilus-scripts/Open\ as\ root

Right click on file -> Scripts -> Open as root

How to disable beep sound in Terminal mode

Not for Dapper---- firingstone

Edit Menu -> Current Profile...
General Tab -> General -> Terminal bell (Un-Checked)

How to handle mss protocol in Mozilla Firefox


  • Open your firefox.
  • Type as url: about:config

Now just right click somewhere into the main window. A little box with options to choose will appear. Choose "new", then "string". Then copy the following line into the appearing text field:

network.protocol-handler.app.mms

Into the next text field copy this:

/usr/bin/X11/vlc

Now you do the same thing again, but this time you do not choose "string" but "boolean", and the line to copy is:

network.protocol-handler.external.mms

Then set

true

How to handle rtsp (realmedia) protocol in Mozilla Firefox


  • Open your firefox.
  • Type as url: about:config

Now just right click somewhere into the main window. A little box with options to choose will appear. Choose "new", then "string". Then copy the following line into the appearing text field:

network.protocol-handler.app.rtsp

Into the next text field copy this:

/usr/bin/X11/realplay

Now you do the same thing again, but this time you do not choose "string" but "boolean", and the line to copy is:

network.protocol-handler.external.rtsp

Then set

true

How to load Web site faster in Mozilla Firefox

  • Read #General Notes
  • Applications -> Internet -> Firefox Web Browser
  • Mozilla Firefox
Address Bar -> about:config
Filter: ->
network.dns.disableIPv6 -> true
network.http.pipelining -> true
network.http.pipelining.maxrequests -> 8
network.http.proxy.pipelining -> true
  • Restart Mozilla Firefox

How to disable beep sound for link find function in Mozilla Firefox

  • Read #General Notes
  • Applications -> Internet -> Firefox Web Browser
  • Mozilla Firefox
Address Bar -> about:config
Filter: -> accessibility.typeaheadfind.enablesound -> false
  • Restart Mozilla Firefox


How to apt-get the easy way (Synaptic)

  • Read #General Notes
  • Step By Step Synaptic Package Manager Tutorials with Screenshots
  • System -> Administration -> Synaptic Package Manager
  • To enable the extra Universe and Multiverse repositories
    1. Settings -> Repositories
    2. In the Installation Media tab, click Add. There are three separate repositories; Dapper Drake, Security Updates and Updates. Select each repository and check Officially supported, Restricted copyright, Community maintained (Universe) and Non-free (Multiverse). Ensure you click OK between each repository to save your changes
    3. You should now see those three repositories under Channels. Make sure Officially supported, Restricted copyright, Community maintained (Universe) and Non-free (Multiverse) appears under each repository
  • To add backports and PLF (new versions of many applications. Unsupported. May contain illegal packages. Use at own risk.)
    1. Settings -> Repositories
    2. Click on Add and then Custom
    3. Paste the following four lines into the box and click Add Repository, one line at a time:
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/ edgy free
deb http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/ edgy non-free
deb-src http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/ edgy free
deb-src http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/ edgy non-free
  • To refresh the list of known packages (equivalent to apt-get update)
Edit Menu -> Reload Package Information
  • To install all possible upgrades (equivalent to apt-get upgrade)
Edit Menu -> Mark All Upgrades... -> Default Upgrade
Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes
  • To search for a package (equivalent to apt-cache search package_name)
Edit Menu -> Search... Specify the package name
  • To install the selected package (equivalent to apt-get install package_name)
Select "package_name"
Package Menu -> Mark for Installation
Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes
  • To remove installed package (equivalent to apt-get remove package_name)
Select "package_name"
Package Menu -> Mark for Removal
Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes

What packages do the extra repositories provide

  • The PLF repository provides
    1. DVD playback support (libdvdcss2)
    2. Skype
    3. Sun Java SDK (Software Development Kit) and JRE (Java Runtime Environment)
    4. Opera Web browser
    5. RealPlayer 10
    6. Win32 binary multimedia codecs

How to install/uninstall .deb files

sudo dpkg -i package_file.deb
  • To uninstall .deb file
sudo dpkg -r package_name

How to find out which version of a package I have installed

dpkg -l packagename

How to convert .rpm files to .deb files

sudo alien package_file.rpm

How to compile .deb files from source

  • Read #General Notes
  • Read #How to add extra repositories
  • There are various programs available to help automate the process of create .deb files from source. For more information, see the links at the end of this section. A basic well tested method is described here.
  • Install the necessary software to build the source (build-essential may be all that is necessary, though there may be other dependencies) and checkinstall (which creates deb files).
sudo apt-get install checkinstall build-essential
  • In the directory where you have extracted the source, after you have run ./configure and make you can create a .deb file and install it with either of the following commands. The second -D option creates a .deb file in the directory that you can share with others or install without needing the source.
sudo checkinstall

or

sudo checkinstall -D

How to rename all files in directory at once

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/mvb_1.6.tgz
sudo tar zxvf mvb_1.6.tgz -C /usr/share/
sudo chown -R root:root /usr/share/mvb_1.6/
sudo ln -fs /usr/share/mvb_1.6/mvb /usr/bin/mvb

  • To rename all files in directory at once
mvb NEW_NAME

How to manipulate all image files in directory at once

sudo apt-get install imagemagick
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/bbips.0.3.2.sh
sudo cp bbips.0.3.2.sh /usr/bin/bbips
sudo chmod 755 /usr/bin/bbips
  • To manipulate all image files in directory at once
bbips

How to set System-wide Environment Variables

sudo cp -p /etc/profile /etc/profile_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/profile
  • Append the System-wide Environment Variables at the end of file
  • Save the edited file

How to save "man" outputs into files

man command | col -b > file.txt

How to hide GRUB menu on boot-up

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst

  • Find this line
...
#hiddenmenu
...
  • Replace with the following line
hiddenmenu
  • Save the edited file

How to change the timeout seconds for GRUB menu on boot-up

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this line
...
timeout     3
...
  • Replace with the following line
timeout     X_seconds
  • Save the edited file

How to change default Operating System boot-up for GRUB menu

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this line
...
default     0
...
  • Replace with the following line
default     X_sequence
  • Save the edited file

How to display Splash Image for GRUB menu on boot-up

e.g. Assumed that hd0,1 is the location of Ubuntu boot partition
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/ubuntu.xpm.gz
chmod 644 ubuntu.xpm.gz
sudo mkdir /boot/grub/images
sudo cp ubuntu.xpm.gz /boot/grub/images/
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this section
# menu.lst - See: grub(8), info grub, update-grub(8)
#      grub-install(8), grub-floppy(8),
#      grub-md5-crypt, /usr/share/doc/grub
#      and /usr/share/doc/grub-doc/.
...
  • Add the following line below it
splashimage (hd0,1)/boot/grub/images/ubuntu.xpm.gz
NOTE: If you have seperate boot partition use this line: splashimage (hd0,1)/grub/images/ubuntu.xpm.gz
  • Save the edited file

How to convert Wallpaper to Splash Image for GRUB menu

e.g. Assumed that wallpaper.png is the Wallpaper to be converted to Splash Image
splashimage.xpm.gz is the Splash Image for GRUB menu
convert -resize 640x480 -colors 14 wallpaper.png splashimage.xpm && gzip splashimage.xpm

How to display only one kernel on GRUB menu

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup-`date +%F`
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this line
...
# howmany=all
...
  • Replace with the following line
# howmany=1

Where 1 means to keep the last kernel, 2 to keep the last 2 kernels, etc. Do not delete the # symbol. The menu will be updated once a new kernel will be updated by the system, not before.

  • Save the edited file

How to force GDM to system beep when login screen ready

  • Read #General Notes
  • This is useful on computers where headphones are usually plugged in, allowing them to utilize the speakers for this attention-getting task.
echo foo >> ~/foo.wav
  • System -> Administration -> Login Window -> Accessibility

Now make sure the "Login Screen Ready" check mark is checked. Click on the folder icon and navigate to your home folder and select "foo.wav".

rm foo.wav

The drop down menu should now say "(None)"

How to temporary skip boot-up services

Press 'Ctrl + C'

How to permanently disable/enable boot-up services

How to clean /tmp/ folder contents on shutdown

sudo cp /etc/init.d/sysklogd /etc/init.d/sysklogd_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/init.d/sysklogd
  • Find this section
...
 stop)
  log_begin_msg "Stopping system log daemon..."
  start-stop-daemon --stop --quiet --oknodo --exec $binpath --pidfile $pidfile
  log_end_msg $?
...
  • Add the following line below it
  rm -fr /tmp/* /tmp/.??*
  • Save the edited file

How to scroll up and down to view previous outputs in Console mode

Press 'Shift + Page Up'
  • To scroll down to view previously outputs
Press 'Shift + Page Down'

How to find out which version of Ubuntu I am using

cat /etc/issue


How to set up (automatic) background/wallpaper-changer application for GNOME

  • Read #General Notes
  • To install the script into a different location than your home directory, replace "~" with your path
cd ~
wget http://members.chello.at/horst.jens/files/wallpaperchanger.py
chmod +x wallpaperchanger.py
~/wallpaperchanger.py
gedit ~/.wallpaperchanger/wallpaperchangerconfig.py
  • Edit all the lines not beginning with an "#" according to your needs. Save the file and close gedit.
  • To create an menu entry for wallpaperchanger:
Click the menuitems: Applications -> Accessoires -> Alacarte Menu Editor -> File -> New Entry:
Name: wallpaperchanger
command: ~/wallpaperchanger.py

  • To change desktop background every time you reboot your computer:
Click the menuitems: System -> Preferences -> Session -> Startup Programs -> Add:
~/wallpaperchanger.py

How to set up automatic background change (KDE)

  • Go to K-menu -> System Settings -> Desktop -> Background
  • Choose Slide Show
  • Press Setup...
  • Press Add... to add pictures you wish to see as desktop background
  • Set 'Change picture after' to desired picture rotation interval.
  • Press 'OK'

How to add keyboard layouts for other languages

  • Go to System -> Preferences -> Keyboard
  • Choose Layouts
  • Press Add... to add the secondary keyboard layout. It is simpler to have two layouts; the maximum is currently four for Xorg.
  • Choose Layout Options
  • Expand option Group Shift/Lock behaviour
  • Choose the key combination that enables you to switch between keyboard layouts. The default is by pressing both Alt keys at the same time. A common alternative is to use Alt+Shift.
  • Press Close.

See #How to add the Keyboard (Layout) Indicator applet to add the Keyboard Indicator applet.

How to add keyboard layouts toggle for other languages (Xfce)

  • use *.lst files on /etc/X11/xkb/rules to select 2nd_laguage_code
setxkbmap -option grp:switch,grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp_led:scroll us,2nd_laguage_code
  • you can add it to a startup file, which will be set to be executed on startup, with the following lines (remember to 'chmod +x' the file):
#!/bin/tcsh
setxkbmap -option grp:switch,grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp_led:scroll us,il

How to add the Keyboard (Layout) Indicator applet

  • Right-click on empty space on the top panel so that you see the pop-up menu.
  • Click Add to Panel...
  • Choose Keyboard Indicator (it is under the Utilities section, at the end)

The Keyboard Indicator applet appears on the panel. The default language should be USA for U.S. English. You can either right-click on this applet for more options or see above on how to configure.

How to type extended characters

  • Add the keyboard layout US English International (with dead keys)
  • Make US English International (with dead keys) the default keyboard layout.

The key marked ['"] is now a dead key. When you press it, nothing happens. However if you press a consonant immediately afterwards, the consonant appears with an accent.

  • ' + a = á
  • ' + e = é
  • and so on for i-í, o-ó, y-ý, c-ć, z-ź, n-ń, l-ĺ, u-ú, r-ŕ
  • " + a = ä
  • " + e = ë
  • and so on for y-ÿ, u-ü, i-ï, o-ö

Similarly, ` and a consonant generates à, è, ù, ì, ò. Similarly, ~ and a consonant generates ã, ũ, ĩ, õ, ñ.

To type ' and ", press RightAlt+' and RightAlt+" respectively. To type ' and ", you may also press '+<space> and "+<space> respectively.

There are more characters available by keeping RightAlt pressed and typing a character. Therefore,

  • RightAlt+q = ä
  • RightAlt+w = å
  • RightAlt+e = é
  • RightAlt+r = ®
  • RightAlt+t = þ
  • RightAlt+y = ü
  • RightAlt+u = ú
  • RightAlt+i = í
  • RightAlt+o = ó
  • RightAlt+p = ö
  • RightAlt+[ and ] for « and » respectively.
  • RightAlt+a = á
  • RightAlt+s = ß
  • RightAlt+d = ð
  • RightAlt+l = ø
  • RightAlt+; = ¶
  • RightAlt+: = °
  • RightAlt+z = æ
  • RightAlt+c = ©
  • RightAlt+n = ñ
  • RightAlt+m = µ
  • RightAlt+, = ç
  • RightAlt+/ = ¿
  • RightAlt+1 = ¡
  • RightAlt+2 = ²
  • RightAlt+3 = ³
  • RightAlt+4 = ¤
  • RightAlt+5 = €
  • RightAlt+6 = ¼
  • RightAlt+7 = ½
  • RightAlt+8 = ¾
  • RightAlt+9 = ‘
  • RightAlt+0 = ’
  • RightAlt+- = ¥
  • RightAlt+= = ×
  • RightAlt+! = ¹
  • RightAlt+@, then o = ő (and Ő).
  • RightAlt+#, then a = ā (and Ā). Similarly for ēĒ, ūŪ, īĪ, ōŌ.
  • RightAlt+$ = £
  • RightAlt+% =
  • RightAlt+^ =
  • RightAlt+& =
  • RightAlt+*, then a = ą (and Ą). Similarly for ęĘ, įĮ.
  • RightAlt+(, then a = ă (and Ă)
  • RightAlt+(, then g = ğ (and Ğ)
  • RightAlt+), then a = å (and Å)
  • RightAlt+_ =
  • RightAlt++ = ÷

How to set the Compose key to type special characters

  • Click System, Preferences, Keyboard.
  • Under Layout Options, expand on Compose key position.
  • Choose Right-Win key is compose, click Close.

Now you can type extended characters using the RightWin key (next to AltGr), according to this keyboard settings file. Specifically, the lines that start with GDK_Multi_key are those that we can use here. The Compose key is actually GDK_Multi_key.

Some examples,

  • RightWin + C + = produces €
  • RightWin + = + C produces €
  • RightWin + C + O produces ©
  • RightWin + O + C produces ©
  • RightWin + a + ' produces á
  • RightWin + a + " produces ä
  • RightWin + a + ` produces à
  • RightWin + a + ~ produces ã
  • RightWin + a + * produces å
  • RightWin + a + ^ produces â
  • RightWin + a + > produces â
  • RightWin + a + , produces ą
  • RightWin + e + - produces ē
  • RightWin + S + 1 produces ¹
  • RightWin + S + 2 produces ²
  • RightWin + S + 3 produces ³

How to install ubuntu-title font used in Ubuntu logo

sudo apt-get install ttf-ubuntu-title

Now you can use this font in your favorite applications

How to associate Adobe Reader with files in Nautilus

Now when you double-click on a .pdf file, it will be opened with Adobe Reader.

How to print from Adobe Reader

/usr/bin/lp -d FS-1010

How to pull apart and combine pdf files

sudo apt-get install pdftk
cd
mkdir bin
cd bin
gedit pdftk_burst
  • add the following text to pdftk_burst:
#!/bin/bash
cd ${1%/*}
/usr/bin/pdftk "$1" burst
rm doc_data.txt
  • save and close pdftk_burst
gedit pdftk_cat
  • add the following text to pdftk_cat:
#!/bin/bash
cd ${1%/*}
outfile="00out.pdf"
if [ -f $outfile ] ; then
    rm -f $outfile
fi
/usr/bin/pdftk *.pdf cat output $outfile
  • save and close pdftk_cat
chmod u+x pdftk_burst pdftk_cat
  • open Nautilus (Places -> Desktop) and browse to a .pdf file
  • right-click the .pdf file, select Properties, go to the Open With tab, click Add, click Use a Custom Command, click Browse, browse to pdftk_burst. Do the same with pdftk_cat.

Now, when you right-click on a .pdf file, you'll get two extra options:

  • Open With -> pdftk_burst which will convert a 30 page pdf file to 30 x 1 page pdf files
  • Open With -> pdftk_cat which will join together all the pdf files in the same directory, and create a file called 00out.pdf

Note: this won't work with pdfs with any type of protection - read man pdftk for more command line options.

How to remove jedit when Synaptic package manager fails after install

sudo dpkg --remove --force-depends --force-remove-reinstreq jedit

Now, you can use your Synaptic package manager again.

How to compile a kernel the Ubuntu Way

http://www.howtoforge.com/kernel_compilation_ubuntu


How to add locales to Ubuntu the command line way

  • Open up a terminal
  • Generate a /var/lib/locales/supported.d/local from /usr/share/i18n/SUPPORTED:
cat /usr/share/i18n/SUPPORTED | grep "en\|ru" > /var/lib/locales/supported.d/local

This example shows all Russian (ru) and English (en) locales being chosen. Look through /usr/share/i18n/SUPPORTED to find the ones for you, then put them in a list, replacing en\|ru and separating each language with a \| (backslash, bar). If you only want one language, just put it in quotes.

  • Then regenerate all of the locales:
dpkg-reconfigure locales
  • Then set your locale:
update-locale LANG=en_US.UTF-8

In this step, make sure to choose the language and country that you would like your computer to think it is in. Here, I choose en_US, the United States version of English. Once again, look at your /var/lib/locales/supported.d/local or /usr/share/i18n/SUPPORTED for the one right for you. You may also want to research locales, using the Internet.

That was easy, now the command
lxterm
will open up the Unicode version of xterm or your translated software will display things properly, like vim.

Servers

Ubuntu Edgy LAMP Server

AntiVirus Server

How to install ClamAV AntiVirus Server

sudo apt-get install clamav

How to manually update virus databases

sudo freshclam

How to manually scan files/folders for viruses

sudo clamscan -r /location_of_files_or_folders

How to automatically scan files/folders for viruses

e.g. Automatically scan files/folders for viruses at midnight everyday
* * * * * means minute hour date month year
export EDITOR=gedit &&  sudo crontab -e
  • Append the following line at the end of file
00 00 * * *  sudo clamscan -r /location_of_files_or_folders
  • Save the edited file

Monitoring Server

If you want to monitor your Ubuntu servers and clients like memory usage,CPU usage,Load average,Disk usage,Mysql monitoring, Network Monitoring,Processes Monitoring this is for you

Monitor your Ubuntu Servers and Clients using Munin

Print Server (cupsd)

How to install cupsd

Cupsd should be automatically installed during standard instaltion. Checkout if there is a file "/etc/init.d/cupsys". If you want to manually install it, do
 sudo apt-get install cupsys*

How to add a printer

  • Go to System -> Administration -> Printing.
  • Choose "Add printer".
  • "Add printer wizard" should start and tell you what to do.

How to print on remote Ubuntu machine from another Ubuntu machine

  • Make sure your local printer is well configured.
  • Enable local printer sharing - System -> Administration -> Printing -> Global Settings menu -> Share printers
  • Server ip address: 192.168.0.1
  • Client ip address: 192.168.0.23
    • Server configuration
 sudo cp /etc/cups/cupsd.conf /etc/cups/cupsd.conf.backup
 gksudo gedit /etc/cups/cupsd.conf
find the block
<Location />
  ...
  Allow localhost
  ...
</Location>
and add the following line into it.
 Allow 192.168.0.23
Restart cups.
 sudo /etc/init.d/cupsys restart
    • Client configuration
 sudo cp /etc/cups/client.conf /etc/cups/client.conf.backup
 gksudo gedit /etc/cups/client.conf
And add the following line into it.
 ServerName 192.168.0.1
Restart cups.
 sudo /etc/init.d/cupsys restart
Now try "lpq" and you should see something like
 vitek@lightfox:~$ lpq
 HPLJ6P is ready
 no entries

How to print on remote Ubuntu machine from a Windows machine

Samba Server

How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service

sudo apt-get install samba smbfs

How to add/edit/delete network users

sudo smbpasswd -a system_username
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smbusers
    • Insert the following line into the new file
system_username = "network username"
    • Save the edited file
  • To edit network user
sudo smbpasswd -a system_username
  • To delete network user
sudo smbpasswd -x system_username

How to share home folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share home folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Find this section
...
# By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change next
# parameter to 'yes' if you want to be able to write to them.
  writable = no
...
  • Replace with the following lines
# By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change next
# parameter to 'yes' if you want to be able to write to them.
  writable = yes
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share group folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)

sudo mkdir /home/group
sudo chmod 777 /home/group/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
 security = user
 username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[Group]
  comment = Group Folder
  path = /home/group
  public = yes
  writable = no
  valid users = system_username1 system_username2
  create mask = 0700
  directory mask = 0700
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup

sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share group folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)


sudo mkdir /home/group
sudo chmod 777 /home/group/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[Group]
  comment = Group Folder
  path = /home/group
  public = yes
  writable = yes
  valid users = system_username1 system_username2
  create mask = 0700
  directory mask = 0700
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)


sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user 
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = no
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)

sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = yes
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody 
  force group = nogroup
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read only permission (Authentication=No)

sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following line
  security = share
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = no
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup
  • Save the edited file
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=No)

sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following line
  security = share
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = yes
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup

  • Save the edited file
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to print on remote Ubuntu machine via samba

 sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf.backup
 gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
Find the following lines
 ...
 # printing = cups
 # printcap name = cups
 ...
and uncomment them.
 printing = cups
 printcap name = cups
Restart cups server
 sudo /etc/init.d/cupsys restart
Now printers working on your Ubuntu machine should be acessible via samba.

Samba Web Administration Tool (SWAT)

How to install INETD Superserver

 sudo apt-get install netkit-inetd

How to install SWAT for Samba daemon

 sudo apt-get install swat
  • Open inetd daemon configuration
 sudo gksu gedit /etc/inetd.conf
  • If string is:
 <#off#> swat            stream  tcp     nowait.400      root    /usr/sbin/tcpd  /usr/sbin/swat
  • Change to:
 swat            stream  tcp     nowait.400      root    /usr/sbin/tcpd  /usr/sbin/swat
  • Restart daemon
 sudo /etc/init.d/inetd restart

SSH Server

How to install SSH Server for remote administration service

sudo apt-get install ssh

How to SSH into remote Ubuntu machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
ssh username@192.168.0.1

How to copy files/folders from remote Ubuntu machine into local machine (scp)

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote files/folders location: /home/username/remotefile.txt
Local machine save location: . (current directory)
scp -r username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/remotefile.txt .

How to copy files/folders from local machine into remote Ubuntu machine (scp)

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Local files/folders location: localfile.txt
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote Ubuntu machine save location: /home/username/
scp -r localfile.txt username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/

How to copy files/folders from remote Ubuntu machine into local machine (rsync)

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote files/folders location: /home/username/remotefile.txt
Local machine save location: . (current directory)
rsync -v -u -a --delete --rsh=ssh --stats username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/remotefile.txt .

How to copy files/folders from local machine into remote Ubuntu machine (rsync)

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Local files/folders location: localfile.txt
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote Ubuntu machine save location: /home/username/
rsync -v -u -a --delete --rsh=ssh --stats localfile.txt username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/

How to mount remote folders into local Ubuntu machine (sshfs)

e.g. Assumed that remote machine has installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Remote machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote machine folder location: /media/music
  • Install sshfs
sudo apt-get install sshfs
  • Load kernel driver for sshfs
sudo modprobe fuse
  • Join the 'fuse' user group
sudo adduser your_user_name fuse
  • Logout and login for this to take effect.
  • Create local mountpoint in your home directory
mkdir ~/remote_music
  • Mount the remote folder into ~/remote_music
sshfs 192.168.0.1:/media/music ~/remote_music

How to SSH into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
  • Download PuTTY: Here


How to copy files/folders from/into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
  • Download FileZilla: Here

How to limit the user accounts that can connect through ssh remotely

e.g. If you enable the SSH server, then any user with a valid account can connect remotely
This can lead to security risks, as there exist remote password cracking tools that
try common username/password pairs.
  • Keep a backup of the ssh server configuration file with

sudo cp /etc/ssh/sshd_config /etc/ssh/sshd_config.ORIGINAL

  • Edit the configuration file

gksudo gedit /etc/ssh/sshd_config

  • Change the parameter PermitRootLogin from yes to no. The superuser must not be able to connect directly from remote.
  • Add the parameter AllowUsers and specify the usernames (space separated) that can connect remotely.
  • You can also use DenyUsers for fine-grained selection of users.
  • If you enable the openssh server and you have no intention for now to enable remote connections, you may add AllowUsers nosuchuserhere to disable anyone connecting.

DHCP Server

How to install DHCP Server for automatic IP addresses assignment

e.g. Assumed that "eth0" is the interface for network card
IP Address Range: 192.168.0.100 to 192.168.0.200
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
DNS Servers: 202.188.0.133, 202.188.1.5
Domains: tm.net.my
Gateway Address: 192.168.0.1
sudo apt-get install dhcp3-server
sudo cp /etc/default/dhcp3-server /etc/default/dhcp3-server_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/default/dhcp3-server
  • Find this line
...
INTERFACES=""
  • Replace with the following line
INTERFACES="eth0"
  • Save the edited file
sudo cp /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf
  • Find this section
...
# option definitions common to all supported networks...
option domain-name "example.org";
option domain-name-servers ns1.example.org, ns2.example.org;
default-lease-time 600;
max-lease-time 7200;
...
  • Replace with the following lines
# option definitions common to all supported networks...
#option domain-name "example.org";
#option domain-name-servers ns1.example.org, ns2.example.org;
#default-lease-time 600;
#max-lease-time 7200;
  • Find this section
...
# A slightly different configuration for an internal subnet.
#subnet 10.5.5.0 netmask 255.255.255.224 {
# range 10.5.5.26 10.5.5.30;
# option domain-name-servers ns1.internal.example.org;
# option domain-name "internal.example.org";
# option routers 10.5.5.1;
# option broadcast-address 10.5.5.31;
# default-lease-time 600;
# max-lease-time 7200;
#}
...
  • Replace with the following lines
# A slightly different configuration for an internal subnet.
subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
 range 192.168.0.100 192.168.0.200;
 option domain-name-servers 202.188.0.133, 202.188.1.5;
 option domain-name "tm.net.my";
 option routers 192.168.0.1;
 option broadcast-address 192.168.0.255;
 default-lease-time 600;
 max-lease-time 7200;
}
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/dhcp3-server restart


Database Server

How to install MYSQL Database Server

sudo apt-get install mysql-server
  • MySQL initially only allows connections from the localhost (127.0.0.1). We'll need to remove that restriction if you wish to make it accessible to everyone on the internet. Open the file /etc/mysql/my.cnf
gksudo gedit /etc/mysql/my.cnf
  • Find the line bind-address = 127.0.0.1 and comment it out
...
#bind-address           = 127.0.0.1
...
  • MySQL comes with no root password as default. This is a huge security risk. You'll need to set one. So that the local computer gets root access as well, you'll need to set a password for that too. The local-machine-name is the name of the computer you're working on. For more information see here
mysqladmin -u root password your-new-password
mysqladmin -h root@local-machine-name -u root -p password your-new-password
sudo /etc/init.d/mysql restart

MySQL Database backup using AutoMySQLBackup

  • AutoMySQLBackup is a script to take daily, weekly and monthly backups of your MySQL databases using mysqldump.
  • AutoMySQLBackup Script Features
    • Backup mutiple MySQL databases with one script. (Now able to backup ALL databases on a server easily. no longer need to specify each database seperately)
    • Backup all databases to a single backup file or to a seperate directory and file for each database.
    • Automatically compress the backup files to save disk space using either gzip or bzip2 compression.
    • Can backup remote MySQL servers to a central server.
    • Runs automatically using cron or can be run manually.
    • Can e-mail the backup log to any specified e-mail address instead of “root”. (Great for hosted websites and databases).
    • Can email the compressed database backup files to the specified email address.
    • Can specify maximun size backup to email.
    • Can be set to run PRE and POST backup commands.
    • Choose which day of the week to run weekly backups.
  • AutoMySQLBackup Requirements

The AutoMySQLBackup script only requires mysqldump (A standard utility provided with the mysql client) and gzip or bzip2 for compression of the backup files. If you would like to have the log emailed to you then you will need to have permission to execute the “mail” program. If you want the compressed backup files mailed to you then Mutt must be available on the server. Finally you will need a bash shell and the standard system tools and utilities (all these requirements should be the default on most linux system.)

  • What AutoMySQLBackup does

Every day AutoMySQLBackup will run (if setup in /etc/cron.daily) and using mysqldump and gzip will dump your specified databases to the /backups/daily directory, it will rotate daily backups weekly so you should never have more than 7 backups in there..

Every Saturday AutoMySQLBackup will again backup the databases you have chosen but they will be placed into /backups/weekly, these will be rotated every 5 weeks so there should never be more than 5 backups in there..

Every 1st of the month AutoMySQLBackup will create a backup of all databases and place them into /backups/monthly. These will never be rotated so it will be up to you to do your own house keeping. I would suggest taking a copy of this offline every month or two so that if you have a hard drive failure you will be able to restore your database

  • AutoMySQLBackup Installation

The install is as simple as editing a few variables in the AutoMySQLBackup file. The full setup is documented in the AutoMySQLBackup script file below the variables section.

  • Download automysqlbackup.sh and place it into your /etc/cron.daily directory or your home directory.
  • Edit (at least) the following lines :
...
USERNAME=dbuser 
PASSWORD=password DBNAMES=”DB1 DB2 DB3″
...
  • Note:The user must have at least select privileges to the databases and make sure to keep the quotes ” ” otherwise it won’t work
  • Make the file executable :
sudo chmod u+rwx
  • Create the following directory
./backups
  • That’s it...Now you can run it using the command line “./automysqlbackup.sh” or if it is in /etc/cron.daily it will run each day when cron

How to install MYSQL Administrator

sudo apt-get install mysql-admin

How to install Oracle Database XE

  • Add the following repository to your /etc/apt/sources.list:
deb http://oss.oracle.com/debian unstable main non-free
  • Install the software using apt-get
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install oracle-xe
  • Add your login to the 'dba' group (where your login name is username)
sudo usermod -G dba -a username

Apache HTTP Server

How to install Apache HTTP Server for HTTP (Web) Server service

sudo apt-get install apache2

How to install PHP for Apache HTTP Server

How to install PHP4
sudo apt-get install php4
sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-php4
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
  • To test if php4 installed correctly
gksudo gedit /var/www/testphp.php
  • Insert the following line into the new file
<?php phpinfo(); ?>
How to install PHP5
sudo apt-get install php5
sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-php5
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
  • To test if php5 installed correctly
gksudo gedit /var/www/testphp.php
  • Insert the following line into the new file
<?php phpinfo(); ?>

How to install MYSQL for Apache HTTP Server

sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-auth-mysql
  • Select either php4-mysql or php5-mysql depending on which version of PHP you installed
sudo apt-get install php<version-number>-mysql
sudo apt-get install phpmyadmin
  • To get PHP to work with MySQL, open the file (where <version> is either 4 or 5 depending on which PHP you installed)
gksudo gedit /etc/php<version>/apache2/php.ini
  • You'll need to uncomment the ";extension=mysql.so" line so that it looks like this
...
extension=mysql.so
...
  • Save the file then exit
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

How to install Python for Apache 2

sudo aptitude install python
sudo aptitude install libapache2-mod-python

How to map URLs to folders outside /var/www/

gksudo gedit /etc/apache2/conf.d/alias
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
Alias /URL-path /location_of_folder/
<Directory /location_of_folder/>
  Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
  AllowOverride All
  Order allow,deny
  Allow from all
</Directory>
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
  • When you get "403 - Permission denied", you might try:
chmod o+x /location_of_folder/
  • If that doens't work, the following might help:
chmod o+r,o+x /location_of_folder/

How to change the default port number for Apache HTTP Server

e.g. Assumed that new port number is 78
sudo cp /etc/apache2/ports.conf /etc/apache2/ports.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/apache2/ports.conf
  • Find this line
Listen 80
  • Replace with the following line
Listen 78
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

How to parse RSS into PHP for Apache HTTP Server

e.g. Assumed that RSS is DistroWatch.com - News
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/magpierss-0.71.1.tar.gz
sudo mkdir /var/www/feeds
sudo tar zxvf magpierss-0.71.1.tar.gz -C /var/www/feeds/
sudo mv /var/www/feeds/magpierss-0.71.1/* /var/www/feeds/
sudo rm -fr /var/www/feeds/magpierss-0.71.1/
sudo chown -R www-data:root /var/www/feeds/
gksudo gedit /var/www/feeds/index.php
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
 <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
 
 <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" lang="en" xml:lang="en">
 
 <head>
 
 <title>DistroWatch.com - News</title>
 
 <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1"/>
 
 <style type="text/css">
 /*<![CDATA[*/
 /* 
 DEFAULT TAG STYLES
 */
 
 body {
  background: #ffffff;
  margin-left: 20px;
  font-family: bitstream vera sans,sans-serif;
  font-size: 9pt;
 }
 
 h1 {
  font-family: luxi sans,sans-serif;
  font-size: 15pt;
 }
 
 /*]]>*/
 </style>
 
 </head>
  
 <body>
 
 <?php

 require_once 'rss_fetch.inc';
 error_reporting(E_ERROR);
 
 $url = 'http://distrowatch.com/news/dw.xml';
 $rss = fetch_rss($url);
 
 if ($rss) {
 
  echo "<h1>";
  echo "<a href=$url>", $rss->channel[title], "</a><br/>";
  echo "</h1>";
 
  foreach ($rss->items as $item ) {
   $url = $item[link];
   $title = $item[title];
   $description = $item[description];
   echo "<li>";
   echo "<b>Topic:</b> <a href=$url><b><u>$title</u></b></a><br/><br/>";
   echo "$description<br/><br/>";
   echo "</li>";
  }
 
 }
 else {
  echo "<a href=$url>", $url, "</a> - Server Down!<br/>";
 }
 
 ?>
 
 </body>
 
 </html>
 

FTP Server

How to install FTP Server for File Transfer service

sudo apt-get install proftpd

How to configure FTP user to be "jailed" (chrooted) into their home directory

sudo cp /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf
  • Find this section
...
DenyFilter           \*.*/
...
  • Add the following line below it
DefaultRoot           ~

  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to configure FTP Server to allow anonymous FTP user to read only

sudo cp /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
<Anonymous ~ftp>
 User            ftp
 Group            nogroup
 UserAlias          anonymous ftp
 DirFakeUser on ftp
 DirFakeGroup on ftp
 RequireValidShell      off
 MaxClients         10
 DisplayLogin        welcome.msg
 DisplayFirstChdir      .message
 <Directory *>
  <Limit WRITE>
   DenyAll
  </Limit>
 </Directory>
</Anonymous>
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to configure FTP Server to allow anonymous FTP user to read/write

sudo cp /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
<Anonymous ~ftp>
 User            ftp
 Group            nogroup
 UserAlias          anonymous ftp
 DirFakeUser on ftp
 DirFakeGroup on ftp
 RequireValidShell      off
 MaxClients         10
 DisplayLogin        welcome.msg
 DisplayFirstChdir      .message
</Anonymous>
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to map anonymous FTP user to folders outside /home/ftp/

sudo cp /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
<Anonymous /location_of_folder/>
 User            ftp
 Group            nogroup
 UserAlias          anonymous ftp
 DirFakeUser on ftp
 DirFakeGroup on ftp
 RequireValidShell      off
 MaxClients         10
 DisplayLogin        welcome.msg
 DisplayFirstChdir      .message
 <Directory *>
  <Limit WRITE>
   DenyAll
  </Limit>
 </Directory>
</Anonymous>
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to change the default port number for FTP Server

e.g. Assumed that new port number is 77
sudo cp /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf
  • Find this line
Port              21
  • Replace with the following line
Port              77
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to ftp into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed FTP Server service
Read #How to install FTP Server for File Transfer service
  • Download FileZilla: Here

Streaming Media Server

How to install GNUMP3d for Streaming Media Server service

e.g. /var/music/ is the directory containing multimedia files
sudo apt-get install gnump3d

How to change the default directory containing multimedia files for GNUMP3d

e.g. Assumed that new directory containing multimedia files is /home/music/
sudo cp /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf
  • Find this line
root = /var/music
  • Replace with the following line
root = /home/music
  • Find this line
user = gnump3d
  • Replace with the following line
user = root
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/gnump3d restart

How to change the default port number for GNUMP3d

e.g. Assumed that new port number is 7878
sudo cp /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf
  • Find this line
port = 8888
  • Replace with the following line
port = 7878
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/gnump3d restart


Image Gallery Server

  • For a comparison between Gallery1 and Gallery2 see here

Gallery1

How to install Gallery1 for Image Gallery Server service
sudo apt-get install gallery (when prompted to restart Apache, choose No or Cancel)
sudo apt-get install imagemagick
sudo apt-get install jhead
sudo apt-get install libjpeg-progs
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
sudo sh /usr/share/gallery/configure.sh
Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 1
Next Step ->
Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 2
General settings Tab ->
Admin password: Specify the password

Locations and URLs Tab ->
Album directory: /var/www/albums/
Temporary directory: /tmp/
Gallery URL: http://localhost/gallery
Albums URL: http://localhost/albums
Next Step -->
Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 3
Next Step -->
Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 4
Save Config ->
How to configure Gallery1 to be accessible via Internet (Hostname or fix IP) or LAN (fix IP)
e.g. Assumed that network and internet connections have been configured properly
Internet (Hostname or fix IP) or LAN (fix IP): http://www.url.com
sudo cp /etc/gallery/config.php /etc/gallery/config.php_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/gallery/config.php
  • Find this section
...
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "http://localhost/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "http://localhost/albums";
...
  • Replace with the following lines
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "http://www.url.com/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "http://www.url.com/albums";
How to configure Gallery1 to be accessible via LAN (dynamic IP)
e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
LAN (dynamic IP): 192.168.0.1
sudo cp /etc/gallery/config.php /etc/gallery/config.php_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/gallery/config.php
  • Find this section
...
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "http://localhost/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "http://localhost/albums";
...
  • Replace with the following lines
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "/albums";
How to backup/restore Gallery1 data
sudo tar zcvf gallery.tgz /var/www/albums/ /etc/gallery/
  • To restore Gallery data
sudo tar zxvf gallery.tgz -C /

Gallery2

How to install Gallery2
How to configure Gallery2

How to install Subversion version control server (svnserve)

  • Install Subversion and Internet services daemon
sudo apt-get install subversion xinetd
  • Create user that will own the repositories
sudo adduser --system --no-create-home --home /var/svn --group --disabled-login svn
  • Create directory that will hold the repositories
sudo mkdir /var/svn
sudo chown svn:svn /var/svn
  • Create file /etc/xinetd.d/svnserve with the following content
service svn
{
       port = 3690
       socket_type = stream
       protocol = tcp
       wait = no
       user = svn
       server = /usr/bin/svnserve
       server_args = -i -r /var/svn
}
  • Restart xinetd
sudo /etc/init.d/xinetd restart
  • Create the first repository
sudo -u svn svnadmin create /var/svn/testrepo
  • It should be possible to check out the repository and work on it
svn co svn://localhost/testrepo

Troubleshooting

How to disable system time/date from being reset to UTC (GMT)

sudo cp /etc/default/rcS /etc/default/rcS_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/default/rcS
  • Find this line
...
UTC=yes
...
  • Replace with the following line
UTC=no
  • Save the edited file
  • System -> Administration -> Time and Date

Set the correct time/date

sudo /etc/init.d/hwclock.sh restart

How to configure sound to work properly in GNOME

sudo killall esd
sudo cp /etc/esound/esd.conf /etc/esound/esd.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/esound/esd.conf
  • Find this section
...
auto_spawn=0
spawn_options=-terminate -nobeeps -as 5
...
  • Replace with the following lines
auto_spawn=1
spawn_options=-terminate -nobeeps -as 2 -d default
  • Save the edited file
sudo apt-get install libesd-alsa0
gksudo gedit /etc/asound.conf
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
pcm.card0 {
type hw
card 0
}

pcm.!default {
type plug
slave.pcm "dmixer"
}

pcm.dmixer {
type dmix
ipc_key 1025
slave {
pcm "hw:0,0"
period_time 0
period_size 2048
buffer_size 32768
rate 48000
}
bindings {
0 0
1 1
}
}
  • Save the edited file
sudo ln -fs /usr/lib/libesd.so.0 /usr/lib/libesd.so.1
System -> Preferences -> Sound
Sound preferences
General Tab -> Sounds for events (Un-Checked)
  • Save and close all opened applications, Reboot computer

How to forcefully empty Trash in GNOME

sudo rm -fr $HOME/.Trash/

How to remove duplicate menu/menu items in GNOME

rm -f $HOME/.config/menus/applications.menu

How to refresh Places menu in GNOME (if mounts to /media/ in /etc/fstab does not show up)

sudo /etc/init.d/dbus restart

How to consume static (not dhcp) wireless LAN (WLAN) connection (KDE)

  • I assume you have successfully consumed WLAN connection in Windows
  • To enable the network device please follow the following steps
  • Go to K-menu -> System Settings -> Network Settings
  • Enable Administrator mode
  • Select Network Interfaces tab and the wireless interface (usually ath0) to configure
  • Click Configure Interface...
  • Choose Manual or Automatic. Choose Manual
  • Fill the preferred IP address to identify your computer and the netmask. Choose to activate when computer starts
  • Click Advanced Settings to for more properties
  • Select Routes tab and fill the gateway IP address
  • Make sure you choose the correct device in the right dropdown (e.g. ath0)
  • Click apply to commit all changes
  • To choose wireless connection please follow the following steps
  • Go to K-menu -> Internet -> Wireless Assistant
  • Right click on preferred connection ssid
  • Choose and complete fields for Manual connection
  • Click Ok
  • Create connection configuration
gksudo gedit /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
network={
ssid="YOUR_PREFERRED_CONNECTION_SSID"
scan_ssid=1
proto=WPA
key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
psk="STRING_TO_GENERATE_PASSWORD"
#psk=123456789 #you have option to use connection key instead of connection password
}
  • Save the edited file
  • Create script to easily activate connection
gksudo gedit /etc/init.d/wifi_wpa.sh
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
#! /bin/sh
# wifi: wpa_supplicant init
echo " * [Wifi]: Enabling WPA supplicant..."
if [ -x /sbin/wpa_supplicant ]; then
/sbin/wpa_supplicant -B -i ath0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf -D madwifi -w
fi
exit 0
  • Save the edited file
  • Make sure both file readable and executable
sudo chmod +r /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
sudo chmod +x /etc/init.d/wifi_wpa.sh
  • make wireless connection automaticaly starts when computer starts
sudo ln -s /etc/init.d/wifi_wpa.sh /etc/rcS.d/S40netwifiwpa
  • Close all opened applications, Reboot computer

How to get 1400x1050 resolution working

Upgrading Ubuntu

How to upgrade from Hoary Hedgehog -> Breezy Badger -> Dapper Drake

Method A (Official)

  • First update the update manager:
sudo aptitude update && sudo aptitude upgrade
  • Once it has been updated you can upgrade to a newer version of Ubuntu:
gksudo "update-manager -c -d"


Method B (Alternative)

  • First, make sure you're fully upgraded:
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
  • If you don't have a CD available make SURE you comment/remove the line pertaining to your CD media
gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • To upgrade from Dapper to Edgy, just replace (ctrl+h) all instances of 'dapper' with 'edgy' within the /etc/apt/sources.list. (See how to add extra repositories).
  • Validate updates and upgrade.
sudo aptitude update 
sudo aptitude dist-upgrade

(Note the use of aptitude rather than apt-get. Please use aptitude as it handles dependencies better and is more likely to succeed in upgrading your system.)

  • Save your session, reboot, and enjoy.


NOTE: Try to upgrade from immediately previous versions, e.g. Dapper to Edgy not Breezy to Edgy. If you are running Hoary for instance, upgrade Hoary->Breezy->Dapper->Edgy.

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