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Unofficial Ubuntu 6.10 (Edgy Eft) Starter Guide

As Ubuntu 6.10 (Edgy Eft) has just been released, this guide is still a work in progress. Your help in testing and perfecting this guide is needed.

This guide was started by Chua Wen Kiat (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia). It is now being maintained by the Linux Center of University of Latvia, and everyone else who is willing to contribute.

This guide can be discussed at the official UbuntuGuide.org Forum at ubuntuforums.org. Stop by and join the discussion.

Unfortunately, because of wiki-vandalism, only registered users can edit this wiki, and only registered users can create you an account. If you wish to join and help, let me know [ raivis.dejus _at_ linux.edu.lv ]. Don't forget to say what username you would like and why do you need it (what would you like to change or add to guide) .


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Senesnės versijos

Pagrindinės pastabos

  1. Tai yra Neoficialus Ubuntu 6.10 (Edgy Eft) naudotojo žinynas. Jis yra tiesiogiai nesusijęs su Ubuntu ir Canonical Ltd.
  2. Apie šį žinyną jūs galite diskutuoti oficialiame UbuntuGuide.org Forume ubuntuforums.org.
  3. Jei jūs matote tekstą mėlynesniame lange, tai reiškia jog tai turi būti įvykdoma Terminalo režime (Applications -> Accesories -> Terminal).
  4. Norėdami išvengti rašybos klaidų tekstą žymėkite, kopijuokite ir įdėkite (dešiniu pelytės klavišu -> "Copy" arba "Paste". Taip pat galite naudoti Ctrl+C kopijavimui arba Shift+Insert įdėjimui)
  5. "sudo" reiškia supervartotojo (root) režimą. Greičiausiai "sudo" paprašys "Password:". Įveskite savo vartotojo slaptažodį
  6. Jeigu norite daugiau informacijos apie komandą - pasinaudokite "man" žinynu. Pavyzdžiui, "man sudo" išves žinyną apie "sudo" komandą.
  7. Jeigu pavargstate visą laiką naudotis "apt-get" komanda, skaitykite #How to apt-get the easy way (Synaptic)
  8. "apt-get" ir "wget" reikalauja prisijungimo prie Interneto, kad įdiegti/atnaujinti/atsisiūsti programas
  9. Norėdami atsisiūsti bylą spustelėkite dešiniu pelytės klavišu ant nuorodos -> Pasirinkite "Save Link As..." -> Įsitikinkite, jog bylos pavadinimas ir plėtinys yra teisingi
  10. Jeigu norite padėti verčiant Ubuntu į jūsų kalbą ar kitaip prisidėti prie Ubuntu - apsilankykite https://launchpad.net/
  11. Tegu "žmogiškumo kitiems" dvasia visada būna su jumis...


Jeigu naudojate 64-bit platformą pakeiskite visur "i386" į "amd64"

Pradėkime

Kas tai yra Ubuntu

Kas yra naujo Ubuntu 6.10 Edgy Eft

Svarbios Edgy Eft nuorodos

Kur galima pamatyti Ubuntu ekrano nuotraukų

Kur galima pamatyti Kubuntu ekrano nuotraukų

Kur galima pamatyti Xubuntu ekrano nuotraukų

Kur galima pamatyti Edubuntu ekrano nuotraukų

Kur galima gauti visų programų/bibliotekų sarašą, kuris pateikiamas su Ubuntu

Kur galima atsisiųsti Ubuntu

Kur galima užsisakyti nemokamų Ubuntu CD

Čia nebėra Edgy Eft ShipIt CD (Announcement), visdėlto galite užsisakyti Ubuntu 6.06 Dapper Drake LTS CD per ShipIt.

Turėkite omenyje, jog CD siuntimas gali užtrukti iki 6-ių savaičių. Mes raginame jus kuo daugiau kopijuoti, keistis ir platinti šiuos diskus.

Kur galima gauti Ubuntu pagalbą

Kur galima rasti naujų programų

Kur galima rasti naujų išvaizdos stilių darbalaukiui

Repozitorijos

Kaip pridėti ekstra repozitorijas

sudo cp -p /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list_backup
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Visą tekstą pakeiskite šiomis eilutėmis
Norėdami naudotis lokaliu serveriu pridėkite "cc." prieš archive.ubuntu.com (cc = jūsų šalies kodas)
pvz. deb http://lt.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy main restricted universe multiverse
## Add comments (##) in front of any line to remove it from being checked.   
## Use the following sources.list at your own risk.  

deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy main restricted universe multiverse

deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-proposed main restricted universe multiverse

## MAJOR BUG FIX UPDATES produced after the final release
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-updates main restricted universe multiverse

## UBUNTU SECURITY UPDATES
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-security main restricted universe multiverse

## BACKPORTS REPOSITORY (Unsupported.  May contain illegal packages.  Use at own risk.)
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-backports main restricted universe multiverse

## PLF REPOSITORY (Unsupported.  May contain illegal packages.  Use at own risk.)
deb http://packages.freecontrib.org/plf edgy-plf free non-free
deb-src http://packages.freecontrib.org/plf edgy-plf free non-free                                               
                                                                                                                                         
## CANONICAL COMMERCIAL REPOSITORY (Hosted on Canonical servers, not Ubuntu
## servers. RealPlayer10, Opera, DesktopSecure and more to come.) 
deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu edgy-commercial main

## Listen
#deb http://theli.free.fr/packages/ edgy listen
  • Išsaugokite redaguojamą bylą
wget http://packages.freecontrib.org/ubuntu/plf/12B83718.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
sudo apt-get update
  • Redaguokite nutylėtąjį Ubuntu sources.list tik tuo atveju, jei suprantate ką darote.

Ubuntu atnaujinimai

Kaip rankiniu būdu atnaujinti Ubuntu

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo apt-get dselect-upgrade

ARBA

Naudokite Update Manager: System -> Administration -> Update Manager

Add-On Applications

Kaip naudoti Easy Ubuntu

  • Skaitykite #Pagrindinės pastabos
  • Easy Ubuntu yra maža pagalbinė programa, leidžianti naujokams lengvai įdiegti daugelį ivairių programų, kaip Media Kodekus, šriftus, Macromedia Flash ir Sun Java.

Paleiskite Terminal režimą Menu -> Accessories -> Terminal ir įvykdykite šias komandas

wget http://easyubuntu.freecontrib.org/files/easyubuntu-3.023.tar.gz
tar -zxf easyubuntu-3.023.tar.gz
cd easyubuntu
cp packagelist-dapper.pot packagelist-edgy.pot
cp packagelist-dapper.xml packagelist-edgy.xml
sudo python easyubuntu.in
  • Easy Ubuntu programos lange pasirinkite tai, ką norite atsisiūsti ir įdiegti į Ubuntu.
  • Pastaba: Ankstesnes nei EasyUbuntu 3.0 versijos vartotojai gali gauti klaidas diegdami Flash ir Java.
  • Jeigu norite automatizuotų atnaujinimu - sekite šias instrukcijas:

priklausomai nuo jūsų naudojamos Ubuntu versijos:

Ubuntu:

sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list

Kubuntu:

sudo kate /etc/apt/sources.list

Atsidariusioje tekstiniame redaktoriuje /etc/apt/sources.list bylos apačioje įrašykite:

deb http://easyubuntu.cafuego.net main easyubuntu

Nuo šiol EasyUbuntu bus automatiškai atnaujinamas.

Kaip įdiegti Automatix2 į Ubuntu, Kubuntu, and Xubuntu

  • Skaitykite #Pagrindinės pastabos
  • Automatix2 yra tas pats Automatix suprogramuotas naudojant python programavimo kalbą, tačiau su geresne vartotojo sąsaja ir geresniu įvairių programų įdiegimo palaikymu Ubuntu/Kubuntu/Xubuntu terpėje.
  • Pastaba: Prieš įdiegdami tam tikrus kodekus, turėkite omenyje, jog jie yra uždrausti kai kuriose šalyse. Pries įdiegdami juos - įsitikinkite, jog nepažeidžiate tos šalies teisinių aktų.
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list 
  • Įrašykite šias eilutes bylos apačioje
## Automatix repo
deb http://www.getautomatix.com/apt edgy main
  • PASTABA: Kubuntu/Xubuntu vartotojai turi panaikinti komentarą (pašalinti # prieš "deb" žodį) pries visus papildomus šaltinius, kad galėtų pridėti Automatix repozitoriją.
  • Gaukite GPG raktą
wget http://www.getautomatix.com/apt/key.gpg.asc
gpg --import key.gpg.asc
gpg --export --armor 521A9C7C | sudo apt-key add -

  • Atnaujinkite APT
sudo apt-get update
  • Įvykdykite šias komandas, norėdami įdiegti Automatix2
sudo apt-get install automatix2

  • Automatix2 gali būti paleidžiamas taip
Menu -> System -> Automatix
  • Automatix2 taip pat galima paleisti iš Terminal režimo, įvykdžius komandą
automatix2

Kitas automatizuotas būdas įdiegti papildomas programas

wget http://www.iki.fi/kuparine/comp/ubuntu/install.sh
sh install.sh

Daugiau informacijos apie šį įdiegimo būdą galite rasti http://www.iki.fi/kuparine/comp/ubuntu/install.html

Kaip įdiegti J2SE Runtime Environment (JRE) su Mozilla Firefox įskiepiu

Pastaba: Programa įtraukta į Automatix2. Jeigu jūs naudojotės Automatix2, gali būti jog ši programa jau įdiegta

sudo apt-get install sun-java5-jre sun-java5-plugin
  • Kai paklaus - sutikite su DLJ licencija.
  • Norėdami sukonfigūruoti J2SE kaip numatytają JVM (reikalinga programoms kaip Frostwire, RSSOwl ir Mozilla Firefox įskiepiui):
sudo update-alternatives --config java

Tada pasirinkite opciją atitinkančią J2SE (paprastai 3-ia opcija).

Kaip įdiegti JRE v5.0 Update 9

Pastaba: Programa įtraukta į Automatix2. Jeigu jūs naudojotės Automatix2, gali būti jog ši programa jau įdiegta

Pasirinkite "Java Runtime Environment (JRE) 5.0 Update 9" ir spauskite "Download"
Sutikite su Licencija 
Atsisiūskite "Linux self-extracting file"
  • Įdiekite reikalingus įrankius :
sudo apt-get install java-package
  • Sukurkite Ubuntu paketą :
fakeroot make-jpkg jre-1_5_0_09-linux-i586.bin
  • Įdiekite gautą paketą :
sudo dpkg -i sun-j2re1.5_1.5.0+update09_i386.deb


  • Perleiskite iš naujo Mozilla Firefox
  • Jeigu gavote klaidą, pabandykite pakeisti 09 bylos pavadinime į artimą versiją.

Kaip įdiegti Java Development Kit (JDK) v5.0

sudo apt-get install sun-java5-jdk
  • Sutikite su licencijos salygomis.
  • Nustatykite Sun JVM kaip numatytają Java versiją:
sudo update-java-alternatives -s java-1.5.0-sun
  • Pakeiskite /etc/jvm ir įrašykite /usr/lib/jvm/java-1.5.0-sun viršuje visų siūlomų JVM:
gksudo gedit /etc/jvm

Kaip įdiegti Flash Player (Macromedia Flash) Mozilla Firefox įskiepį

sudo apt-get install flashplugin-nonfree
sudo update-flashplugin

Pastaba: jeigu gavote klaidą, jog paketas nerastas, pabandykite Gnash (GNU Flash pakaitalas)

sudo apt-get install libflash-mozplugin
  • Perkraukite Mozilla Firefox


Pastaba: jeigu firefox "nulūžta" apsilankius svetainėse su flash turiniu:

sudo gedit /usr/bin/firefox

ir įrašykite šią eilutę kaip paskutinę bylos pabaigoje:

export XLIB_SKIP_ARGB_VISUALS=1

Dabar firefox neturėtų "lūžinėti". (Launchpad klaidos ataskaita: [1])

  • Perkraukite Mozilla Firefox


Pastaba: jeigu negirdite garso Flash Player programoje (pavyzdžiui YouTube puslapyje):

sudo apt-get install alsa-oss
gksudo gedit /etc/firefox/firefoxrc

Pakeiskite:

FIREFOX_DSP=""

Į:

FIREFOX_DSP="aoss"
  • Perkraukite Mozilla Firefox. Dabar neturėtų būti problemų su garsu Flash Player programoje.

How to update to Flash Player 9 Beta (Macromedia Flash) Plug-in for Mozilla Firefox

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

wget http://download.macromedia.com/pub/labs/flashplayer9_update/FP9_plugin_beta_101806.tar.gz
tar xvzf FP9_plugin_beta_101806.tar.gz
sudo cp flash-player-plugin-9.0.21.55/libflashplayer.so /usr/lib/flashplugin-nonfree/ 
  • Restart Mozilla Firefox

Kaip įdiegti PDF skaitymo programą (Adobe Reader) su papildiniu Mozilla Firefox

sudo apt-get install acroread mozilla-acroread acroread-plugins
  • Applications -> Office -> Adobe Reader
  • Iš naujo paleiskite Mozilla Firefox

P.S.: Adobe Reader 7.0 nepasileis jei SCIM yra vykdoma. Jūs vykdote SCIM jei esate įdiegę kitą kalbą su System -> Administration -> Language Support. Norėdami tai pakeisti (apeiti), darykite taip:

gksudo gedit /usr/bin/acroread

Pakeiskite:

#!/bin/sh
#

Į:

#!/bin/sh
#
GTK_IM_MODULE=xim

Išsaugokite failą. Dabar Adobe Reader 7.0 turėtų veikti.

Taip pat skaitykite:

How to install Download Manager (Downloader for X)

sudo apt-get install d4x
  • Applications -> Internet -> Downloader for X


Kaip įdiegti slaptažodžių tvarkyklę (Revelation)

sudo apt-get install revelation
  • Applications -> Accessories -> Revelation Password Manager

Kaip įdiegti FTP programą (gFTP)

sudo apt-get install gftp
  • Applications -> Internet -> gFTP

Kaip įdiegti IRC programą (XChat)

P.S. programa yra įdiegta Automatix2. Jei naudojate Automatix2, ši programa jau gali būti įdiegta.

sudo apt-get install xchat xchat-systray 
  • Applications -> Internet -> XChat IRC

Kaip įdiegti failų dalinimosi įrankį (LinuxDC++)

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/linuxdcpp.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf linuxdcpp.tar.gz -C /opt
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/linuxdcpp.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Encoding=UTF-8
Name=LinuxDC++
Exec=linuxdcpp
Terminal=false
Type=Application
StartupNotify=true
Icon=/opt/linuxdcpp/pixmaps/linuxdcpp.png
Categories=Application;Network;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Internet -> LinuxDC++
  • If you whant to build the latest version from CVS use this guide

Kaip įdiegti P2P BitTorrent programą (Azureus)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo apt-get install azureus
  • Applications -> Internet -> Azureus
  • (Alternative Method) The above method installs a version of Azureus compiled with gcj, the free alternative to Sun's Java.
wget http://kent.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/azureus/Azureus_2.5.0.0_linux.tar.bz2
sudo tar jxvf Azureus_2.5.0.0_linux.tar.bz2 -C /opt/
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/azureus.desktop
  • Add the following to the new file
[Desktop Entry] 
Name=Azureus
Comment=Java BitTorrent Client
Exec=/opt/azureus/azureus
Icon=/opt/azureus/Azureus.png
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Internet -> Azureus

Kaip įdiegti P2P BitTorrent programą (Bittornado)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo apt-get install bittornado bittornado-gui
  • Applications -> Internet -> Bittornado Client

Kaip įdiegti P2P eMule programą (aMule)

Note: Program included in Automatix2 and Easy Ubuntu. I you have already used one of them, this program may have been installed

sudo apt-get install amule
  • Applications -> Internet -> aMule

How to install P2P Gnutella Client (FrostWire)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

wget -c http://www.users.on.net/~stubby/FrostWire-4.10.9-2.i586.deb
sudo dpkg -i FrostWire-4.10.9-2.i586.deb
  • Applications -> Internet -> FrostWire

How to install Messenger (Skype)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

  • With Edgy the Skype is not included in the Ubuntu repositories anymore. You have to download the DEB package from Skype:
wget http://www.skype.com/go/getskype-linux-deb
  • Then the package has to be installed:
sudo dpkg -i skype_debian-*.deb
  • To run "Applications > Internet > Skype".

Kaip įdiegti WinPopup (LinPopUp)

sudo apt-get install linpopup
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/linpopup.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=LinPopUp
Comment=LinPopUp
Exec=linpopup
Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/linpopup.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Utility;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Accessories -> LinPopUp

Kaip įdiegti daugialypės terpės kodekus

sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.10-ffmpeg gstreamer0.10-gl gstreamer0.10-plugins-base \
gstreamer0.10-plugins-good gstreamer0.10-plugins-bad gstreamer0.10-plugins-bad-multiverse \
gstreamer0.10-plugins-ugly gstreamer0.10-plugins-ugly-multiverse w32codecs

Stubby All known codecs work except for wmv,

Radiobuzzer WMV9 codecs don't work especially for amd64 users. Advanced users should follow this patch

How to install DVD playback capability

ironss: gstreamer dvd plugin is available as part of plugins-bad (or ugly?) and does not work reliably. However, Totem works with the xine backend to play back DVDs. This will keep you going until gstreamer gets dvd playback. Note that you do not have to install xine-ui or mplayer as suggested in

sudo apt-get install libdvdread3 
sudo /usr/share/doc/libdvdread3/install-css.sh
sudo apt-get install totem-xine

Stubby: gstreamer dvd plugin not ported to dapper yet. following instructions will not work properly

sudo apt-get install libdvdcss2

How to install MIDI sound server (Timidity++)

  • Skaitykite #How to add extra repositories
  • Timidity allows for the playback of MIDI by those who do not have MIDI hardware or MIDI processing built into their sound card (most users) via a software synthesizer.
  • First install Timidity
sudo apt-get install timidity
  • Set up Timidity to start on boot
sudo gedit /etc/default/timidity
  • Uncomment the following line (remove the "#" sign)
#TIM_ALSASEQ=true
  • Set the required modules to load as well
sudo gedit /etc/modules
  • Add the following modules to the end of the file
snd-seq-device
snd-seq-midi
snd-seq-oss
snd-seq-midi-event
snd-seq
  • Restart your computer

How to install Multimedia Player (xine-ui)

sudo apt-get install xine-ui libxine-extracodecs
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> xine

How to install Multimedia Player (VLC) with plug-in for Mozilla Firefox

sudo apt-get install vlc vlc-plugin-* mozilla-plugin-vlc
  • In order to stream video via vlc, you also need to install the following packages.
apt-get install avahi-daemon
apt-get install avahi-utils
Applications -> Sound and Video -> VLC Media Player

Kaip įdiegti grotuvą (Mplayer) su papildiniu Mozilla Firefox

sudo apt-get install mozilla-mplayer
Applications -> Sound and Video -> MPlayer Movie Player

Kaip įdiegti grotuvą (Totem) su papildiniu Mozilla Firefox

sudo apt-get install totem-gstreamer-firefox-plugin
  • Restart Mozilla Firefox

Kaip pridėti Garso grotuvą (XMMS)

sudo apt-get install xmms xmms-skins
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/xmms-wma_1.0.4-2_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i xmms-wma_1.0.4-2_i386.deb
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> XMMS

Kaip įdiegti grotuvą (amaroK)

sudo apt-get install amarok
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> amaroK

Kaip įdiegti grotuvą (RealPlayer 10)

sudo apt-get install realplay
Note: 'realplay' installs RealPlayer 10 from PLF repository, which you should be enabled if you followed this guide. 'realplayer' installs RealPlayer 8 from multiverse.
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> RealPlayer 10
  • It will also install all the necessary plugins automagically for it to view embedded real videos in Firefox
  • To avoid issues of flickering or screen going blank when switching windows, goto
  • RealPlayer 10 -> Tools -> Preferences -> Hardware -> Uncheck XVideo


Alternative Source

How to install Stream Directory Browser (streamtuner)

sudo apt-get install streamtuner
sudo apt-get install streamripper
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> streamtuner

How to install Music Organizer (Cowbell)

sudo apt-get install cowbell
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> Cowbell Music Organizer

How to install ID3 Tag Editor (EasyTAG)

sudo apt-get install easytag
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> EasyTAG

Kaip įdiegti video redagavimo programą (Kino)

sudo apt-get install kino
sudo apt-get install kinoplus
sudo apt-get install kino-timfx
sudo apt-get install kino-dvtitler
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> Kino Video Editor

Kaip įdiegti audio redagavimo programą (Audacity)

sudo apt-get install audacity
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> Audacity

How to install Music Composition Program (NoteEdit)

sudo apt-get install noteedit lilypond
sudo gedit noteedit.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=NoteEdit
Comment=A free music score editor
Exec=noteedit
Icon=/usr/share/app-install/icons/noteedit.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;AudioVideo;
  • Save the file
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> NoteEdit

Kaip įdiegti audio tvarkyklę ir grotuvą (Banshee)

sudo apt-get install banshee

How to install DVD Ripper (dvd::rip)

sudo apt-get install dvdrip vcdimager cdrdao subtitleripper
sudo ln -fs /usr/bin/rar /usr/bin/rar-2.80
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/dvdrip.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=dvd::rip 
Comment=dvd::rip
Exec=dvdrip
Icon=/usr/share/perl5/Video/DVDRip/icon.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;AudioVideo;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> dvd::rip

How to install DVD Ripper (AcidRip)

sudo apt-get install acidrip


Note: AcidRip will not recognize dvd if dma is turned on. If so undo the process #How to speed up CD/DVD-ROM.

How to install CD Ripper (Goobox)

sudo apt-get install goobox
sudo rm -f /usr/share/applications/goobox.desktop
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/goobox.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=CD Player & Ripper
Comment=Play and extract CDs
Exec=goobox
Icon=goobox.png
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;AudioVideo;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> CD Player & Ripper

How to install Image Viewer (digiKam)

sudo apt-get install digikam digikamimageplugins kipi-plugins
  • Applications -> Graphics -> digikam

How to install Picasa image organizer

gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add the following lines at the end of file
# Google Picasa for Linux repository
deb http://dl.google.com/linux/deb/ stable non-free
  • Save the edited file
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install picasa
  • Applications -> Graphics -> Picasa

Kaip įdiegti interneto TV programą (DemocracyTV beta)

  • If your system has a 32bit processor (i386) open a Terminal and type
wget http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/pculture.org/democracy/linux/ubuntu/democracyplayer-data_0.9.0.2-1ubuntupcf_all.deb
wget http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/pculture.org/democracy/linux/ubuntu/democracyplayer_0.9.0.2-1ubuntupcf_i386.deb
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo dpkg -i democracyplayer-data_0.9.0.2-1ubuntupcf_all.deb
sudo apt-get install mozilla-browser mozilla-psm mozilla-dev
sudo dpkg -i democracyplayer_0.9.0.2-1ubuntupcf_i386.deb


  • if your system has a 64bit processor (amd64)
wget http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/pculture.org/democracy/linux/ubuntu/democracyplayer-data_0.9.0.2-1ubuntupcf_all.deb
wget http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/pculture.org/democracy/linux/ubuntu/democracyplayer_0.9.0.2-1ubuntupcf_amd64.deb
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo dpkg -i democracyplayer-data_0.9.0.2-1ubuntupcf_all.deb
sudo apt-get install mozilla-browser mozilla-psm mozilla-dev
sudo dpkg -i democracyplayer_0.9.0.2-1ubuntupcf_amd64.deb

  • in both cases you might also need to install dependencies of the player package if dpkg returns a dependency error.
sudo apt-get -f install
  • to get support for more formats you have to install libxine-extracodecs (check Restricted Formats for more info)
sudo apt-get install libxine-extracodecs

or use an alternate procedure: double click (or right click and select "Open with gdebi") on the deb files so they are opened with gdebi, first democracyplayer-data_0.9.0.2-1ubuntupcf_all.deb and after that democracyplayer_0.9.0.2-1ubuntupcf_i386.deb (if you have a 32bit processor) or democracyplayer_0.9.0.2-1ubuntupcf_amd64.deb (if you have a 64bit processor)

  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> Democracy TV

How to install Vector Graphics Editor (Inkscape)

sudo apt-get install inkscape


Second installation method:

1. Download the official Inkscape Linux installer.
2. Choose a mirror and save it to your Desktop.
3. Right-click it, enable "Properties --> Permissions --> Owner:Execute" and close the dialogue box. (One-time procedure)
4. Double-click it and follow the instructions.
5. Install the support code system-wide, if you have the root password. (One-time procedure)

NOTE: You can and should install the program as a User, rather than Root. This is easily accomplished with the second method.

How to install Opera web browser

Package may be not found in the repository --Radiobuzzer 22:12, 25 October 2006 (EEST)

sudo apt-get install opera
  • Applications -> Internet -> Opera
  • To get java working go to Tools->Preferences->Advanced->Content-> Check "Enable Java". Click the "Enable Java..." button enter "/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.5.0-sun/jre/lib/i386" (for sun java) in the new dialog and then click the "Validate Java Path" button.

HKaip įdiegti elektroninio pašto programą (Mozilla Thunderbird)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo apt-get install mozilla-thunderbird
  • Applications -> Internet -> Thunderbird Mail Client

How to install Newsreader (Pan)

sudo apt-get install pan
  • Applications -> Internet -> Pan Newsreader

How to install RSS/RDF/Atom Newsreader (RSSOwl)

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin.tar.gz -C /opt/
sudo chown -R root:root /opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin/
gksudo gedit /usr/bin/runRSSOwl.sh
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
export MOZILLA_FIVE_HOME=/usr/lib/mozilla-firefox
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:${MOZILLA_FIVE_HOME}:${LD_LIBRARY_PATH}
cd /opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin/
./run.sh
  • Save the edited file
sudo chmod +x /usr/bin/runRSSOwl.sh
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/RSSOwl.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=RSSOwl
Comment=RSSOwl
Exec=runRSSOwl.sh
Icon=/opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_3_bin/rssowl.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Internet -> RSSOwl

How to install Web Authoring System (Nvu)

sudo apt-get install nvu
sudo rm -f /usr/share/applications/nvu.desktop
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/nvu.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Nvu
Comment=Web Development Editor
Exec=nvu
Icon=nvu.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Development;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Internet -> Nvu

How to install Web Development Environment (quanta plus)

sudo apt-get install quanta
  • Applications -> Programming -> Quanta Plus

How to install Project Management Application (Planner)

sudo apt-get install planner
  • Applications -> Office -> Project Management


How to install jedit

wget -c http://optusnet.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/jedit/jedit_4.3pre6_all.deb
sudo dpkg -i jedit_4.3pre6_all.deb
  • Applications -> Programming -> Programmers text editor jedit
Note: Install jedit on Dapper Drake might cause broken package which leads to Synaptic Package Manager fails to function. To remove see #How to remove jedit when Synaptic package manager fails after install.

How to install Accounting Application (GnuCash)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo apt-get install gnucash
  • Applications -> Office -> GnuCash

How to install Desktop Publishing Application (Scribus)

sudo apt-get install scribus
  • Applications -> Office -> Scribus

Kaip įdiegti diagramų redagavimo programą (Dia)

sudo apt-get install dia-gnome
  • Applications -> Graphics -> Dia

How to install Compiled HTML Help (CHM) Viewer (xCHM)

sudo apt-get install xchm
  • Applications -> Graphics -> xCHM

How to install CD/DVD Burning Application (GnomeBaker)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo apt-get install gnomebaker
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> GnomeBaker

How to install CD/DVD Burning Application (K3b)

sudo apt-get install k3b libk3b2-mp3
  • Applications -> Sound & Video -> K3b

How to install Dialup PPP Client (GNOME PPP)

sudo apt-get install gnome-ppp
  • Applications -> Internet -> GNOME PPP

How to install Broadband ADSL/PPPoE Client (RP-PPPoE)

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/rp-pppoe-3.6.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf rp-pppoe-3.6.tar.gz -C /opt/
sudo chown -R root:root /opt/rp-pppoe-3.6/
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/RP-PPPoE.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=RP-PPPoE
Comment=RP-PPPoE
Exec=gksudo /opt/rp-pppoe-3.6/go-gui
Icon=pppoeconf.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Internet -> RP-PPPoE

How to install Boot-Up Manager (BUM)

sudo apt-get install bum
  • System -> Administration -> Boot-Up Manager

How to install Partition Editor (GParted)

sudo apt-get install gparted
  • Applications -> System Tools -> GParted

How to install Firewall (Firestarter)

sudo apt-get install firestarter
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Firestarter

How to install network traffic analyzer (Ethereal)

sudo apt-get install ethereal
  • Applications -> Internet -> Ethereal

How to install Vulnerability Scanner (Nessus)

sudo apt-get install nessus
sudo apt-get install nessusd
sudo nessus-adduser
sudo ln -fs /etc/init.d/nessusd /etc/rc2.d/S20nessusd
sudo /etc/init.d/nessusd start
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/Nessus.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Nessus
Comment=Nessus
Exec=nessus
Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/nessus.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;System;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Nessus

How to install RAR Archiver (rar)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo apt-get install rar 
sudo apt-get install unrar
  • Applications -> Accessories -> Archive Manager

How to install Extra Fonts

sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-arabic
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-asian
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-chinese
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-chinese-big
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-european
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-japanese
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-japanese-big
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-phonetic
sudo apt-get install gsfonts-x11
sudo apt-get install msttcorefonts
sudo fc-cache -f -v


Note: Ubuntu Dapper comes with the DejaVu fonts (derived from Bitstream Vera) and provides adequate support for Latin, Greek and Cyrillic based languages.

How to install Chinese Input Method (SCIM)

The following advices are outdated and it could be hard to revert to normal afterwards. Please follow instead the official Ubuntu 6.06 Dapper Drake guide HERE

Please note that scim is now installed by default in Dapper, and installing Chinese, Japanese or Korean Support is done using System>Administration>Language Support. The wiki details the method more thoroughly

sudo apt-get install scim
sudo apt-get install scim-chinese
sudo apt-get install scim-config-socket
sudo apt-get install scim-gtk2-immodule
sudo apt-get install scim-tables-zh
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/fireflysung-1.3.0.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf fireflysung-1.3.0.tar.gz -C /usr/share/fonts/truetype/
sudo chown -R root:root /usr/share/fonts/truetype/fireflysung-1.3.0/ 
sudo fc-cache -f -v
  • System -> Preferences -> SCIM Input Method Setup
  • To activate SCIM
Press 'Ctrl + Space'

How to install Desktop Applets (gDesklets)

Note: Program included in Automatix2. I you have already used Automatix2, this program may have been installed

sudo apt-get install gdesklets
sudo apt-get install gdesklets-data

How to install Basic Compilers (build-essential)

sudo apt-get install build-essential

How to install .rpm to .deb Converter (Alien)

sudo apt-get install alien

How to install Integrated Development Environment (Anjuta)

sudo apt-get install anjuta
  • Applications -> Programming -> Anjuta IDE

How to install C# Integrated Development Environment (MonoDevelop)

sudo apt-get install mono mono-gmcs mono-gac mono-utils monodevelop

How to install Java Integrated Development Environment (Eclipse)

sudo apt-get install eclipse
  • Applications -> Development -> Eclipse

How to install 3D modeling tool (Blender 3d)

sudo apt-get install blender
  • Applications -> Graphics -> Blender 3D modeller

How to install game Tuxracer

sudo apt-get install planetpenguin-racer planetpenguin-racer-data planetpenguin-racer-extras
  • Applications -> Games -> planetpenguin-racer

How to install game Frozen-Bubble

sudo apt-get install frozen-bubble
  • Applications -> Games -> Frozen-Bubble

How to install game Scorched3D

sudo apt-get install scorched3d
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/scorched3d.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Scorched 3D
Comment=A 3D Remake Of Scorched Earth
Exec=scorched3d
Icon=
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Game;ArcadeGame;
  • Save the edited file
  • Applications -> Games -> Scorched 3D

How to install real-time-strategy game (globulation 2 alpha21)

wget http://globulation2.org/releases/0.8.21/glob2_alpha21_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i glob2_alpha21_i386.deb

you might also need to install dependencies if dpkg returns a dependency error

sudo apt-get -f install

to play use command

glob2

How to install virtual planetarium (Stellarium)

sudo apt-get install stellarium
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/stellarium.desktop
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Stellarium
Comment=Virtual planetarium
Exec=stellarium
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Education;
Icon=stellarium
  • Applications -> Education -> Stellarium

Second installation method: (version 0.6.2)

1. Download the Stellarium Linux installer.
2. Save it to your Desktop.
3. Right-click it, enable "Properties --> Permissions --> Owner:Execute" and close the dialogue box. (One-time procedure)
4. Double-click it and follow the instructions.
5. Install the support code system-wide, if you have the root password. (One-time procedure)

NOTE: You can and should install the program as a User, rather than Root. This is easily accomplished with the second method.

How to install Google Toolbar for Firefox

The current version of Google Toolbar works fine with Firefox 1.5.0.5 in Ubuntu 6.06

In Firefox, click the link below

http://www.google.com/tools/firefox/toolbar/

then click on the big download button.

How to install Google Earth

wget -c http://dl.google.com/earth/GE4/GoogleEarthLinux.bin
sudo sh GoogleEarthLinux.bin
  • Leave /usr/local/google-earth as the installation path
  • After installation click Exit. If you instead chose to run the application, read the Note below.
sudo cp /usr/local/google-earth/googleearth.desktop /usr/share/applications/
  • Applications -> Internet -> Google Earth
  • Note: If you run Google Earth for the first time from the installer, it will require root privileges to run the next time. To fix that:
sudo chmod 777 -R ~/.googleearth

How to install KDE Edutainment applications

sudo apt-get install kdeedu
  • Applications -> Education -> ...

How to install Internet Explorer + Flash 9

This will install a wine'd version of Internet Explorer 6 with Flash 9, as well as IE 5.5/5.01 if you really want them.

  • Note: This installed Flash 9 will NOT be available in browsers other than IE.
  • Install Cabextract. Open a terminal and run
sudo apt-get install cabextract
  • Open a terminal and run this:
wget http://www.tatanka.com.br/ies4linux/downloads/ies4linux-latest.tar.gz
tar zxvf ies4linux-latest.tar.gz
cd ies4linux-*
./ies4linux

Do not run this as root (no sudo), as this can cause the script to malfunction and ruin your X configuration.

How to install Python Development Tools

Python Dev Tools

sudo apt-get install gcc libc6-dev python-dev python-setuptools python2.4-profiler

Install EZ Setup (tool for installing Python stuff)

wget http://peak.telecommunity.com/dist/ez_setup.py
sudo python ez_setup.py

Upgrade Setup Tools

sudo easy_install -U --script-dir /usr/local/bin setuptools

Install TurboGears Framework (optional)

sudo easy_install --script-dir /usr/local/bin TurboGears

How to install Windows Applications in Linux (Wine)

Wine Is Not an Emulator. Wine is an Open Source implementation of the Windows API on top of X and Unix. Think of Wine as a compatibility layer for running Windows programs. Wine does not require Microsoft Windows, as it is a completely free alternative implementation of the Windows API consisting of 100% non-Microsoft code, however Wine can optionally use native Windows DLLs if they are available.

In other words, Wine will let you run Windows applications in Linux.

  • First, add repository for Wine:
gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add the following lines at the end of this file
# Repository for wine
deb http://wine.budgetdedicated.com/apt dapper main
deb-src http://wine.budgetdedicated.com/apt dapper main
  • Save the edited file
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install wine

How to install a Drop Down Terminal like in First Person Shooters (tilda)

Do you want a console like in a first person shooter? Tilda should take care of you.

sudo apt-get install tilda
  • The default keybinding is F1. To change the default keybinding, either enter tilda -C at the terminal, or right click on the tilda terminal then click Preferences. While in preferences, you can change other things such as transparency, font, size, and window size.

Other Desktop Environments

How to install KDE

sudo apt-get install kubuntu-desktop
Note: This installation will require ~400MB of disk space
  • System -> Log Out -> Log Out
  • To log in to KDE click on Sessions and choose KDE

How to install XFCE

sudo apt-get install xubuntu-desktop
  • System -> Log Out -> Log Out
  • To log in to XFCE click on Sessions and choose XFCE


How to install XFCE 4.4 preview versions (4.3.90.1)

  • to install Xfce 4.4 beta 1 (4.3.90.1) on a fresh install of Dapper:
sudo apt-get install build-essential gcc pkg-config libglib2.0-0 \
     libglib2.0-dev libgtk2.0-0 libgtk2.0-dev libxml++2.6c2a libxml++2.6-dev \
     libvte-dev libvte4 a2ps libxpm-dev libxpm4 alsa-source alsa alsa-base \
     alsa-oss alsa-utils libxml-parser-perl libpng12-0 libpng12-dev libdbh1.0-dev
chmod +x xfce4-4.3.90.1-installer.bin
sudo ./xfce4-4.3.90.1-installer.bin
  • finally to enable Xfce, you may need to enable it on the desktop manager (mark allow Xfce manage desktop)

How to install FluxBox

Here's some Screenshots. Fluxbox is a popular minimalist Window Manager.

sudo apt-get install fluxbox
Make it start when you login thru GDM
echo "exec startfluxbox" > ~/.xinitrc
Make it make the pretty sound on login
sudo apt-get install sox
gedit ~/.fluxbox/startup
  • Find this line:
exec /usr/local/bin/fluxbox
  • Put this above it somewhere:
play /usr/share/sounds/login.wav > /dev/null 2>&1 &
  • Listen happily.

Eye Candy

How to install Xgl/Compiz (Nvidia)



sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Find this section
Section "Module"
	Load	"i2c"
	Load	"bitmap"
	...
	Load	"type1"
	Load	"vbe"
EndSection
  • Comment out dri and GLcore (if present)
#	Load	"dri"
#	Load	"GLcore"
  • Make sure the glx module is loaded
	Load	"glx"
  • Find this section (your values may vary)
Section "Device"
	Identifier	"NVIDIA Corporation NV34M [GeForce FX Go5200]"
	Driver		"nv"
	BusID		"PCI:1:0:0"
EndSection
  • Replace with the following lines, leaving the Identifier and BusID as it is
Section "Device"
	...
	Driver		"nvidia"
	...
	Option		"RenderAccel"		"true"
	Option		"AllowGLXWithComposite" "true"
EndSection
  • Find this section
Section "Screen"
	Identifier	"Default Screen"
	Device		"NVIDIA Corporation NV34M [GeForce FX Go5200]"
	Monitor		"Generic Monitor"
	DefaultDepth	16
  • Make sure DefaultDepth is set to 24, if it isn't already
	DefaultDepth	24
  • Save the edited file
  • Install Xgl/Compiz
sudo apt-get install compiz xserver-xgl libgl1-mesa xserver-xorg libglitz-glx1 compiz-gnome
sudo cp /etc/gdm/gdm.conf-custom /etc/gdm/gdm.conf-custom-backup
gksudo gedit /etc/gdm/gdm.conf-custom
  • Replace everything with the following lines
# GDM Configuration Customization file.
#
# This file is the appropriate place for specifying your customizations to the
# GDM configuration.   If you run gdmsetup, it will automatically edit this
# file for you and will cause the daemon and any running GDM GUI programs to
# automatically update with the new configuration.  Not all configuration
# options are supported by gdmsetup, so to modify some values it may be
# necessary to modify this file directly by hand.
# 
# To hand-edit this file, simply add or modify the key=value combination in
# the appropriate section in the template below.  Refer to the comments in the
# gdm.conf file for information about each option.  Also refer to the reference
# documentation.
# 
# If you hand edit a GDM configuration file, you should run the following
# command to get the GDM daemon to notice the change.  Any running GDM GUI
# programs will also be notified to update with the new configuration.
#
# gdmflexiserver --command="UPDATE_CONFIG <configuration key>"
#
# For example, the "Enable" key in the "[debug]" section would be specified by
# "debug/Enable".
#
# You can also run gdm-restart or gdm-safe-restart to cause GDM to restart and
# re-read the new configuration settings.  You can also restart GDM by sending
# a HUP or USR1 signal to the daemon.  HUP behaves like gdm-restart and causes
# any user session started by GDM to exit immediately while USR1 behaves like
# gdm-safe-restart and will wait until all users log out before restarting GDM.
# 
# For full reference documentation see the gnome help browser under
# GNOME|System category.  You can also find the docs in HTML form on
# http://www.gnome.org/projects/gdm/
# 
# NOTE: Lines that begin with "#" are considered comments.
# 
# Have fun!

[daemon]

[security]

[xdmcp]

[gui]

[greeter]

[chooser]

[debug]

[servers]# Override display 1 to use Xgl
0=Xgl 

[server-Xgl] 
name=Xgl server 
command=/usr/bin/Xgl :0 -fullscreen -ac -accel glx:pbuffer -accel xv:fbo 
flexible=true
  • Create a script that runs Xgl/Compiz on startup
gksudo gedit /usr/bin/thefuture
  • Insert the following lines into the new file. Replace .us with appropriate keyboard binding for your region. Eg .gb for United Kingdom. For a full list of keyboard bindings, type ls /usr/share/xmodmap in a terminal. If unsure, leave as .us (United States)
#!/bin/bash
gnome-window-decorator &  compiz --replace gconf decoration wobbly fade minimize cube rotate zoom scale move resize place switcher &
xmodmap /usr/share/xmodmap/xmodmap.us
  • Save the file
sudo chmod 755 /usr/bin/thefuture
  • To run compiz for this session
thefuture
  • To have compiz load on startup
    • System -> Preferences -> Sessions
    • Startup Programs -> Add
/usr/bin/thefuture
  • Troubleshooting
    • If Xgl/Compiz doesn't seem to work, or you get errors, simply restart your machine after adding "thefuture" to Startup programs
    • If moving windows slows down the system, run gconf-editor from the terminal. Find apps/compiz/general/screen0/options. Disable detect_refresh_rate and set refresh rate to 60. Everything should work fine now...
    • If you are using a non default keyboard layout (other language), you might have to change it back to what you need if the keyboard acts funny at System/Settings/Keyboard.
    • You can also set the Super-key to the windows button here.
    • If you don't want "bottom expanded panel", type "killall gnome-panel" in terminal.
  • Tips
    • Switch windows = Alt + Tab
    • Arrange and View All Windows = F12 turns on or off; clicking a window will zoom it to the front
    • Switch desktops on cube = Ctrl + Alt + Left/Right Arrow
    • Switch desktops on cube - with active window following = Ctrl + Shift + Alt + Left/Right Arrow
    • Rotate cube manually = Ctrl + Alt + left-click
    • Make window translucent/opaque = currently only possible with the "transset" utility
    • Zoom-in once = Super-key right-click
    • Zoom-in manually = Super-key + wheel mouse up
    • Zoom-out manually = Super-key + wheel mouse down
    • Move window = Alt + left-click
    • Snap Move window (will stick to borders) = Ctrl + Alt + left-click
    • Resize window = Alt + right-click

How to install Xgl/Beryl (ATI)

(From Beryl Forums)

First make sure you have 3d acceleration available in a normal gnome session. There are lots of howtos for this , Google if you need any help with that. So if glxinfo shows direct rendering: yes , then you are good to go. If not xgl and Beryl wont work!

  • Update your system
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
  • Prepare and update repositories
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add quinstorms' and reggaemanus' repositories to /etc/apt/sources.list
deb http://www.beerorkid.com/compiz/ dapper main
deb http://xgl.compiz.info/ dapper main
deb-src http://xgl.compiz.info/ dapper main
  • Download and import the gpg key for quinnstorms repository
 wget http://www.beerorkid.com/compiz/quinn.key.asc -O - | sudo apt-key add -
  • Update your sources
sudo apt-get update
  • Install needed packages
sudo apt-get install xserver-xgl libgl1-mesa xserver-xorg libglitz-glx1 beryl beryl-core beryl-manager beryl-plugins beryl-plugins-data beryl-settings emerald emerald-themes
  • Make a startup script for xgl
sudo gedit /usr/bin/startxgl.sh
  • Add to script
Xgl -fullscreen :1 -ac -accel glx:pbuffer -accel xv:pbuffer & sleep 2 && DISPLAY=:1 
# Start GNOME
exec gnome-session
  • Make the script executable
sudo chmod 755 /usr/bin/startxgl.sh
  • Make a xgl session for the login manager
sudo gedit /usr/share/xsessions/xgl.desktop
  • Add to session
[Desktop Entry]
Encoding=UTF-8
Name=XGl
Exec=/usr/bin/startxgl.sh
Icon=
Type=Application
  • add
beryl
emerald

to gnome session startup programs. ( go to system , preferences , sessions and select the startup programs tab )

  • Reboot
  • In the login manager you can now choose a session named Xgl
  • Answer to following question that you want to use Xgl for this session only (if something went wrong you are logged in next time using standard session)
  • If everything works fine , you can set it as the default session , remember you can always login a normal gnome session if you want.
  • If you own an x series radeon and have problems with lockups, read this post:

http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=150854

Note for all cards: glxinfo will show that direct rendering is not working , dont worry thats normal when you are running xgl.

How to install Beryl/AIGLX (Nvidia)

(From Ubuntu Forums)

  • Ensure all packages up to date
Install your *ubuntu-desktop metapackage specific to your DE, e.g. sudo apt-get install ubuntu-desktop
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
  • Add repositories
gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add the following lines at the end of this file:
deb http://dev.realistanew.com/beryl edgy beryl
deb http://beryl-mirror.lupine.me.uk/beryl edgy beryl

(If you need the 64bit beryl add this to the repository list)

deb http://ubuntu.lupine.me.uk/ edgy main-amd64
  • Save the edited file
sudo apt-get update
  • Install Beryl
sudo apt-get install beryl-core beryl-plugins beryl-plugins-data emerald beryl-settings beryl-manager beryl beryl-dev emerald-themes
  • Back up xorg.conf
sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Add this to xorg.conf "Screen" section
# Enable 32-bit ARGB GLX Visuals
    Option "AddARGBGLXVisuals" "True"

# If you are using an older version of compiz that
# does not support rendering into the Composite
# Overlay Window, you will need to disable clipping
# of GLX rendering to the X Root window with this
# option, or you will get a blank screen after
# starting compiz:
    Option "DisableGLXRootClipping" "True"
  • Add this to xorg.conf "Device" section
Option          "TripleBuffer" "true"
  • Restart X with ctrl+alt+backspace
  • Start Beryl
beryl-start

or

beryl-manager

How to install alternate boot splash screen

  • Read #General Notes
  • This installs a minimalistic splash screen that appears when the computer is booting up and shutting down. It is devoid of any text messages.
wget -c http://www.users.on.net/~stubby/usplash-minimalistic_0.1.deb
sudo dpkg -i usplash-minimalistic_0.1.deb
sudo update-alternatives --config usplash-artwork.so
  • Select the minimalistic alternative (/usr/local/lib/usplash/minimalastic.so) by entering the corresponding number. If you ever want to revert back to the original splash, select the default (/usr/lib/usplash/usplash-default.so)

Commercial Applications

How to install Windows 9X/ME/2000/XP (Win4Lin)

How to install Windows Applications (CrossOver Office)

How to install Windows Games (Cedega)

User Administration

Kaip nustatyti/pakeisti/aktyvuoti root userio slaptažodį

sudo passwd root

How to disable root user account

sudo passwd -l root

How to allow root user to login into GNOME

Security Tab -> Security -> Allow root to login with GDM (Checked)

How to switch to root user in Console mode

sudo -s -H
Password: <specify user password>

How to add/edit/delete system users

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Users and Groups
  • Users and Groups
Users Tab -> Add User.../Properties/Delete
or
sudo useradd jim
sudo userdel jim
  • For more info read
man usermod

How to add/edit/delete system groups

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Users and Groups
  • Users and Groups
Groups Tab -> Add Group.../Properties/Delete

How to automatic login into GNOME (not secure)

Security Tab -> Enable Automatic Login (Checked)
Now choose a user from the drop-down menu.

How to allow more sudoers

EDITOR=gedit sudo visudo
  • Append the following line at the end of file
system_username	ALL=(ALL) ALL
  • Save the edited file

OR since everyone in the admin group can use sudo:

sudo adduser a_username admin

This appends the admin group to the user's supplementary group list. They will now have sudo access.

How to use "sudo" without prompt for password (not secure)

EDITOR=gedit sudo visudo
  • Find this line
...
system_username	ALL=(ALL) ALL
...
  • Replace with the following line
system_username	ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL
  • Save the edited file

How to explicitly destroy the "sudo" session

sudo -K

How to change files/folders permissions

Right click on files/folders -> Properties
Permissions Tab -> Read/Write/Execute (Checked the permissions for Owner/Group/Others)

How to change files/folders ownership

sudo chown system_username /location_of_files_or_folders

How to change files/folders group ownership

sudo chgrp system_groupname /location_of_files_or_folders

Hardware

Activate side-mouse-buttons in FireFox

Just add two lines to xorg.conf will activate side-mouse-buttons in FireFox. This should work with most 5-button mouse. Here is a list of mice that worked with this instruction.

  • Logitech MX510
  • Logitech MX518
  • Logitech MX700
  • Intellimouse Explorer (first edition)


Backup Gnome configuration file

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.bak

Modify the Gnome configuration file

gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf

Find the Input Device section for your mouse and add two lines as shown below. You may also increase the number of buttons if your mouse has more than 7, just fix the rest of the section based upon the number of buttons (remember back/forward, wheel click & tilt left/right all count as buttons)

Change:

Section "InputDevice"
	Identifier "Configured Mouse"
	Driver "mouse"
	Option "CorePointer"
	...
	Option "Protocol" "ExplorerPS/2"
	...
	Option "Emulate3Buttons"       "true"
EndSection

to:

Section "InputDevice"
	Identifier "Configured Mouse"
	Driver "mouse"
	Option "CorePointer"
	...
	Option "Protocol" "ExplorerPS/2"
	...
	Option "Emulate3Buttons"       "true"
	Option "Buttons" "7"
 	Option "ButtonMapping" "1 2 3 6 7"
EndSection


At this point you can reboot your computer or reboot Gnome (Ctrl-Alt-BackSpace) to see if your forward/back buttons work in FireFox. They still won't work in Nautilus yet until you install the imwheel dameon.

Install & Configure IMWheel

  • Install IMWheel
sudo apt-get install imwheel
  • Modify IMWheel configuration file
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/imwheel/imwheelrc
  • Insert the following at the bottom of this existing file
".*"
None, Up, Alt_L|Left
None, Down, Alt_L|Right 

"(null)"
None, Up, Alt_L|Left
None, Down, Alt_L|Right


  • Create IMWheel start-up script
sudo mkdir /home/login
gksudo gedit /home/login/mouse
  • Insert the following into this new file
#!/bin/sh
exec xmodmap -e "pointer = 1 2 3 6 7 4 5" &
exec imwheel -k -b "67" &
exec $REALSTARTUP
  • Grant execution for everyone to this new script
sudo chmod +x /home/login/mouse
  • Configure this script to be executed at start-up
    1. Select 'System' > 'Preferences' > 'Sessions'
    2. Click the StartUp tab
    3. Click Add, then input: /home/login/mouse
    4. Click OK, then Close
  • Reboot your computer or your Gnome environment and then test your back/forward mouse buttons in Nautilus

How to install Graphics Driver (NVIDIA)

sudo apt-get install nvidia-glx nvidia-kernel-common
sudo nvidia-glx-config enable
  • Should the above not enable the new driver, you can enable it manually by opening the X config file:
sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
 
  • and replacing "nv" with "nvidia"
  • Enable XvMC by creating the nVidia XvMC configuration file
sudo gedit /etc/X11/XvMCConfig
  • Insert the following line into the new configuration file, to tell the players the name of the nVidia XvMC shared library:
libXvMCNVIDIA_dynamic.so.1
  • To use XvMC to accelerate video playback, use the following flags. See [[2]] for more details.
xine -V xxmc filename.ts
mplayer -vo xvmc -vc ffmpeg12mc filename.ts

How to install Beta Graphics Driver (NVIDIA)

This section is borrowed from http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=263851

sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add the following line at the end
deb http://amaranth.selfip.com edgy lrm
  • Save the edited file
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install nvidia-glx libxorg-sched-yield-hack0
sudo apt-get upgrade
  • The upgrade should update your linux-restricted-modules & linux-restricted-modules-common packages.
sudo nvidia-xconfig
  • Restart the computer and your new drivers should be installed.

How to setup pivot (screen rotation) with default X.org NVIDIA drivers

  • Some LCD monitors are equipped with the pivot feature, to take advantage of it the display has to be rotated 90 degrees. The default nVidia drivers shipped with X.org ("nv") support software screen rotation. Note that it's unaccelerated and can be slow, read #How to install Graphics Driver (NVIDIA) if you decide to install the proprietary driver.
  • To rotate the screen find the "Device" section for the "nv" driver in the /etc/X11/xorg.conf file:
Section "Device"                                                                
       Identifier      "NVIDIA Corporation NV34 [GeForce FX 5200]"
       Driver          "nv"
  • Add the following options to this section:
       Option "Rotate" "CW"

Where the "Rotate" option has two possible values (depending on the orientation of the monitor):

  1. CW - rotate the display clockwise (right).
  2. CCW - rotate the display counterclockwise (right).

How to setup pivot (screen rotation) with proprietary NVIDIA drivers

  • Some LCD monitors are equipped with the pivot feature, to take advantage of it the display has to be rotated 90 degrees. The proprietary nVidia drivers support hardware rotation with the Xrandr extension.
  • To enable rotation support find the "Device" section for the "nvidia" driver in the /etc/X11/xorg.conf file:
Section "Device"                                                                
       Identifier      "NVIDIA Corporation NV34 [GeForce FX 5200]"
       Driver          "nvidia"
  • Add the following option to this section:
       Option          "RandRRotation" "on"
  • Then the display can be rotated (direction depends on the orientation of the monitor) by:
  1. Setting the "Rotation" property to either "Left" or "Right" in the "System > Preferences > Screen Resolution" dialog.
  2. Issuing either "xrandr -o left" or "xrandr -o right" command.

How to disable NVIDIA graphics logo on GNOME startup

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Find this section
 ...
Section "Device"
	Identifier	"NVIDIA Corporation NV11 [GeForce2 MX/MX 400]"
	Driver		"nvidia"
	BusID		"PCI:1:0:0"
...
  • Add the following line below it
   Option		"NoLogo"

How to install Graphics Driver (ATI)

How to install Graphics Driver (Intel)

Note: This driver is for Intel® 82830M, 82845G, 82852GM, 82855GM, 82865G, and 82915G/GM graphics controller-based products only.

wget -c http://downloadmirror.intel.com/df-support/8211/eng/dri-I915-v1.1-20041217.i386.rpm
sudo alien dri-I915-v1.1-20041217.i386.rpm
sudo dpkg -i dri-i915_v1.1-20041218_i386.deb

How to Correct the Graphics Resolution (Intel)

  • Intel 915g, 945g, etc. graphics chipsets only have a limited set of resolutions initially installed, despite the correct driver being detected.
  • Install the resolution altering tool:
sudo apt-get install 915resolution
  • Run the following to see the availible modes:
915resolution -l
  • Choose a resolution you don't need and replace, for example the following changes 1920x1440 to 1920x1200
915resolution 5c 1920 1200
  • This should add the option for that resolution to the "System>Preferences>Screen Resolution" tool.
  • If it works correctly then you can make the change permanent:
sudo gedit /etc/rc.local
  • Simply add the command you typed in above before:
exit 0

How to detect CPU temperature, fan speeds and voltages (lm-sensors)

sudo apt-get install lm-sensors

Create file called mkdev.sh, and paste in the following

#!/bin/bash

# Here you can set several defaults.

# The number of devices to create (max: 256)
NUMBER=32

# The owner and group of the devices
OUSER=root
OGROUP=root
# The mode of the devices
MODE=600

# This script doesn't need to be run if devfs is used
if [ -r /proc/mounts ] ; then
if grep -q "/dev devfs" /proc/mounts ; then
echo "You do not need to run this script as your system uses devfs."
exit;
fi
fi

i=0;

while [ $i -lt $NUMBER ] ; do
echo /dev/i2c-$i
mknod -m $MODE /dev/i2c-$i c 89 $i || exit
chown "$OUSER:$OGROUP" /dev/i2c-$i || exit
i=$[$i + 1]
done
#end of file

Make this file executable, then run it

sudo chmod +x mkdev.sh
./mkdev.sh

Now detect sensors, and answer "y" to all questions.

sudo sensors-detect

Load the modules into kernel

sensors -s

Now, let's see the output

sensors


How to control fan speed (lm-sensors)

Install and config lm-sensors first, see section above. Then run pwmconfig to test your fans

pwmconfig

If you can control fan speeds, great. Now creat a file called /etc/init.d/fancontrol, and paste in the following

#!/bin/sh
#
# Fancontrol start script.
#

set -e

# Defaults
DAEMON=/usr/sbin/fancontrol
PIDFILE=/var/run/fancontrol-pid
PATH=/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin

test -f $DAEMON || exit 0

. /lib/lsb/init-functions


case "$1" in
       start)
               log_begin_msg "Starting fancontrol daemon..."
               start-stop-daemon --start -o -q -m -b -p $PIDFILE -x $DAEMON
               log_end_msg $?
               ;;
       stop)
               log_begin_msg "Stopping fancontrol daemon..."
               start-stop-daemon --stop -o -q -p $PIDFILE
               log_end_msg $?
               ;;
       force-reload|restart)
               sh $0 stop
               sh $0 start
               ;;
       *)
               log_success_msg "Usage: /etc/init.d/fancontrol {start|stop|restart|force-reload}"
               log_success_msg "  start - starts system-wide fancontrol service"
               log_success_msg "  stop  - stops system-wide fancontrol service"
               log_success_msg "  restart, force-reload - starts a new system-wide fancontrol service"
               exit 1
               ;;
esac

exit 0

Make it excutable

sudo chmod +x /etc/init.d/fancontrol

Test it

/etc/init.d/fancontrol start

and

/etc/init.d/fancontrol stop

If it works fine, autoload it when you reboot. Insert the following line into /etc/rc.local, before "exit 0"

/etc/init.d/fancontrol start


How to show nvidia GPU temperature (nvidia-settings)

At a terminal, type

nvidia-settings


How to monitor CPU, GPU temperatures, fan speeds and voltages (GKrellM)

  • Install hddtemp first to monitor hard drive temperatures
sudo apt-get install hddtemp

GKrellM is a hardware monitor that can display CPU and GPU temperatures, fan speeds, voltages, CPU load, network load, disk activity, disk temperature, memory usage, and swap usage. The installation is very easy, and configuration is just a few mouse-clicks. You can set alerts to warn you if the CPU is too hot or there is a fan failure. The hddtemp utility works with GKrellM to allow it to sense the disk temperature, as keeping your disks cool (e.g. less than around 40C) will allow them to last longer than if they run continually at higher temperatures (e.g. above 50C).

sudo apt-get install gkrellm

To run the program

Click Applications -> System Tools -> GKrellM

To configure the settings,

Right click on GKrellM -> Configuration

I was struggling with lm_sensors before, but it doesn't detect all of the sensors on my computer. Later I found "GKrellM". It displays the GPU temperature on my nVidia 6600 GT out of the box. GKrellM also has plugins that show weather info, set reminders, etc.

Add an audio alert (optional Step): Here is how to play an audio message when the CPU is too hot or a fan fails. First you need to find or record your own audio alert files. (I use Audacity to record my own.) Then go to:

Configuration -> Builtins folder (Left side)-> Sensors -> Temperatures folder (Right side)-> CPU -> Alerts Button

Paste ONE of the following lines into a Terminal window first to test the sound. If you have two sound cards, you can use "-ao oss:/dev/dsp1" option to route the sound to the second sound card. Modify the file path and name so it points to the correct file. If you can hear the sound, then copy that line to a command line text field on the GKrellM's Alerts window.

mplayer /home/myfolder/alert_messages/heat_alert.mp3
mplayer -ao oss:/dev/dsp1 /home/myfolder/alert_messages/heat_alert.mp3

How to identify Modem chipset

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/scanModem.gz
gunzip -c scanModem.gz > scanModem
chmod +x scanModem
sudo cp scanModem /usr/bin/
  • To identify Modem chipset
sudo scanModem
gedit Modem/ModemData.txt

How to install Windows Wireless Drivers (Ndiswrapper)


  • Find out if you have acx module loaded. Because acx module interferes with windows driver, we need to remove it if it is found.
lsmod | grep acx
  • Remove the acx module if found. It could also be acx_pci or similar. Please Note: New kernel updates will auto load the acx module again. So repeat the following two commands every time the kernel is updated.
sudo rmmod acx
sudo mv /lib/modules/2.6.15-26-386/kernel/drivers/net/wireless/acx /root/
  • Install ndiswrapper and drivers
sudo apt-get install ndiswrapper-utils
sudo ndiswrapper -i /location_of_your_wireless_driver/your_driver.inf
sudo ndiswrapper -l
sudo modprobe ndiswrapper
  • Set ndiswrapper to load on startup
sudo ndiswrapper -m
gksudo gedit /etc/modules
  • Add the following module to the list
ndiswrapper
  • Now you can configure your wireless card with ifconfig and iwconfig.
e.g. Supposing wlan0 is your wireless device.
sudo iwconfig wlan0 essid "AP" key ababababababababab mode Managed
iwconfig
  • You sould now be able to see the MAC address of the access point and signal rate.

How to enable WPA with Ndiswrapper driver

  • First, make sure the Ndiswrapper driver works by itself without encryption.
  • Create a file called /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf, and paste in the following. Modify the ssid and psk values.
ctrl_interface=/var/run/wpa_supplicant
 network={
   ssid="YourWiFiSSID"
   psk="YourWiFiPassword"
   key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
   proto=WPA
   pairwise=TKIP
 }
  • Test it. Make sure your router is broadcasting its SSID.
sudo wpa_supplicant -Dwext -iwlan0 -c/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf -dd
  • If you WPA works. Load it automatically when you reboot.
gksudo gedit /etc/network/interfaces
  • Change your wlan0 section to the following.

If you are using static IP:

auto wlan0
iface wlan0 inet static
address 192.168.1.20
netmask 255.255.255.0
gateway 192.168.1.1
pre-up wpa_supplicant -Bw -Dwext -iwlan0 -c/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
post-down killall -q wpa_supplicant

or this, if you are using dhcp.

auto wlan0
iface wlan0 inet dhcp
pre-up wpa_supplicant -Bw -Dwext -iwlan0 -c/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
post-down killall -q wpa_supplicant


  • Reboot

How to install Modem Driver (SmartLink)

uname -r (must be 2.6.10-5-386)
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/sl-modem-modules-2.6.10-5-386_2.9.9a-1ubuntu2+2.6.10-34_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i sl-modem-modules-*.deb
sudo apt-get install sl-modem-daemon

How to configure PalmOS Devices

gksudo gedit /etc/udev/rules.d/10-custom.rules
  • Insert the following line into the new file
BUS="usb", SYSFS{product}="Palm Handheld*", KERNEL="ttyUSB*", NAME{ignore_remove}="pilot", MODE="666"
  • Save the edited file
  • Add the pilot-applet to the Taskbar by Right-Clicking on an empty spot
  • Follow the instructions on screen

How to list partition tables

sudo fdisk -l
  • You can also use System -> Administration -> Disks

How to list filesystem disk space usage

df -Th
  • You can also use System -> Administration -> Disks

How to list mounted devices

mount

How to list PCI devices

lspci

How to list USB devices

lsusb

How to speed up CD/DVD-ROM

e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo hdparm -d1 /dev/cdrom
sudo cp /etc/hdparm.conf /etc/hdparm.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/hdparm.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
/dev/cdrom {
    dma = on
}
  • Save the edited file

How to mount/unmount CD/DVD-ROM manually, and show all hidden and associated files/folders

e.g. Assumed that /media/cdrom0/ is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
  • To mount CD/DVD-ROM
sudo mount /media/cdrom0/ -o unhide
  • To unmount CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /media/cdrom0/

How to forcefully unmount CD/DVD-ROM manually

e.g. Assumed that /media/cdrom0/ is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /media/cdrom0/ -l

How to remount /etc/fstab without rebooting

sudo mount -a


How to install a Wacom tablet

For a detailed guide with screenshots about how to configure the "Extended input devices" in your graphic applications, please follow the official Dapper guide at https://wiki.ubuntu.com//Wacom

With the version of the Linux Wacom driver (0.7.2) in Ubuntu 6.06 Dapper Drake, if you unplug you tablet, it won't function when you plug it back in and you will have to restart X. For this reason, it is best to leave the tablet plugged in. This limitation will be removed when the 0.7.4 version of the driver is included in Ubuntu.

  • 1. Using Synaptic package manager, check if the packages xserver-xorg-input-wacom and wacom-tools are already installed - if not, install them. If you prefer using the command line, you can also execute :
     sudo apt-get install xserver-xorg-input-wacom wacom-tools
  • 2. Save a copy of your /etc/X11/xorg.conf :
      sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.backup
  • then edit it with the command line :
      gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • and change all /dev/wacom occurences into /dev/input/wacom (created by wacom-tools udev scripts), then save the file.
  • You should be ready to go after you have restarted X. Remember to configure the "Extended input devices" in your graphic applications (Gimp, Inkscape), however you can already check if it's working by moving your stylus on the tablet : the mouse cursor should go through the whole screen.

How to enable Multicore Support

  • This should work for both Multicore systems and SMP systems
sudo apt-get install linux-686-smp
  • You can check that this works by running the following and seeing two CPUs listed
cat /proc/cpuinfo

How to enable Large Widescreen Support

  • 24/23" widescreen monitors sometimes have issues running 1920x1200.
  • Examples include: Dell 2405, HP 2335 or an Apple Cinema Display.
sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Add the following line to the appropriate "Monitor" section
Modeline	"1920x1200" 154 1920 1968 2000 2080 1200 1203 1209 1235
  • For example the HP2335 should now look like:
Section "Monitor"
	Identifier	"hp L2335"
	Option		"DPMS"
	Modeline	"1920x1200" 154 1920 1968 2000 2080 1200 1203 1209 1235
EndSection

How to setup the surround speakers (5.1 and others) with ALSA

  • Edit the ~/.asoundrc file, create it if it doesn't exist:
gedit ~/.asoundrc
  • Enter the following section:
pcm.!default {
    type plug
    slave.pcm "surround51"
    slave.channels 6
    route_policy duplicate
}
  • This will allow to play the surround output and duplicate the stereo output to all 6 channels (not only front ones).

CD/DVD Burning

How to blank CD-RW/DVD-RW

e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /dev/cdrom
cdrecord dev=/dev/cdrom blank=fast

How to burn files/folders into CD/DVD

nautilus burn:///
  • File Browser: CD/DVD Creator
  • Drag files/folders into window
File Menu -> Write to Disc... -> Write

How to burn Image (ISO) files into CD/DVD

Right click on Image (ISO) file -> Write to Disc... -> Write

How to duplicate CD/DVD

How to create Image (ISO) files from CD/DVD

e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /dev/cdrom
dd if=/dev/cdrom of=file.iso bs=1024

How to create Image (ISO) files from folders

mkisofs -o file.iso /location_of_folder/

How to generate MD5 checksum files

md5sum file.iso > file.iso.md5

How to check MD5 checksum of files

e.g. Assumed that file.iso and file.iso.md5 are in the same folder
md5sum -c file.iso.md5

How to mount/unmount Image (ISO) files without burning

sudo mkdir /media/iso
sudo modprobe loop
sudo mount file.iso /media/iso/ -t iso9660 -o loop
  • To unmount Image (ISO) file
sudo umount /media/iso/

How to set/change the burn speed for CD/DVD Burner

  • Read #General Notes
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> default_speed (set/change the burn speed)

How to enable burnproof for CD/DVD Burner

  • Read #General Notes
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> burnproof (Checked)

How to enable overburn for CD/DVD Burner

  • Read #General Notes
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> overburn (Checked)

Networking

How to configure Google Talk

How to activate/deactivate network connections

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Networking
  • Network settings
Connections Tab -> Select "Ethernet connection" -> Activate/Deactivate

How to configure network connections

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Networking
  • Network settings
Connections Tab -> Select "Ethernet connection" -> Properties
Connection -> Enable this connection (Checked)
Connection Settings -> Configuration: Select "DHCP/Static IP address"
DNS Tab -> DNS Servers -> Add/Delete

How to configure dialup connections

sudo pppconfig
  • To connect dialup
sudo pon provider_name
  • To disconnect dialup
sudo poff

How to configure broadband connections

sudo pppoeconf

How to change computer name

  • Read #General Notes
  • System -> Administration -> Networking
  • Network settings
General Tab -> Host Settings -> Hostname: Specify the computer name 
  • Save and close all opened applications, Reboot computer

How to change computer descriptions

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
  server string = %h server (Samba, Ubuntu)
...
  • Replace with the following line
  server string = new_computer_descriptions
  • Save the edited file
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to change computer Domain/Workgroup

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
  workgroup = MSHOME
...
  • Replace with the following line
  workgroup = new_domain_or_workgroup
  • Save the edited file
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to assign Hostname to local machine with dynamic IP using free DynDNS service

sudo apt-get install ipcheck
gksudo gedit /etc/ppp/ip-up.d/dyndns_update.sh
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
 #!/bin/sh

 USERNAME=myusername
 PASSWORD=mypassword
 HOSTNAME=myhostname.dyndns.org

 cd /root/
 if [ -f /root/ipcheck.dat ]; then
  ipcheck -r checkip.dyndns.org:8245 $USERNAME $PASSWORD $HOSTNAME
 else
  ipcheck --makedat -r checkip.dyndns.org:8245 $USERNAME $PASSWORD $HOSTNAME
 fi
  • Save the edited file
sudo chmod 700 /etc/ppp/ip-up.d/dyndns_update.sh
sudo sh /etc/ppp/ip-up.d/dyndns_update.sh

How to share folders the easy way

Right click on folder -> Share folder
Shared folder -> Share with: Select "SMB"
Share properties -> Name: Specify the share name

How to browse network computers

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
If computers or network folders could not be found, try access them directly
Read #How to access network folders without mounting
  • Places -> Network Servers

How to access network folders without mounting

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Shared folder's name: linux
  • Press 'Alt+F2' (Run Application...) and enter:
smb://192.168.0.1/linux

How to mount/unmount network folders manually, and allow all users to read

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
  • To mount network folder
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
sudo mount //192.168.0.1/linux /media/sharename/ -o username=myusername,password=mypassword
  • To unmount network folder
sudo umount /media/sharename/

How to mount/unmount network folders manually, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
  • To mount network folder
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
sudo mount //192.168.0.1/linux /media/sharename/ -o username=myusername,password=mypassword,dmask=777,fmask=777
  • To unmount network folder
sudo umount /media/sharename/

How to mount network folders on boot-up, and allow all users to read

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
gksudo gedit /root/.smbcredentials
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
username=myusername
password=mypassword 
  • Save the edited file
sudo chmod 700 /root/.smbcredentials
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file
//192.168.0.1/linux    /media/sharename smbfs  credentials=/root/.smbcredentials    0    0

How to mount network folders on boot-up, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
Network computer's Username: myusername
Network computer's Password: mypassword
Shared folder's name: linux
Local mount folder: /media/sharename
sudo mkdir /media/sharename
gksudo gedit /root/.smbcredentials
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
username=myusername
password=mypassword
  • Save the edited file
sudo chmod 700 /root/.smbcredentials
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file
//192.168.0.1/linux    /media/sharename smbfs  credentials=/root/.smbcredentials,dmask=777,fmask=777  0    0

How to get ipw2200 and wpa to work

How to Configure and start PPTP tunnels (VPN)

OR
  • Install manually
wget -c http://linux.edu.lv/uploads/content/pptp.tar.gz
tar zxvf pptp.tar.gz
sudo sh ./pptp/install
  • To configure PPTP Client
gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/pptpconfig.desktop
  • Replace content of this file with the following lines
[Desktop Entry]
Name=PPTP Client
Comment=Configure and start PPTP tunnels (VPN)
Categories=Application;Network
Encoding=UTF-8
Exec=gksudo pptpconfig
Icon=gnome-remote-desktop.png
StartupNotify=true
Terminal=false
Type=Application
  • The above lines change the default file in three ways: the application is placed in the Application/Internet category, gksudo will make the application run as superuser and we put a nice icon that appears in the menu.
  • Start the client with Applications -> Internet -> PPTP Client

How to Configure Ubuntu/Kubuntu with WPA using Network-Manager

Ubuntu Dapper in typical cases can configure WPA to work out of the box with minimal hassle. You'll need to install network-manager.


For Ubuntu:

sudo apt-get install network-manager-gnome

For Kubuntu (will install knetworkmanager):

sudo apt-get install network-manager-kde

Logout/Reboot.

Ubuntu users should now see the NetworkManager Applet in the Gnome notification area. Kubuntu users will probably have to run knetworkmanager before they see NetworkManager in the systray.

If instead, you get a "The NetworkManager applet could not find some required resources. It cannot continue." message, then:

sudo gtk-update-icon-cache -f /usr/share/icons/hicolor

Once Network-Manager is installed, click on the NM icon in the notification area (default is at the top right of Ubuntu/Gnome). Choose your network, then enter your passphrase. Type a password for the keyring, and you're set.

If you don't see your network, click "Create New Wireless Network...", type your essid/networkname, then choose "WPA Personal" for wireless security.

  • Note: If you installed Kubuntu then installed ubuntu-desktop & network-manager-gnome, you may not be able to use network-manager in Gnome, if at all. In this case, you may have to use WPA Supplicant and do some manual editing of conf files to get WPA up and running.
  • Note: When you first log into Gnome/KDE, the keyring application will ask for a password. Future revisions of Network-Manager should resolve this.

Remote Access

Remote Login via XDMCP

What is XDMCP?

GNOME windows can support several different users simultaniously. Unlike vncviewer that just duplicates the current screen on a remote system, XDMCP allows several different users to login and run different GNOME sessions at the same time. So if you have a fast computer runing Ubuntu, several users can use their slow machines to login and run heavy applications only available on the fast machine.

How to turn on the XDMCP feature

To turn on the XDMCP feature on the fast computer, click the menu

System -> Administration -> Login Window 

In the Login Window Preferences dialog window, select

Remote Tab -> Style: Same as Local ->  Close the dialog window -> Restart the PC
How to login from another PC running Ubuntu
1. Reboot the slow PC and stop at the login screen
2. Click Options at the lower left corner of the login screen
3. Select "Remote Login via XDMCP"
4. On the dialog window, type in the host name or ip of the fast computer you want to login to


Remote Desktop Sharing/Duplication via VNC

How to configure remote desktop (not secure)
Warning! Remote Desktop will only work if there's a GNOME login session
Leaving computer with an unattended GNOME login session is not secure
Use (System -> Lock Screen) and switch off the monitor when computer is left unattended
  • System -> Preferences -> Remote Desktop
  • Remote Desktop Preferences
Sharing ->
Allow other users to view your desktop (Checked)
Allow other users to control your desktop (Checked)
Security ->
Ask you for confirmation (Un-Checked)
Require the user to enter this password: (Checked)
Password: Specify the password
How to connect into remote Ubuntu desktop
e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have configured Remote Desktop
Read #How to configure remote desktop (not secure)
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
vncviewer -fullscreen 192.168.0.1:0
  • To quit vncviewer
Press 'F8' -> Quit viewer
How to connect into remote Ubuntu desktop via Windows machine
e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have configured Remote Desktop
Read #How to configure remote desktop (not secure)
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
  • If you have a router remember to open the appropiate port. The default one is 5900
This process is called port forwarding port forwarding
  • Download DotNetVNC: Here or RealVNC Here
this is a free DotNet version that require the DotNet framework available from microsoft here
The RealVNC website was created and maintained by the original developers of VNC during their time at AT&T. RealVNC comes in Free, Personal, and Enterprise editions - the latter two costing money.
  • Open the VNC client you have chosen, and insert the connection string formatted like this <LINUX BOX IP><:DESKTOP NUMBER>|<::PORT>
In example use: 192.168.1.2:0 or 192.168.1.2::5900 to connect to desktop 0, to connect to desktop 1 use 192.168.1.2:1 or 192.168.1.2::5901 and so on
How to connect into remote Ubuntu desktop via OSX
e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have configured Remote Desktop
Read #How to configure remote desktop (not secure)
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
  • If you have a router remember to open the appropiate port the default one is 5900
This process is called port forwarding port forwarding
  • Download ChickenOfTheVNC: Here
  • Open ChickenOfTheVNC, and insert the host (IP adress of remote machine), the display number (0 is default and is port 5900) and the password.
In example use: Host: 192.168.0.1, Display 0, Password: password

Windows

How to mount/unmount Windows partitions (NTFS) manually, and allow all users to read only


e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (NTFS)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
  • To mount Windows partition
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo mount /dev/hda1 /media/windows/ -t ntfs -o nls=utf8,umask=0222
  • To unmount Windows partition
sudo umount /media/windows/

How to mount/unmount Windows partitions (FAT) manually, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (FAT)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
  • To mount Windows partition
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo mount /dev/hda1 /media/windows/ -t vfat -o iocharset=utf8,umask=000
  • To unmount Windows partition
sudo umount /media/windows/

How to mount Windows partitions (NTFS) on boot-up, and allow all users to read only

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (NTFS)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file
/dev/hda1    /media/windows ntfs  nls=utf8,umask=0222 0    0

How to mount Windows partitions (FAT) on boot-up, and allow all users to read/write

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (FAT)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file
/dev/hda1    /media/windows vfat  iocharset=utf8,umask=000  0    0

How to mount Windows partitions (NTFS) on boot-up, and allow users read and write access

Warning: Ntfs writing support is still experimental. You should not enable it on production machines and/or volumes you don't have backups of. Proceed at your own risk!

sudo apt-get install libfuse2 fuse-utils
  • Download the latest ntfsprogs package (these are from the Dapper repositories, so they are safe to install.)

libntfs8 ntfsprogs libfuse2 fuse-utils

  • Install the downloaded packages
sudo dpkg -i libfuse2_*.deb fuse-utils_*.deb ntfsprogs_*.deb libntfs8_*.deb
  • Add fuse to the list of modules to load
echo fuse | sudo tee -a /etc/modules
  • Create a user group to access the ntfs disks
sudo addgroup ntfs
  • The output should look something like this, remember the GID (the number printed after the group name) as it may differ and we will need it later:
Adding group `ntfs' (1002)...
Done.
  • Create the local mount folder and edit the fstab file to mount the disks to this folder.
e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (NTFS)
Local mount folder: /media/windows
sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab.bak
gksudo gedit /etc/fstab
  • Append the following line at the end of file, using the GID number previously. The umask following this GID allows write access just to owner (root) and group (ntfs), and read access to everyone.
/dev/hda1    /media/windows    ntfs-fuse    auto,gid=1002,umask=0002    0    0
  • Save the edited file.
  • Add users to the ntfs group, where "username" is the name of the user you would like to have write access
sudo adduser username ntfs
sudo rm /sbin/mount.ntfs-fuse && sudo ln /usr/bin/ntfsmount /sbin/mount.ntfs-fuse
  • If you reboot now, the disk will be writable to the selected users when they logon. If you want the changes to take effect immediately without rebooting, execute the following command, ignoring the errors about "/" and others not being unmounted. You'll have to logout from all your user sessions for the new group to be acknowledged (usually a logout from your graphical session and login back again will do it).
sudo modprobe fuse && sudo umount -a && sudo mount -a

Security

What are the basic things I need to know about securing my Ubuntu

  • Read #General Notes
  • Ensure hard drive is first in BIOS boot-up sequence
    • To prevent trespassers from using Linux Installation CD which allows them to gain root user access
    • To prevent trespassers from using Linux Live CD (e.g. UBUNTU/KNOPPIX/MEPIS) which allows them to destroy/browse/share the entire hard drive
    • To prevent trespassers from installing another Operating System
  • Ensure a password is set for BIOS
    • To prevent trespassers from changing the BIOS boot-up sequence
  • Ensure computer is located at a secured place
    • To prevent trespassers from removing computer's hard drive which allows them to destroy/browse/share the entire hard drive from a different computer
    • To prevent trespassers from removing computer's on-board battery which resets the BIOS password
  • Ensure passwords used on the system cannot be easily guessed
    • To prevent trespassers from cracking password file using brute force attacks (e.g. John the Ripper)
    • Create password with minimum length of 8 characters
    • Create password with mixture of characters/numbers, and upper/lower case
    • Not create a password with just a single or just a typical union of main languages (english, german, french, spanish...) dictionary words
  • Ensure interactive editing control for GRUB menu is disabled
  • Ensure history listing is disabled in Console mode
  • Ensure Ctrl+Alt+Del is disabled in Console mode
  • Ensure interactive option is set for remove, copy and move of files/folders in Console mode
  • For day to day usage, login as a normal user
  • Disable root user account, use "sudo" instead
    • To reduce the amount of time spent with root privileges, and thus the risk of inadvertently executing a command as root
    • "sudo" provides a more useful audit trail (/var/log/auth.log)
    • Read #How to disable root user account
  • Install a Firewall
  • Perform vulnerability test

How to disable all interactive editing control for GRUB menu

  • Run This:
grub-md5-crypt 
Password: 
Retype password: 
$1$tumnZ1$xB/shuXs7MlawZXkLiBDV/
  • Backup your current configuration file
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this section
...
## password ['--md5'] passwd
# If used in the first section of a menu file, disable all interactive editing
# control (menu entry editor and command-line) and entries protected by the
# command 'lock'
# e.g. password topsecret
#   password --md5 $1$tumnZ1$xB/shuXs7MlawZXkLiBDV/
# password topsecret
...
  • Add the following line below it
password --md5 $1$tumnZ1$xB/shuXs7MlawZXkLiBDV/ (encrypted password above)
  • Find the section(s) that look like this (note the 'recovery mode' and the word 'single'):
...
title		Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (recovery mode)
root		(hd0,1)
kernel		/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro single
initrd		/boot/initrd.img-2.6.10-5-386
savedefault
boot
...
  • Add lock between the title and root lines:
...
title		Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (recovery mode)
lock
root		(hd0,1)
...
  • Save the edited file

This will make it so your grub console will require a password to edit the lines, and the recovery modes won't work unless the password is typed. To access the other grub options at the menu, follow the instructions at the bottom of the screen. It will be something like pressing p and typing your password.

How to disable history listing in Console mode

rm -f .bash_history
gedit ~/.bash_profile
  • Add the following:
export HISTFILESIZE=4
unset HISTFILE=5

# Change this to a reasonable number of lines to save, I like to save only 100.
export HISTSIZE=1

# Ignores duplicate lines next to each other
export HISTCONTROL=ignoredups

This will disable Bash history for the user, retaining keystroke history and recall to use while limiting recall history to 100 lines. This will also not record duplicate lines next to each other.

How to disable Ctrl+Alt+Del from restarting computer in Console mode

sudo cp /etc/inittab /etc/inittab_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/inittab
  • Find this line
...
ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -r now
...
  • Replace with the following line
#ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -r now
  • Save the edited file
sudo telinit q

How to enable prompt before removal/overwritten of files/folders in Console mode

sudo cp /etc/bash.bashrc /etc/bash.bashrc_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/bash.bashrc
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
alias rm='rm -i'
alias cp='cp -i'
alias mv='mv -i'
  • Save the edited file

How to setup a LoJack system for your laptop


What: Quote from Wikipedia: "LoJack is an aftermarket vehicle tracking system that allows cars to be tracked by police after being stolen. The manufacturer claims a 90% recovery rate. The name "LoJack" is a play on the word "hijack," meaning the theft of a vehicle through force."

Why: If your laptop is ever stolen and connected to the Internet. You will be able to find out from what IP it connects to the Internet from and contact the authorities.

How:

  • Get a free dynamic IP account from one of the many providers. Here we will use DynDNS.
sudo apt-get install ddclient 
  • Edit the configuration file /etc/ddclient.conf using you fevorite text editor (emacs, gedit, kedit or even vi)
sudo emacs /etc/ddclient.conf
  • Make it look like this:
# Configuration file for ddclient generated by debconf
#
# /etc/ddclient.conf
pid=/var/run/ddclient.pid
protocol=dyndns2
use=web
server=members.dyndns.org
login=YourNameHere
password='YourPasswordHere'
YourHostNameHere.gotmyip.com
NOTE:
* Make sure that you use the web IP detection method.
* Specify your own user id instead of the place holder YourNameHere.
* Specify your own password instead of the place holder YourPasswordHere, make sure to surround it with single quotes.
* The last line should specify the hostname you registered with the dynamic IP service.
  • You can now start the ddclient daemon, or wait until your next reboot.
sudo /etc/init.d/ddclient start
  • The hostname you registered with your dynamic IP service should be updated. You can test it with the ping command:
ping YourHostNameHere.gotmyip.com
Even if your laptop has a firewall that prevents pings the hostname should resolve to the IP of the network gateway that your laptop is connected to.
Now all that is left is for someone to steal your laptop.....

References:

Boot Menu

How to gain root user access without login

  • Read #General Notes
  • Easiest method (will not work if GRUB menu password is set)
    • Boot-up computer
    • If GRUB menu is hidden, press 'Esc' to enter the GRUB menu
    • Select
Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (recovery mode)

How to modify kernel boot-up arguments, to gain root user access

  • Read #General Notes
  • Boot-up computer
  • If GRUB menu is hidden, press 'Esc' to enter the GRUB menu
  • If GRUB password is set, press 'p' to unlock the GRUB menu
  • Select
Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386
  • Press 'e' to edit the commands before booting
  • Select
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro quiet splash
  • Press 'e' to edit the selected command in the boot sequence
  • Add "rw init=/bin/bash" to the end of the arguments
grub edit> kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro quiet splash rw init=/bin/bash
  • Press 'b' to boot

How to use Ubuntu Installation CD, to gain root user access

  • Read #General Notes
  • Boot-up computer into Ubuntu Installation CD
  • At "boot:" prompt, add "rescue" to the argument
boot: rescue
  • Follow the instructions on screen

How to change root user/main user password if forgotten

# passwd root
  • To change main user password
# passwd system_main_username

How to change GRUB menu password if forgotten

grub
grub> md5crypt
Password: ****** (ubuntu)
Encrypted: $1$ZWnke0$1fzDBVjUcT1Mpdd4u/T961 (encrypted password)
grub> quit
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this line
...
password --md5 $1$gLhU0/$aW78kHK1QfV3P2b2znUoe/
...
  • Replace with the following line
password --md5 $1$ZWnke0$1fzDBVjUcT1Mpdd4u/T961 (encrypted password above)
  • Save the edited file

How to restore GRUB menu after Windows installation

How to identify the name of the boot drive (hd0, hd1, hd2, etc)

Press "c" on boot menu. If you don't see a boot menu, press ESC key first when booting to show the boot menu.

Type:

root (hd0,0)

Most likely you will get "(hd0,0) ext2fs", which should be your current Linux drive. Now change hd0 to hd1 to see what is there.

root (hd1,0)

If you get "(hd1,0) filesystem type unknown, partition type 0x7", then hd1 is a Windows drive.

Now change hd1 to hd2, keep going until you reach hd7.

How to add Windows entry into GRUB menu

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
title		Microsoft Windows
root		(hd0,0)
savedefault
makeactive
chainloader	+1
  • Save the edited file


How to boot into Windows installed on a seperate SATA drive

This configuration applies to people who have Linux installed on a IDE drive, and Windows installed on a seperate SATA. The IDE drive boots first, so we need to add an entry to the boot menu on the Linux disk. Here we assume the name of your Windows drive is hd1. If you are not sure, click the link above to find out.

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Append the following lines at the end of file.
title           Windows XP on SATA drive
map (hd0) (hd1)
map (hd1) (hd0)
chainloader (hd1,0)+1
  • Save the edited file

How to read Linux partitions (ext2, ext3) in Windows machine

OR

Tips & Tricks

How to restart GNOME without rebooting computer

Press 'Ctrl + Alt + Backspace'

or
sudo /etc/init.d/gdm restart

How to turn on Num Lock on GNOME startup

sudo apt-get install numlockx
sudo cp /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default
  • Find this line
...
exit 0
  • Add the following lines above it
if [ -x /usr/bin/numlockx ]; then
 /usr/bin/numlockx on
fi

How to remap the Caps Lock key as another Control key

gksudo gedit /etc/console-tools/remap
In the Console
  • Change
#s/keycode  58 = Caps_Lock/keycode  58 = Control/;

to

s/keycode  58 = Caps_Lock/keycode  58 = Control/;
  • Save your work
sudo /etc/init.d/console-screen.sh
  • Try using it
In X Windows
gksudo gedit ~/.Xmodmap
  • Add this:
keycode 66 = Control_L
clear Lock
add Control = Control_L

  • Now, apply the changes.
xmodmap ~/.Xmodmap
  • To apply them on startup
    • If ~/.xinitrc does not exist,
cp /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc ~/.xinitrc
  • In all cases
gedit ~/.xinitrc
  • Make the first line this:
xmodmap ~/.Xmodmap
  • Restart X (Ctrl - Alt - Backspace)
  • Log In, a dialog should pop up, add .Xmodmap to the left side with the add button, and Save.

How to run programs on startup when login into GNOME

Startup Programs Tab -> Add/Edit/Delete

How to speed-up your Ubuntu box

How to switch to Console mode in GNOME

Press 'Ctrl + Alt + F1' (F2 - F6)
  • To switch between consoles in Console mode
Press 'Alt + F1' (F2 - F6)
  • To switch back to GNOME mode
Press 'Alt + F7'

How to disable Ctrl+Alt+Backspace from restarting X in GNOME

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
Section "ServerFlags"
	Option		"DontZap"		"yes"
EndSection

How to enable Ctrl+Alt+Del to open System Monitor in GNOME

gconftool-2 -t str --set /apps/metacity/global_keybindings/run_command_9 "<Control><Alt>Delete"
gconftool-2 -t str --set /apps/metacity/keybinding_commands/command_9 "gnome-system-monitor"

How to refresh GNOME desktop

killall nautilus

How to refresh GNOME panel

killall gnome-panel


How to enable autosave in Gedit and disable creation of some_file~ files

  • Read #General Notes
  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> gedit-2 -> preferences -> editor -> save -> create_backup_copy (Unchecked)
/ -> apps -> gedit-2 -> preferences -> editor -> save -> auto_save (Checked)

How to show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus

  • Read #General Notes
  • Places -> Home Folder
  • To temporary show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus
Press 'Ctrl + H'
  • To permanently show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus
Edit Menu -> Preferences
Views Tab -> Default View -> Show hidden and backup files (Checked)

How to browse files/folders as root user in Nautilus

gksudo gedit /usr/share/applications/Nautilus-root.desktop
    • Insert the following lines into the new file
[Desktop Entry]
Name=File Browser (Root)
Comment=Browse the filesystem with the file manager
Exec=gksudo "nautilus --browser %U"
Icon=file-manager
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;System;
  • To browse files/folders as root user in Nautilus
    • Applications -> System Tools -> File Browser (Root)

How to change default file type "Open with" program

Right click on file -> Properties
Open With Tab -> Add
Select "Open with" program
Select "Open with" program (Checked)

How to change preferred email client to Mozilla Thunderbird

Mail Reader Tab -> Default Mail Reader -> Command: mozilla-thunderbird %s

How to open files as root user via right click

gedit $HOME/.gnome2/nautilus-scripts/Open\ as\ root
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
for uri in $NAUTILUS_SCRIPT_SELECTED_URIS; do
	gksudo "gnome-open $uri" &
done
  • Save the edited file
chmod +x $HOME/.gnome2/nautilus-scripts/Open\ as\ root

Right click on file -> Scripts -> Open as root

How to disable beep sound in Terminal mode

Not for Dapper---- firingstone

Edit Menu -> Current Profile...
General Tab -> General -> Terminal bell (Un-Checked)

How to handle mss protocol in Mozilla Firefox


  • Open your firefox.
  • Type as url: about:config

Now just right click somewhere into the main window. A little box with options to choose will appear. Choose "new", then "string". Then copy the following line into the appearing text field:

network.protocol-handler.app.mms

Into the next text field copy this:

/usr/bin/X11/vlc

Now you do the same thing again, but this time you do not choose "string" but "boolean", and the line to copy is:

network.protocol-handler.external.mms

Then set

true

How to handle rtsp (realmedia) protocol in Mozilla Firefox


  • Open your firefox.
  • Type as url: about:config

Now just right click somewhere into the main window. A little box with options to choose will appear. Choose "new", then "string". Then copy the following line into the appearing text field:

network.protocol-handler.app.rtsp

Into the next text field copy this:

/usr/bin/X11/realplay

Now you do the same thing again, but this time you do not choose "string" but "boolean", and the line to copy is:

network.protocol-handler.external.rtsp

Then set

true

How to load Web site faster in Mozilla Firefox

  • Read #General Notes
  • Applications -> Internet -> Firefox Web Browser
  • Mozilla Firefox
Address Bar -> about:config
Filter: ->
network.dns.disableIPv6 -> true
network.http.pipelining -> true
network.http.pipelining.maxrequests -> 8
network.http.proxy.pipelining -> true
  • Restart Mozilla Firefox

How to disable beep sound for link find function in Mozilla Firefox

  • Read #General Notes
  • Applications -> Internet -> Firefox Web Browser
  • Mozilla Firefox
Address Bar -> about:config
Filter: -> accessibility.typeaheadfind.enablesound -> false
  • Restart Mozilla Firefox


Kaip naudotis apt-get lengvuoju būdu (Synaptic)

  • Skaitykite #Pagrindinės pastabos
  • System -> Administration -> Synaptic Package Manager
  • Norėdami aktyvuoti Universe ir Multiverse repozitorijas
    1. Settings -> Repositories
    2. Installation Media auselėje paspauskite Add. Ten rasite 3-is atskiras repozitorijas; Dapper Drake, Security Updates ir Updates. Pažymėkite kiekvieną iš jų ir pasirinkite Officially supported, Restricted copyright, Community maintained (Universe) ir Non-free (Multiverse). Įsitikinkite, jog paspaudžiate OK tarp kiekvienos repozitorijos.
    3. Dabar jųs turite matyti 3-is repozitorijas Channels srityje. Įsitikinkite, jog Officially supported, Restricted copyright, Community maintained (Universe) ir Non-free (Multiverse) atsirado kiekvienoje repozitorijoje
  • Norėdami pridėti backports ir PLF (daugelio programų naujausios versijos. Oficialiai nepalaikoma. Gali turėti neteisingų programų. Naudokite savo nuožiūra.)
    1. Settings -> Repositories
    2. Paspauskite Add o po to Custom
    3. Įkopijuokite sekančias 4-ias eilutes į langelį ir paspauskite Add Repository
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://packages.freecontrib.org/plf edgy-plf free non-free
deb-src http://packages.freecontrib.org/plf edgy-plf free non-free 
  • Norėdami atnaujinti paketų sarašą (tas pats kas apt-get update)
Edit Menu -> Reload Package Information
  • Norėdami atnaujinti įdiegtą programinę įrangą (tas pats kas apt-get upgrade)
Edit Menu -> Mark All Upgrades... -> Default Upgrade
Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes
  • Norėdami surasti paketą (tas pats kas apt-cache search paketo_pavadinimas)
Edit Menu -> Search... Specify the package name
  • Norėdami įdiegti paketą (tas pats kas apt-get install paketo_pavadinimas)
Pasirinkite "paketo_pavadinimas"
Package Menu -> Mark for Installation
Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes
  • Norėdami pašalinti paketą (tas pats kas apt-get remove paketo_pavadinimas)
Pasirinkite "paketo_pavadinimas"
Package Menu -> Mark for Removal
Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes

What packages do the extra repositories provide

  • The PLF repository provides
    1. DVD playback support (libdvdcss2)
    2. Skype
    3. Sun Java SDK (Software Development Kit) and JRE (Java Runtime Environment)
    4. Opera Web browser
    5. RealPlayer 10
    6. Win32 binary multimedia codecs

How to install/uninstall .deb files

sudo dpkg -i package_file.deb
  • To uninstall .deb file
sudo dpkg -r package_name

How to find out which version of a package I have installed

dpkg -l packagename

How to convert .rpm files to .deb files

sudo alien package_file.rpm

How to compile .deb files from source

  • Read #General Notes
  • Read #How to add extra repositories
  • There are various programs available to help automate the process of create .deb files from source. For more information, see the links at the end of this section. A basic well tested method is described here.
  • Install the necessary software to build the source (build-essential may be all that is necessary, though there may be other dependencies) and checkinstall (which creates deb files).
sudo apt-get install checkinstall build-essential
  • In the directory where you have extracted the source, after you have run ./configure and make you can create a .deb file and install it with either of the following commands. The second -D option creates a .deb file in the directory that you can share with others or install without needing the source.
sudo checkinstall

or

sudo checkinstall -D

How to rename all files in directory at once

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/mvb_1.6.tgz
sudo tar zxvf mvb_1.6.tgz -C /usr/share/
sudo chown -R root:root /usr/share/mvb_1.6/
sudo ln -fs /usr/share/mvb_1.6/mvb /usr/bin/mvb

  • To rename all files in directory at once
mvb NEW_NAME

How to manipulate all image files in directory at once

sudo apt-get install imagemagick
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/bbips.0.3.2.sh
sudo cp bbips.0.3.2.sh /usr/bin/bbips
sudo chmod 755 /usr/bin/bbips
  • To manipulate all image files in directory at once
bbips

How to set System-wide Environment Variables

sudo cp -p /etc/profile /etc/profile_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/profile
  • Append the System-wide Environment Variables at the end of file
  • Save the edited file

How to save "man" outputs into files

man command | col -b > file.txt

How to hide GRUB menu on boot-up

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst

  • Find this line
...
#hiddenmenu
...
  • Replace with the following line
hiddenmenu
  • Save the edited file

How to change the timeout seconds for GRUB menu on boot-up

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this line
...
timeout     3
...
  • Replace with the following line
timeout     X_seconds
  • Save the edited file

How to change default Operating System boot-up for GRUB menu

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this line
...
default     0
...
  • Replace with the following line
default     X_sequence
  • Save the edited file

How to display Splash Image for GRUB menu on boot-up

e.g. Assumed that hd0,1 is the location of Ubuntu boot partition
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/ubuntu.xpm.gz
chmod 644 ubuntu.xpm.gz
sudo mkdir /boot/grub/images
sudo cp ubuntu.xpm.gz /boot/grub/images/
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this section
# menu.lst - See: grub(8), info grub, update-grub(8)
#      grub-install(8), grub-floppy(8),
#      grub-md5-crypt, /usr/share/doc/grub
#      and /usr/share/doc/grub-doc/.
...
  • Add the following line below it
splashimage (hd0,1)/boot/grub/images/ubuntu.xpm.gz
NOTE: If you have seperate boot partition use this line: splashimage (hd0,1)/grub/images/ubuntu.xpm.gz
  • Save the edited file

How to convert Wallpaper to Splash Image for GRUB menu

e.g. Assumed that wallpaper.png is the Wallpaper to be converted to Splash Image
splashimage.xpm.gz is the Splash Image for GRUB menu
convert -resize 640x480 -colors 14 wallpaper.png splashimage.xpm && gzip splashimage.xpm

How to display only one kernel on GRUB menu

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup-`date +%F`
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  • Find this line
...
# howmany=all
...
  • Replace with the following line
# howmany=1

Where 1 means to keep the last kernel, 2 to keep the last 2 kernels, etc. Do not delete the # symbol. The menu will be updated once a new kernel will be updated by the system, not before.

  • Save the edited file

How to force GDM to system beep when login screen ready

  • Read #General Notes
  • This is useful on computers where headphones are usually plugged in, allowing them to utilize the speakers for this attention-getting task.
echo foo >> ~/foo.wav
  • System -> Administration -> Login Window -> Accessibility

Now make sure the "Login Screen Ready" check mark is checked. Click on the folder icon and navigate to your home folder and select "foo.wav".

rm foo.wav

The drop down menu should now say "(None)"

How to temporary skip boot-up services

Press 'Ctrl + C'

How to permanently disable/enable boot-up services

How to clean /tmp/ folder contents on shutdown

sudo cp /etc/init.d/sysklogd /etc/init.d/sysklogd_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/init.d/sysklogd
  • Find this section
...
 stop)
  log_begin_msg "Stopping system log daemon..."
  start-stop-daemon --stop --quiet --oknodo --exec $binpath --pidfile $pidfile
  log_end_msg $?
...
  • Add the following line below it
  rm -fr /tmp/* /tmp/.??*
  • Save the edited file

How to scroll up and down to view previous outputs in Console mode

Press 'Shift + Page Up'
  • To scroll down to view previously outputs
Press 'Shift + Page Down'

How to find out which version of Ubuntu I am using

cat /etc/issue


How to set up (automatic) background/wallpaper-changer application for GNOME

  • Read #General Notes
  • To install the script into a different location than your home directory, replace "~" with your path
cd ~
wget http://members.chello.at/horst.jens/files/wallpaperchanger.py
chmod +x wallpaperchanger.py
~/wallpaperchanger.py
gedit ~/.wallpaperchanger/wallpaperchangerconfig.py
  • Edit all the lines not beginning with an "#" according to your needs. Save the file and close gedit.
  • To create an menu entry for wallpaperchanger:
Click the menuitems: Applications -> Accessoires -> Alacarte Menu Editor -> File -> New Entry:
Name: wallpaperchanger
command: ~/wallpaperchanger.py

  • To change desktop background every time you reboot your computer:
Click the menuitems: System -> Preferences -> Session -> Startup Programs -> Add:
~/wallpaperchanger.py

How to set up automatic background change (KDE)

  • Go to K-menu -> System Settings -> Desktop -> Background
  • Choose Slide Show
  • Press Setup...
  • Press Add... to add pictures you wish to see as desktop background
  • Set 'Change picture after' to desired picture rotation interval.
  • Press 'OK'

How to add keyboard layouts for other languages

  • Go to System -> Preferences -> Keyboard
  • Choose Layouts
  • Press Add... to add the secondary keyboard layout. It is simpler to have two layouts; the maximum is currently four for Xorg.
  • Choose Layout Options
  • Expand option Group Shift/Lock behaviour
  • Choose the key combination that enables you to switch between keyboard layouts. The default is by pressing both Alt keys at the same time. A common alternative is to use Alt+Shift.
  • Press Close.

See #How to add the Keyboard (Layout) Indicator applet to add the Keyboard Indicator applet.

How to add keyboard layouts toggle for other languages (Xfce)

  • use *.lst files on /etc/X11/xkb/rules to select 2nd_laguage_code
setxkbmap -option grp:switch,grp:alt_shift,grp_led:scroll us,2nd_laguage_code
  • you can add it to a startup file, which will be set to be executed on startup, with the following lines (remember to 'chmod +x' the file):
#!/bin/tcsh
setxkbmap -option grp:switch,grp:alt_shift,grp_led:scroll us,il

How to add the Keyboard (Layout) Indicator applet

  • Right-click on empty space on the top panel so that you see the pop-up menu.
  • Click Add to Panel...
  • Choose Keyboard Indicator (it is under the Utilities section, at the end)

The Keyboard Indicator applet appears on the panel. The default language should be USA for U.S. English. You can either right-click on this applet for more options or see above on how to configure.

How to type extended characters

  • Add the keyboard layout US English International (with dead keys)
  • Make US English International (with dead keys) the default keyboard layout.

The key marked ['"] is now a dead key. When you press it, nothing happens. However if you press a consonant immediately afterwards, the consonant appears with an accent.

  • ' + a = á
  • ' + e = é
  • and so on for i-í, o-ó, y-ý, c-ć, z-ź, n-ń, l-ĺ, u-ú, r-ŕ
  • " + a = ä
  • " + e = ë
  • and so on for y-ÿ, u-ü, i-ï, o-ö

Similarly, ` and a consonant generates à, è, ù, ì, ò. Similarly, ~ and a consonant generates ã, ũ, ĩ, õ, ñ.

To type ' and ", press RightAlt+' and RightAlt+" respectively. To type ' and ", you may also press '+<space> and "+<space> respectively.

There are more characters available by keeping RightAlt pressed and typing a character. Therefore,

  • RightAlt+q = ä
  • RightAlt+w = å
  • RightAlt+e = é
  • RightAlt+r = ®
  • RightAlt+t = þ
  • RightAlt+y = ü
  • RightAlt+u = ú
  • RightAlt+i = í
  • RightAlt+o = ó
  • RightAlt+p = ö
  • RightAlt+[ and ] for « and » respectively.
  • RightAlt+a = á
  • RightAlt+s = ß
  • RightAlt+d = ð
  • RightAlt+l = ø
  • RightAlt+; = ¶
  • RightAlt+: = °
  • RightAlt+z = æ
  • RightAlt+c = ©
  • RightAlt+n = ñ
  • RightAlt+m = µ
  • RightAlt+, = ç
  • RightAlt+/ = ¿
  • RightAlt+1 = ¡
  • RightAlt+2 = ²
  • RightAlt+3 = ³
  • RightAlt+4 = ¤
  • RightAlt+5 = €
  • RightAlt+6 = ¼
  • RightAlt+7 = ½
  • RightAlt+8 = ¾
  • RightAlt+9 = ‘
  • RightAlt+0 = ’
  • RightAlt+- = ¥
  • RightAlt+= = ×
  • RightAlt+! = ¹
  • RightAlt+@, then o = ő (and Ő).
  • RightAlt+#, then a = ā (and Ā). Similarly for ēĒ, ūŪ, īĪ, ōŌ.
  • RightAlt+$ = £
  • RightAlt+% =
  • RightAlt+^ =
  • RightAlt+& =
  • RightAlt+*, then a = ą (and Ą). Similarly for ęĘ, įĮ.
  • RightAlt+(, then a = ă (and Ă)
  • RightAlt+(, then g = ğ (and Ğ)
  • RightAlt+), then a = å (and Å)
  • RightAlt+_ =
  • RightAlt++ = ÷

How to set the Compose key to type special characters

  • Click System, Preferences, Keyboard.
  • Under Layout Options, expand on Compose key position.
  • Choose Right-Win key is compose, click Close.

Now you can type extended characters using the RightWin key (next to AltGr), according to this keyboard settings file. Specifically, the lines that start with GDK_Multi_key are those that we can use here. The Compose key is actually GDK_Multi_key.

Some examples,

  • RightWin + C + = produces €
  • RightWin + = + C produces €
  • RightWin + C + O produces ©
  • RightWin + O + C produces ©
  • RightWin + a + ' produces á
  • RightWin + a + " produces ä
  • RightWin + a + ` produces à
  • RightWin + a + ~ produces ã
  • RightWin + a + * produces å
  • RightWin + a + ^ produces â
  • RightWin + a + > produces â
  • RightWin + a + , produces ą
  • RightWin + e + - produces ē
  • RightWin + S + 1 produces ¹
  • RightWin + S + 2 produces ²
  • RightWin + S + 3 produces ³

How to install ubuntu-title font used in Ubuntu logo

sudo apt-get install ttf-ubuntu-title

Now you can use this font in your favorite applications

How to associate Adobe Reader with files in Nautilus

Now when you double-click on a .pdf file, it will be opened with Adobe Reader.

How to print from Adobe Reader

/usr/bin/lp -d FS-1010

How to pull apart and combine pdf files

sudo apt-get install pdftk
cd
mkdir bin
cd bin
gedit pdftk_burst
  • add the following text to pdftk_burst:
#!/bin/bash
cd ${1%/*}
/usr/bin/pdftk "$1" burst
rm doc_data.txt
  • save and close pdftk_burst
gedit pdftk_cat
  • add the following text to pdftk_cat:
#!/bin/bash
cd ${1%/*}
outfile="00out.pdf"
if [ -f $outfile ] ; then
    rm -f $outfile
fi
/usr/bin/pdftk *.pdf cat output $outfile
  • save and close pdftk_cat
chmod u+x pdftk_burst pdftk_cat
  • open Nautilus (Places -> Desktop) and browse to a .pdf file
  • right-click the .pdf file, select Properties, go to the Open With tab, click Add, click Use a Custom Command, click Browse, browse to pdftk_burst. Do the same with pdftk_cat.

Now, when you right-click on a .pdf file, you'll get two extra options:

  • Open With -> pdftk_burst which will convert a 30 page pdf file to 30 x 1 page pdf files
  • Open With -> pdftk_cat which will join together all the pdf files in the same directory, and create a file called 00out.pdf

Note: this won't work with pdfs with any type of protection - read man pdftk for more command line options.

How to remove jedit when Synaptic package manager fails after install

sudo dpkg --remove --force-depends --force-remove-reinstreq jedit

Now, you can use your Synaptic package manager again.

Servers

AntiVirus Server

How to install ClamAV AntiVirus Server

sudo apt-get install clamav

How to manually update virus databases

sudo freshclam

How to manually scan files/folders for viruses

sudo clamscan -r /location_of_files_or_folders

How to automatically scan files/folders for viruses

e.g. Automatically scan files/folders for viruses at midnight everyday
* * * * * means minute hour date month year
export EDITOR=gedit &&  sudo crontab -e
  • Append the following line at the end of file
00 00 * * *  sudo clamscan -r /location_of_files_or_folders
  • Save the edited file

Print Server (cupsd)

How to install cupsd

Cupsd should be automatically installed during standard instaltion. Checkout if there is a file "/etc/init.d/cupsys". If you want to manually install it, do
 sudo apt-get install cupsys*

How to add a printer

  • Go to System -> Administration -> Printing.
  • Choose "Add printer".

A "Add printer wizard" should start and tell you what to do.

How to print on remote Ubuntu machine from another Ubuntu machine

  • Make sure your local printer is well configured.
  • Server ip address: 192.168.0.1
  • Client ip address: 192.168.0.23
    • Server configuration
 sudo cp /etc/cups/cupsd.conf /etc/cups/cupsd.conf.backup
 gksudo gedit /etc/cups/cupsd.conf
find the block
<Location />
  ...
  Allow localhost
  ...
</Location>
and add the following line into it.
 Allow 192.168.0.23
Restart cups.
 sudo /etc/init.d/cupsys restart
    • Client configuration
 sudo cp /etc/cups/client.conf /etc/cups/client.conf.backup
 gksudo gedit /etc/cups/client.conf
And add the following line into it.
 ServerName 192.168.0.1
Restart cups.
 sudo /etc/init.d/cupsys restart
Now try "lpq" and you should see something like
 vitek@lightfox:~$ lpq
 HPLJ6P is ready
 no entries

How to print on remote Ubuntu machine from a Windows machine

Samba Server

How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service

sudo apt-get install samba smbfs

How to add/edit/delete network users

sudo smbpasswd -a system_username
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smbusers
    • Insert the following line into the new file
system_username = "network username"
    • Save the edited file
  • To edit network user
sudo smbpasswd -a system_username
  • To delete network user
sudo smbpasswd -x system_username

How to share home folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share home folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Find this section
...
# By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change next
# parameter to 'yes' if you want to be able to write to them.
  writable = no
...
  • Replace with the following lines
# By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change next
# parameter to 'yes' if you want to be able to write to them.
  writable = yes
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share group folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)

sudo mkdir /home/group
sudo chmod 777 /home/group/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
 security = user
 username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[Group]
  comment = Group Folder
  path = /home/group
  public = yes
  writable = no
  valid users = system_username1 system_username2
  create mask = 0700
  directory mask = 0700
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup

sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share group folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)


sudo mkdir /home/group
sudo chmod 777 /home/group/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[Group]
  comment = Group Folder
  path = /home/group
  public = yes
  writable = yes
  valid users = system_username1 system_username2
  create mask = 0700
  directory mask = 0700
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)


sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user 
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = no
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)

sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following lines
  security = user
  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = yes
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody 
  force group = nogroup
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read only permission (Authentication=No)

sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following line
  security = share
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = no
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup
  • Save the edited file
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to share public folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=No)

sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Find this line
...
;  security = user
...
  • Replace with the following line
  security = share
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
[public]
  comment = Public Folder
  path = /home/public
  public = yes
  writable = yes
  create mask = 0777
  directory mask = 0777
  force user = nobody
  force group = nogroup

  • Save the edited file
sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

How to print on remote Ubuntu machine via samba

 sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf.backup
 gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
Find the following lines
 ...
 # printing = cups
 # printcap name = cups
 ...
and uncomment them.
 printing = cups
 printcap name = cups
Restart cups server
 sudo /etc/init.d/cupsys restart
Now printers working on your Ubuntu machine should be acessible via samba.

SSH Server

How to install SSH Server for remote administration service

sudo apt-get install ssh

How to SSH into remote Ubuntu machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
ssh username@192.168.0.1

How to copy files/folders from remote Ubuntu machine into local machine (scp)

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote files/folders location: /home/username/remotefile.txt
Local machine save location: . (current directory)
scp -r username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/remotefile.txt .

How to copy files/folders from local machine into remote Ubuntu machine (scp)

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Local files/folders location: localfile.txt
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote Ubuntu machine save location: /home/username/
scp -r localfile.txt username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/

How to copy files/folders from remote Ubuntu machine into local machine (rsync)

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote files/folders location: /home/username/remotefile.txt
Local machine save location: . (current directory)
rsync -v -u -a --delete --rsh=ssh --stats username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/remotefile.txt .

How to copy files/folders from local machine into remote Ubuntu machine (rsync)

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Local files/folders location: localfile.txt
Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote Ubuntu machine save location: /home/username/
rsync -v -u -a --delete --rsh=ssh --stats localfile.txt username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/

How to mount remote folders into local Ubuntu machine (sshfs)

e.g. Assumed that remote machine has installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
Remote machine: 192.168.0.1
Remote machine folder location: /media/music
  • Install sshfs
sudo apt-get install sshfs
  • Load kernel driver for sshfs
sudo modprobe fuse
  • For permanent use add 'fuse' at the end of /etc/modules
gksudo gedit /etc/modules
  • Join the 'fuse' user group
sudo adduser your_user_name fuse
  • Logout and login for this to take effect.
  • Create local mountpoint in your home directory
mkdir ~/remote_music
  • Mount the remote folder into ~/remote_music
sshfs 192.168.0.1:/media/music ~/remote_music

How to SSH into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
  • Download PuTTY: Here


How to copy files/folders from/into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
Read #How to install SSH Server for remote administration service
  • Download FileZilla: Here

How to limit the user accounts that can connect through ssh remotely

e.g. If you enable the SSH server, then any user with a valid account can connect remotely
This can lead to security risks, as there exist remote password cracking tools that
try common username/password pairs.
  • Keep a backup of the ssh server configuration file with

sudo cp /etc/ssh/sshd_config /etc/ssh/sshd_config.ORIGINAL

  • Edit the configuration file

gksudo gedit /etc/ssh/sshd_config

  • Change the parameter PermitRootLogin from yes to no. The superuser must not be able to connect directly from remote.
  • Add the parameter AllowUsers and specify the usernames (space separated) that can connect remotely.
  • You can also use DenyUsers for fine-grained selection of users.
  • If you enable the openssh server and you have no intention for now to enable remote connections, you may add AllowUsers nosuchuserhere to disable anyone connecting.

DHCP Server

Kaip įdiegti DHCP Server automatiniam IP adreso atpažinimui

e.g. Assumed that "eth0" is the interface for network card
IP Address Range: 192.168.0.100 to 192.168.0.200
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
DNS Servers: 202.188.0.133, 202.188.1.5
Domains: tm.net.my
Gateway Address: 192.168.0.1
sudo apt-get install dhcp3-server
sudo cp /etc/default/dhcp3-server /etc/default/dhcp3-server_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/default/dhcp3-server
  • Find this line
...
INTERFACES=""
  • Replace with the following line
INTERFACES="eth0"
  • Save the edited file
sudo cp /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf
  • Find this section
...
# option definitions common to all supported networks...
option domain-name "example.org";
option domain-name-servers ns1.example.org, ns2.example.org;
default-lease-time 600;
max-lease-time 7200;
...
  • Replace with the following lines
# option definitions common to all supported networks...
#option domain-name "example.org";
#option domain-name-servers ns1.example.org, ns2.example.org;
#default-lease-time 600;
#max-lease-time 7200;
  • Find this section
...
# A slightly different configuration for an internal subnet.
#subnet 10.5.5.0 netmask 255.255.255.224 {
# range 10.5.5.26 10.5.5.30;
# option domain-name-servers ns1.internal.example.org;
# option domain-name "internal.example.org";
# option routers 10.5.5.1;
# option broadcast-address 10.5.5.31;
# default-lease-time 600;
# max-lease-time 7200;
#}
...
  • Replace with the following lines
# A slightly different configuration for an internal subnet.
subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
 range 192.168.0.100 192.168.0.200;
 option domain-name-servers 202.188.0.133, 202.188.1.5;
 option domain-name "tm.net.my";
 option routers 192.168.0.1;
 option broadcast-address 192.168.0.255;
 default-lease-time 600;
 max-lease-time 7200;
}
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/dhcp3-server restart


Database Server

How to install MYSQL Database Server

sudo apt-get install mysql-server
  • MySQL initially only allows connections from the localhost (127.0.0.1). We'll need to remove that restriction if you wish to make it accessible to everyone on the internet. Open the file /etc/mysql/my.cnf
gksudo gedit /etc/mysql/my.cnf
  • Find the line bind-address = 127.0.0.1 and comment it out
...
#bind-address           = 127.0.0.1
...
  • MySQL comes with no root password as default. This is a huge security risk. You'll need to set one. So that the local computer gets root access as well, you'll need to set a password for that too. The local-machine-name is the name of the computer you're working on. For more information see here
mysqladmin -u root password your-new-password
mysqladmin -h root@local-machine-name -u root -p password your-new-password
sudo /etc/init.d/mysql restart

Kaip įdiegti MYSQL Administrator

sudo apt-get install mysql-admin

Kaip įdiegti Oracle Database XE

  • Add the following repository to your /etc/apt/sources.list:
deb http://oss.oracle.com/debian unstable main non-free
  • Install the software using apt-get
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install oracle-xe
  • Add your login to the 'dba' group (where your login name is username)
sudo usermod -G dba -a username

Apache HTTP Server

How to install Apache HTTP Server for HTTP (Web) Server service

sudo apt-get install apache2

Kaip įdiegti PHP Apache HTTP Serveriui

Kaip įdiegtil PHP4
sudo apt-get install php4
sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-php4
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
  • To test if php4 installed correctly
gksudo gedit /var/www/testphp.php
  • Insert the following line into the new file
<?php phpinfo(); ?>
HKaip įdiegti PHP5
sudo apt-get install php5
sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-php5
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
  • To test if php5 installed correctly
gksudo gedit /var/www/testphp.php
  • Insert the following line into the new file
<?php phpinfo(); ?>

Kaip įdiegti MYSQL Apache HTTP Serveriui

sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-auth-mysql
  • Select either php4-mysql or php5-mysql depending on which version of PHP you installed
sudo apt-get install php<version-number>-mysql
sudo apt-get install phpmyadmin
  • To get PHP to work with MySQL, open the file (where <version> is either 4 or 5 depending on which PHP you installed)
gksudo gedit /etc/php<version>/apache2/php.ini
  • You'll need to uncomment the ";extension=mysql.so" line so that it looks like this
...
extension=mysql.so
...
  • Save the file then exit
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

How to map URLs to folders outside /var/www/

gksudo gedit /etc/apache2/conf.d/alias
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
Alias /URL-path /location_of_folder/
<Directory /location_of_folder/>
  Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
  AllowOverride All
  Order allow,deny
  Allow from all
</Directory>
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

How to change the default port number for Apache HTTP Server

e.g. Assumed that new port number is 78
sudo cp /etc/apache2/ports.conf /etc/apache2/ports.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/apache2/ports.conf
  • Find this line
Listen 80
  • Replace with the following line
Listen 78
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

How to parse RSS into PHP for Apache HTTP Server

e.g. Assumed that RSS is DistroWatch.com - News
wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/magpierss-0.71.1.tar.gz
sudo mkdir /var/www/feeds
sudo tar zxvf magpierss-0.71.1.tar.gz -C /var/www/feeds/
sudo mv /var/www/feeds/magpierss-0.71.1/* /var/www/feeds/
sudo rm -fr /var/www/feeds/magpierss-0.71.1/
sudo chown -R www-data:root /var/www/feeds/
gksudo gedit /var/www/feeds/index.php
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
 <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
 
 <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" lang="en" xml:lang="en">
 
 <head>
 
 <title>DistroWatch.com - News</title>
 
 <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1"/>
 
 <style type="text/css">
 /*<![CDATA[*/
 /* 
 DEFAULT TAG STYLES
 */
 
 body {
  background: #ffffff;
  margin-left: 20px;
  font-family: bitstream vera sans,sans-serif;
  font-size: 9pt;
 }
 
 h1 {
  font-family: luxi sans,sans-serif;
  font-size: 15pt;
 }
 
 /*]]>*/
 </style>
 
 </head>
  
 <body>
 
 <?php

 require_once 'rss_fetch.inc';
 error_reporting(E_ERROR);
 
 $url = 'http://distrowatch.com/news/dw.xml';
 $rss = fetch_rss($url);
 
 if ($rss) {
 
  echo "<h1>";
  echo "<a href=$url>", $rss->channel[title], "</a><br/>";
  echo "</h1>";
 
  foreach ($rss->items as $item ) {
   $url = $item[link];
   $title = $item[title];
   $description = $item[description];
   echo "<li>";
   echo "<b>Topic:</b> <a href=$url><b><u>$title</u></b></a><br/><br/>";
   echo "$description<br/><br/>";
   echo "</li>";
  }
 
 }
 else {
  echo "<a href=$url>", $url, "</a> - Server Down!<br/>";
 }
 
 ?>
 
 </body>
 
 </html>
 

FTP Server

How to install FTP Server for File Transfer service

sudo apt-get install proftpd

How to configure FTP user to be "jailed" (chrooted) into their home directory

sudo cp /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf
  • Find this section
...
DenyFilter           \*.*/
...
  • Add the following line below it
DefaultRoot           ~

  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to configure FTP Server to allow anonymous FTP user to read only

sudo cp /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
<Anonymous ~ftp>
 User            ftp
 Group            nogroup
 UserAlias          anonymous ftp
 DirFakeUser on ftp
 DirFakeGroup on ftp
 RequireValidShell      off
 MaxClients         10
 DisplayLogin        welcome.msg
 DisplayFirstChdir      .message
 <Directory *>
  <Limit WRITE>
   DenyAll
  </Limit>
 </Directory>
</Anonymous>
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to configure FTP Server to allow anonymous FTP user to read/write

sudo cp /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
<Anonymous ~ftp>
 User            ftp
 Group            nogroup
 UserAlias          anonymous ftp
 DirFakeUser on ftp
 DirFakeGroup on ftp
 RequireValidShell      off
 MaxClients         10
 DisplayLogin        welcome.msg
 DisplayFirstChdir      .message
</Anonymous>
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to map anonymous FTP user to folders outside /home/ftp/

sudo cp /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf
  • Append the following lines at the end of file
<Anonymous /location_of_folder/>
 User            ftp
 Group            nogroup
 UserAlias          anonymous ftp
 DirFakeUser on ftp
 DirFakeGroup on ftp
 RequireValidShell      off
 MaxClients         10
 DisplayLogin        welcome.msg
 DisplayFirstChdir      .message
 <Directory *>
  <Limit WRITE>
   DenyAll
  </Limit>
 </Directory>
</Anonymous>
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to change the default port number for FTP Server

e.g. Assumed that new port number is 77
sudo cp /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf
  • Find this line
Port              21
  • Replace with the following line
Port              77
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

How to ftp into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed FTP Server service
Read #How to install FTP Server for File Transfer service
  • Download FileZilla: Here

Streaming Media Server

How to install GNUMP3d for Streaming Media Server service

e.g. /var/music/ is the directory containing multimedia files
sudo apt-get install gnump3d

How to change the default directory containing multimedia files for GNUMP3d

e.g. Assumed that new directory containing multimedia files is /home/music/
sudo cp /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf
  • Find this line
root = /var/music
  • Replace with the following line
root = /home/music
  • Find this line
user = gnump3d
  • Replace with the following line
user = root
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/gnump3d restart

How to change the default port number for GNUMP3d

e.g. Assumed that new port number is 7878
sudo cp /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf
  • Find this line
port = 8888
  • Replace with the following line
port = 7878
  • Save the edited file
sudo /etc/init.d/gnump3d restart


Image Gallery Server

  • For a comparison between Gallery1 and Gallery2 see here

Gallery1

How to install Gallery1 for Image Gallery Server service
sudo apt-get install gallery (when prompted to restart Apache, choose No or Cancel)
sudo apt-get install imagemagick
sudo apt-get install jhead
sudo apt-get install libjpeg-progs
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
sudo sh /usr/share/gallery/configure.sh
Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 1
Next Step ->
Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 2
General settings Tab ->
Admin password: Specify the password

Locations and URLs Tab ->
Album directory: /var/www/albums/
Temporary directory: /tmp/
Gallery URL: http://localhost/gallery
Albums URL: http://localhost/albums
Next Step -->
Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 3
Next Step -->
Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 4
Save Config ->
How to configure Gallery1 to be accessible via Internet (Hostname or fix IP) or LAN (fix IP)
e.g. Assumed that network and internet connections have been configured properly
Internet (Hostname or fix IP) or LAN (fix IP): http://www.url.com
sudo cp /etc/gallery/config.php /etc/gallery/config.php_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/gallery/config.php
  • Find this section
...
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "http://localhost/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "http://localhost/albums";
...
  • Replace with the following lines
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "http://www.url.com/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "http://www.url.com/albums";
How to configure Gallery1 to be accessible via LAN (dynamic IP)
e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
LAN (dynamic IP): 192.168.0.1
sudo cp /etc/gallery/config.php /etc/gallery/config.php_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/gallery/config.php
  • Find this section
...
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "http://localhost/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "http://localhost/albums";
...
  • Replace with the following lines
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "/albums";
How to backup/restore Gallery1 data
sudo tar zcvf gallery.tgz /var/www/albums/ /etc/gallery/
  • To restore Gallery data
sudo tar zxvf gallery.tgz -C /

Troubleshooting

Configuring network interfaces... (taking too long to load)

Synchronizing clock to ntp.ubuntulinux.org... (taking too long to load)

service_name = ntpdate

How to disable system time/date from being reset to UTC (GMT)

sudo cp /etc/default/rcS /etc/default/rcS_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/default/rcS
  • Find this line
...
UTC=yes
...
  • Replace with the following line
UTC=no
  • Save the edited file
  • System -> Administration -> Time and Date

Set the correct time/date

sudo /etc/init.d/hwclock.sh restart

How to configure sound to work properly in GNOME

sudo killall esd
sudo cp /etc/esound/esd.conf /etc/esound/esd.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/esound/esd.conf
  • Find this section
...
auto_spawn=0
spawn_options=-terminate -nobeeps -as 5
...
  • Replace with the following lines
auto_spawn=1
spawn_options=-terminate -nobeeps -as 2 -d default
  • Save the edited file
sudo apt-get install libesd-alsa0
gksudo gedit /etc/asound.conf
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
pcm.card0 {
type hw
card 0
}

pcm.!default {
type plug
slave.pcm "dmixer"
}

pcm.dmixer {
type dmix
ipc_key 1025
slave {
pcm "hw:0,0"
period_time 0
period_size 2048
buffer_size 32768
rate 48000
}
bindings {
0 0
1 1
}
}
  • Save the edited file
sudo ln -fs /usr/lib/libesd.so.0 /usr/lib/libesd.so.1
System -> Preferences -> Sound
Sound preferences
General Tab -> Sounds for events (Un-Checked)
  • Save and close all opened applications, Reboot computer

How to forcefully empty Trash in GNOME

sudo rm -fr $HOME/.Trash/

How to remove duplicate menu/menu items in GNOME

rm -f $HOME/.config/menus/applications.menu

How to refresh Places menu in GNOME (if mounts to /media/ in /etc/fstab does not show up)

sudo /etc/init.d/dbus restart

How to consume static (not dhcp) wireless LAN (WLAN) connection (KDE)

  • I assume you have successfully consumed WLAN connection in Windows
  • To enable the network device please follow the following steps
  • Go to K-menu -> System Settings -> Network Settings
  • Enable Administrator mode
  • Select Network Interfaces tab and the wireless interface (usually ath0) to configure
  • Click Configure Interface...
  • Choose Manual or Automatic. Choose Manual
  • Fill the preferred IP address to identify your computer and the netmask. Choose to activate when computer starts
  • Click Advanced Settings to for more properties
  • Select Routes tab and fill the gateway IP address
  • Make sure you choose the correct device in the right dropdown (e.g. ath0)
  • Click apply to commit all changes
  • To choose wireless connection please follow the following steps
  • Go to K-menu -> Internet -> Wireless Assistant
  • Right click on preferred connection ssid
  • Choose and complete fields for Manual connection
  • Click Ok
  • Create connection configuration
gksudo gedit /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
network={
ssid="YOUR_PREFERRED_CONNECTION_SSID"
scan_ssid=1
proto=WPA
key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
psk="STRING_TO_GENERATE_PASSWORD"
#psk=123456789 #you have option to use connection key instead of connection password
}
  • Save the edited file
  • Create script to easily activate connection
gksudo gedit /etc/init.d/wifi_wpa.sh
  • Insert the following lines into the new file
#! /bin/sh
# wifi: wpa_supplicant init
echo " * [Wifi]: Enabling WPA supplicant..."
if [ -x /sbin/wpa_supplicant ]; then
/sbin/wpa_supplicant -B -i ath0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf -D madwifi -w
fi
exit 0
  • Save the edited file
  • Make sure both file readable and executable
sudo chmod +r /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
sudo chmod +x /etc/init.d/wifi_wpa.sh
  • make wireless connection automaticaly starts when computer starts
sudo ln -s /etc/init.d/wifi_wpa.sh /etc/rcS.d/S40netwifiwpa
  • Close all opened applications, Reboot computer

How to get 1400x1050 resolution working

Upgrading Ubuntu

How to upgrade from Hoary Hedgehog -> Breezy Badger -> Dapper Drake

Method A (Official)

  • First update the update manager:
sudo aptitude update && sudo aptitude upgrade
  • Once it has been updated you can upgrade to a newer version of Ubuntu:
gksudo "update-manager -c -d"


Method B (Alternative)

  • First, make sure you're fully upgraded:
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
  • If you don't have a CD available make SURE you comment/remove the line pertaining to your CD media
gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • To upgrade from Dapper to Edgy, just replace (ctrl+h) all instances of 'dapper' with 'edgy' within the /etc/apt/sources.list. (See how to add extra repositories).
  • Validate updates and upgrade.
sudo aptitude update 
sudo aptitude dist-upgrade

(Note the use of aptitude rather than apt-get. Please use aptitude as it handles dependencies better and is more likely to succeed in upgrading your system.)

  • Save your session, reboot, and enjoy.


NOTE: Try to upgrade from immediately previous versions, e.g. Dapper to Edgy not Breezy to Edgy. If you are running Hoary for instance, upgrade Hoary->Breezy->Dapper->Edgy.


--Arunas.rv 21:46, 25 February 2007 (EET)

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